AP: CHAPTER 24: THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES 1. Define the term species.

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1 AP Biology Chapter 24 Guided Reading Assignment Ms. Hall Name AP: CHAPTER 24: THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES 1. Define the term species. 2. How do the patterns of speciation differ? a. anagenesis b. cladogenesis 3. What is thought to be essential for the formation of distinct species rather than a continuum from one form of life to another? 4. Define and give an example for each of the following barriers that cause isolation. a. prezygotic Barriers b. habitat Isolation c. behavioral Isolation d. temporal Isolation e. mechanical isolation f. gamete isolation

2 g. postzygotic barriers h. hybrid inviability i. hybrid sterility 5. Define the Modes of Speciation a. allopatric speciation b. sympatric speciation 6. How does the antelope squirrel demonstrate allopatric speciation? 7. What does the concept of ring species demonstrate? Give an example. 8. How do island chains encourage adaptive radiation? 9. What are the two intrinsic factors that result in sympatric speciation?

3 10. How can polyploidy lead to speciation? 11. Why are allopolyploid hybrids are usually sterile? 12. What did Hugo de Vries discover in the evening primrose? 13. What is thought to be the two factors demonstrating sympatric speciation in the cichlids of Lake Victoria, in East Africa? 14. Compare gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. 15. How does microevolution differ from macroevolution? 16. Identify a couple of factors that could lead to the pattern of evolution we see as divergence?

4 17. What does the Mollusk eye demonstrate? 18. What does the evolution of the horse demonstrate? 19. Define each of the following evolutionary trends: a. convergent evolution b. analogous traits c. parallel evolution d. co-evolution

5 AP Biology Chapter 25 Guided Reading Assignment Ms Hall Name 1. What is phylogeny? AP: CHAPTER 25: PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS 2. How are fossils significant to our study of biology? 3. Review these key points in the study of fossils: a. Sedimentary rocks are the richest source of fossils. b. Paleontologists use a variety of methods to date fossils. c. The fossil record is a substantial, but incomplete, chronicle of evolutionary history. d. Phylogeny has a biogeographic basis in continental drift. e. The history of life is punctuated by mass extinctions. 4. List examples of fossils. 5. What techniques do relative dating use to place fossils in their place in geologic time?

6 6. What marks the separation between the major eras in the geologic time scale? 7. How does absolute dating compare to relative dating? 8. Describe the two main characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification. a. b. 9. What modern techniques are used as the basis for grouping creatures with modern phylogenetic systematics? 10. What does a phylogenic tree show? 11. When classifying organisms in a cladistic diagram, identify three pitfalls scientists might encounter classifying creatures. a. b. c.

7 12. What do scientists use when placing an organism on a cladistic diagram? 13. How have molecular clocks influenced our thoughts on evolutionary paths? 14. Why is the four chamber heart a poor choice of structure to place creatures on a phylogenic tree? 15. Why are crocodiles now thought to be closer to birds than other reptiles?

8 AP Biology Name Chapter 25 Guided Reading Assignment Ms Hall AP: CHAPTER 26: ORIGIN OF LIFE 1. Start with the origin of the earth and identify the time frame, conditions, and evidence forn each of the following steps leading to current life forms on earth. a. Origin of the earth b. Prokaryotes c. Oxidizing atmosphere d. Eukaryotic cells e. Multicellular life 2. What was significant about the discovery of the iron oxide bands in the sedimentary layers. 3. Describe the theory of endosymbiosis. 4. Why did evolution seem to slow 750 to 570 million years ago? 5. What was special about the Cambrium Explosion? 6. Describe a few adaptations essential for the invasion of plants onto land.

9 7. Scientific Hypothesis for the origin of life a. The first cells may have originated by chemical evolution on a young Earth b. Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers is a testable hypothesis c. Laboratory simulations of early-earth conditions have produced organic polymers d. RNA may have been the first genetic material e. Protobionts can form by self-assembly f. Natural selection could refine protobionts containing hereditary information g. Debate about the origin of life abounds 8. Describe the hypothesized conditions on earth when life arose. 9. What did Louis Pasteur demonstrate with his experiment? 10. List the four stages for the formation of life. a. b. c. d. 11. What metabolic processes would you expect to see in protobionts? 12. Why is RNA now thought to be the first genetic code?

10 13. What did Oparin, Haldane, Miller and Urey accomplish? 14. What are some of the possible locations for the first life forms? 15. What is the basis of the classification system developed by Linneaus? 16. Why is taxonomy considered a work in progress? 17. What are two problems with the five kingdom system of classification? a. b. 18. How has the Domain System altered our view of taxonomy? 19. Which prokaryote is closer to the eukaryotes? List several reasons for your answer. 20. Place the following metabolic processes in an order that fits this hypothesis for the origin of life: Photosynthesis, Aerobic Respiration, Fermentation, Nucleic Acid replication (RNA or DNA), Membrane transport

11 21. Label the diagram to explain the Miller and Urey experiment to test the Abiotic Synthesis hypothesis. 22. Label the diagram to indicate the major events, the time frame, and the geologic eras the origin of life on Earth.

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