Chapter 19 Organizing Information About Species: Taxonomy and Cladistics

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1 Chapter 19 Organizing Information About Species: Taxonomy and Cladistics An unexpected family tree. What are the evolutionary relationships among a human, a mushroom, and a tulip? Molecular systematics has revealed that despite appearances animals, including humans, and fungi, such as mushrooms, are more closely related to each other than either are to plants.

2 Phylogeny & Systematics Phylogeny evolutionary history of a species based on common ancestries inferred from fossil record morphological & biochemical resemblances molecular evidence Systematics connects classification system to phylogeny by categorizing & naming organisms

3 Fossils

4 Fossil record Sedimentary rock are richest source of fossils fossil record is a substantial, but incomplete, chronicle of evolutionary history history of life on Earth is punctuated by mass extinctions 5000 year old ice mummy found on an Alpine ridge dividing Austria from Italy at 10,500 feet above sea level.

5 Paleontology Study of fossils fossils provide the strongest evidence of change links past & current organisms Woolly mammoth tusks

6 Taxonomy The science of naming and classifying species Began thousands of years ago Consistency in naming became important in 18 th century AP Biology

7 Building phylogenies Two ways: Morphological & molecular homologies These are similarities based on shared ancestries Morphological homologies refer to body structures BUT you must Be beware of analogous structures Recall: convergent evolution

8 How are molecular homologies evaluated? Aligning DNA sequences more bases in common = more closely related analyzed by software beware of molecular homologies

9 What is? Systematics Connecting classification to phylogeny A hierarchical system Originated with Carolus Linnaeas latin binomial genus species

10 We make the connection by: Building trees Connection between classification & phylogeny Tracing possible evolutionary relationships between some of the taxa of the order Carnivora, a branch of the class Mammalia.

11 Illustration of phylogeny is done by making cladograms They show patterns of shared characteristics Classify organisms according to the order in time at which branches arise along a phylogenetic tree

12 STOP AND BEGIN BUILDING YOUR CLADOGRAM!!! AP Biology

13 Molecular Systematics Scientists who work in this area hypothesize phylogenies using molecular data apply principle of parsimony simplest explanation fewest evolutionary events that explain data hypothetical bird species 3 possible phylogenies (there are more)

14 Parsimony Choose the tree that explains the data invoking the fewest number of evolutionary events

15 Phylogenetic trees are hypotheses Which is the most parsimonious tree?

16 Modern Systematics Shaking up some trees! Crocodiles are now thought to be closer to birds than other reptiles

17 Of Mice and Men Evolving genomes now that we can compare the entire genomes of different organisms, we find humans & mice have 99% of their genes in common 50% of human genes have a close match with those of yeast! the simplest eukaryote

18 Molecular clocks Trace variations in genomes to date evolutionary changes HIV-1M samples were collected from patients between early 1980s & late 1990s. The gene evolved at a relatively constant rate. Concluded that HIV-1M strain first infected humans in 1930s. Rate of change is calculated and then extrapolate back What does this assume?

19 Universal Tree of Life 3 Domains Bacteria Eukarya Archaea

20 Any Questions?? AP Biology

21 Aaaaah Structure-Function yet again! AP Biology

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