PHYLOGENY WHAT IS EVOLUTION? 1/22/2018. Change must occur in a population via allele

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1 PHYLOGENY EXERCISE 1 AND 2 WHAT IS EVOLUTION? The theory that all living organisms on earth are related and have a common ancestor. These organism have changed over time and are continuing to change. Changes occur through natural selection and other evolutionary processes. Change must occur in a population via allele frequencies. %25204%2520Lesson%25201%2520Whale%2520Evolution- 1.png&imgrefurl=https%3A%2F%2Fcoast.noaa.gov%2Fpsc%2Fsea%2Fcontent%2Fwhaleevolution.html&docid=80a4W5shegurNM&tbnid=byJ4YdMAPs_7jM%3A&vet=10ahUKEwjc2NWkqN3YAhVCbKwKHa8uBTYQMwj3ASgBMAE..i&w=440&h=330&bih=588&biw=1242&q=whale%20evolution&ved=0ahUKEwjc2NWkqN3YAhVCbKwKHa8uBTYQMwj3ASgBMAE&iact=mrc &uact=8 1

2 WHAT IS PHYLOGENY? In simple terms it s a family tree of an organism or a group of organisms. The history of the evolution of a species or group, especially in reference to lines of descent and relationships among broad groups of organisms. RqwKHWi3BGIQjRwIBw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pinterest.com%2Fexplore%2Ffamily-tree-templateword%2F&psig=AOvVaw32koKbAq5YBCRBzIQrtQMs&ust= WHAT IS A SYSTEMATISTS? Researchers who work with phylogenetic trees are known as systematists. They analyze patterns of change over time. Create classification systems to display the relationships. RqwKHWi3BGIQjRwIBw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pinterest.com%2Fexplore%2Ffamily-tree-templateword%2F&psig=AOvVaw32koKbAq5YBCRBzIQrtQMs&ust=

3 WHAT IS A PHYLOGENETIC TREE? A hypothesized diagram of the evolutionary history of an organism or group of organisms. Data included: Anatomical Characteristics, Biochemical Characteristics, Morphology Development, and Fossil Record. Always subject to change with substantiated scientific evidence. WHAT IS CLADISTIC ANALYSIS? Systematists use cladistic analysis to complete cladograms. Cladograms is a type of phylogenetic tree. algrt3yahvnxkwkhdgtdv0qjrwibw&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.instructables.com%2fid%2fhow-to-make-a- Cladogram%2F&psig=AOvVaw3FdAKjMmrnO2Pposnhd14I&ust=

4 CLADOGRAM A branching diagram that is used to show relationships between different groups of organisms and similarities among ancestors, Node Are rabbits more related to a Crocodile or a Primate? Which organism has vertebrae, a bony skeleton but not limbs? PHYLOGENETIC TREE EXAMPLE Ingroup (Study Group) Outgroup (Similar) Derived Ancestral 4

5 WHAT IS A CLADOGRAM? Cladogram displays divergence of taxa from a common ancestor. Each branch is known a clade. Characters may be anatomical, behavioral, Genetic, or any other heritable trait. Shared traits as said to be homogolous. WHAT IS CONVERGENT EVOLUTION? The process of natural selections may produce similarities this is known as convergent similarities. In other words organisms from different branches of a tree that have common features due to similar ecological roles. Example: Dorsal Fin of Shark and Whale. BFoQjRwIBw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pinterest.com%2Fpin%2F %2F&psig=AOvVaw0bUF6LFSvGnRRZZw3tTKMR&u st=

6 WHAT IS TAXONOMY? Taxonomy is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their morphological (physical)similarities. Taxonomy is also known as classification. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF CLASSIFICATION? Accurately & uniformly names organisms. Prevents inaccuracies such as starfish & jellyfish that aren't really fish. Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all names. Sea horse?? 6

7 CONFUSION IN USING DIFFERENT LANGUAGES FOR NAMES LATIN NAMES ARE UNDERSTOOD BY ALL TAXONOMISTS 7

8 STANDARDIZED NAMING Naming system for living organisms that we used is called (Latin or Greek): Turdus migratorius Binomial nomenclature Genus species American Robin 15 BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE 8

9 TAXONOMY REDEFINED: Canis lupus Canis familiaris Classification is a based on Hierarchy. Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species 9

10 WHAT IS EVOLUTION? Evolution is the slow, gradual change in a population of organisms over time. Leaves on trees change color and fall over several weeks. Mountain ranges erode over millions of years. Over a large number of years, evolution produces tremendous diversity in forms of life. 1. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT The early stages, or embryos of many animals with backbones are very similar. Groups of embryonic cells develop in the same order and in similar patterns to produce the tissue and organs of all vertebrates. 10

11 2. ANATOMICAL HOMOLOGIES Homologous Structures: Groups of different organisms that show similar structures. Vestigial Organs - Organs of animals that are reduced in size and are no longer used. 11

12 2. MOLECULAR HOMOLOGIES: COMPARING DNA OR PROTEIN SEQUENCES TO SHOW EVOLUTIONARY REALTIONSHIPS 3. Biogeography The distribution of plants and animals on the Earth. Shared a common ancestor and origin Not closely related, adapted to similar habitats 12

13 4. Fossils Continuous change through time Which is the oldest layer? Stasis followed by rapid change 26 Punctuated Equilibrium vs. Gradualism Species are stable but every now and then there is disruption that causes rapid change. Slow but Steady pace. 13

14 EXERCISE 1: PHYLOGENY 1. Complete the prelab. 2. Complete the Exercise 1 3. I must initial your work the day of the lab for it to be entered into the gradebook. 14

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