Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total)

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1 AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life 1. Distinguish between the two ways of viewing evolution: as a pattern and as a process. Concept 22.1 The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species. 2. How did Hutton s and Lyell s ideas influence Darwin s thinking about evolution? 3. How does Lamarck s principle of use and disuse relate to the principle of inheritance of acquired characteristics? Concept 22.2 Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life. 4. Define the following terms: a. adaptation b. natural selection c. artificial selection - 5. How did the Voyage of the Beagle impact Darwin s research? Page 1 of 16

2 6. What part did adaptation play in Darwin s thinking? 7. How did Alfred Wallace impact Darwin in his work? 8. What did Darwin mean by descent with modification? 9. How did the concept of artificial selection impact Darwin s ideas? 10. Complete the following to summarize Darwin s argument concerning natural selection: Observation #1: Observation #2: Inference #1: Inference #2: 11. Explain the evolution of drug resistance in bacteria in terms of natural selection. Page 2 of 16

3 Concept 22.3 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence. 12. Define the following terms: a. homology - b. homologous structures c. vestigial structures d. evolutionary tree e. convergent evolution f. analogous feature What is biogeography and why is it important to the study of evolution? 14. How do the fossil record and sedimentary rock provide evidence to evolution? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 15. As shown in Figure 22.15, analysis of forelimb anatomy of humans, cats, whales, and bats shows that humans, cats, and bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, while whales have diverged considerably in the shapes and proportions of their bones. However, analysis of several genes in these species suggests that all four diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. Which of the following is the best explanation for these data? A. Whales are not properly defined as mammals. B. Genes mutate more rapidly in whales than in humans, cats, or bats. C. Humans, cats, and bats evolved by natural selection, and whales evolved by Lamarckian mechanisms. D. Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy. Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations 1. What is the lowest level of biological organization at which evolution occurs? Why is this important to understand? Page 3 of 16

4 Concept 23.1 Genetic variation makes evolution possible. 2. Distinguish between gene variability and nucleotide variability. Which is more likely to result in phenotypic variation? 3. Describe the impact of the following on genetic variation: a. mutation b. gene duplication c. rapid reproduction d. sexual recombination - 4. What is the relationship between mutation rates and generation span? 5. Sexual reproduction shuffles existing alleles and deals them at random to individual genotypes. What three mechanisms contribute to this shuffling? Concept 23.2 The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving. 6. Write a sentence or two to distinguish between the terms species, population, and gene pool. 7. What is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Why does it appear to be an apparent contradiction to evolution? Page 4 of 16

5 8. What are the five conditions for H-W equilibrium to be maintained? Study Figure Notice how the Punnett square is drawn to scale to represent the allele frequencies. Draw a similar Punnett square in the space below using the following allele frequencies: p = 0.6 q = 0.4 Concept 23.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population. 10. What are the three broad processes that cause most evolutionary change? 11. Why is a discussion of adaptive evolution necessary? What role does natural selection play in this important process? 12. Define the following processes: a. adaptive evolution b. genetic drift c. founder effect d. bottleneck effect e. gene flow Page 5 of 16

6 Concept 23.4 Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution. 13. What is relative fitness? 14. Why is it said that evolution acts on phenotypes and not genotypes? 15. Label the diagram below to differentiate between the modes of selection (Figure 23.13). 16. Define and give an example of the following terms: a. sexual dimorphism b. intrasexual selection c. intersexual selection - d. balancing selection e. heterozygote advantage f. frequency dependent selection Page 6 of 16

7 17. How does balancing natural selection maintain two or more alleles at some loci? 18. What are the four limitations to natural selection? Study Figure Using the sickle-cell allele as an example, explain how very small differences in nucleotide sequences lead to significant diversity in the human population. AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 20. At a locus with a dominant and a recessive allele in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 16% of the individuals are homozygous for the recessive allele. What is the frequency of the recessive allele in the population? A B C D Chapter 24 The Origin of Species 1. Define the following terms: a. speciation b. microevolution c. macroevolution - Concept 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation. 2. What is the biological species concept? Page 7 of 16

8 3. Study Figure Identify each of the following as prezygotic or postzygotic barriers and write a brief definition of each: a. habitat isolation b. temporal isolation c. behavioral isolation d. mechanical isolation e. gametic isolation f. reduced hybrid viability g. reduced hybrid fertility h. hybrid breakdown 4. Explain these concepts of species: a. morphological species concept b. ecological species concept c. phylogenetic species concept - Concept 24.2 Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation. 5. What is the basis for allopatric speciation? 6. What does sympatric speciation mean? 7. In what types of organisms are polyploidy speciation more common and why do you think this occurs? Page 8 of 16

9 Concept 24.3 Hybrid zones reveal factors that cause reproductive isolation. 8. What is a hybrid zone? Where are hybrid zones typically found? Concept 24.4 Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can result from changes in few or many genes. 9. Compare and contrast the models of punctuated equilibrium to gradualism as models for the rate of evolution. Does one have to exclude the other? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 10. Eastern and western prairielarks are closely related species capable of producing viable hybrid offspring. However, due to significant habitat isolation, they rarely do so in nature. Suppose that a group of eastern prairielarks migrated from a region where there were no western prairielarks to a region where both species were present. Assuming events like this are very rare, which of the following scenarios is LEAST likely? A. The frequency of hybrid offspring would increase. B. The frequency of hybrid offspring would decrease. C. Migrant males would mate with resident females more often than resident males. D. Resident western prairielarks would produce fewer offspring than would migrant eastern prairielarks. Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth Concept Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible. 1. How old is the planet? How old is the earliest evidence of life on Earth? 2. A. I. Oparin and J. B. S. Haldane hypothesized that the early atmosphere was a reducing environment. What did they suggest was the source of energy for the early organic synthesis? Page 9 of 16

10 3. In 1953 at the University of Chicago, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey tested the Oparin- Haldane hypothesis with this apparatus. Explain the elements of this experiment, using arrows to indicate what occurs in various parts of the apparatus. a. What was collected in the sample for chemical analysis? b. What was concluded from the results of this experiment? 4. What are protobionts? What properties of life do they demonstrate? 5. What are ribozymes? 6. Explain the evidence for an early RNA world. Concept 25.2 The fossil record documents the history of life. 7. In what type of rock are fossils found? What do we not know from analyzing such rock strata? 8. How might researchers use indirect methods to establishing the absolute age of a fossil? Page 10 of 16

11 9. Study Figure 25.6 to explore the concept of radiometric dating. Label the key elements below. Concept Key events in life s history include the origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms and the colonization of land. 10. Use the clock model to note the following events in the life of the planet: origin of the Earth, appearance of prokaryotes, evolution of atmospheric oxygen, occurrence of eukaryotic cells, multicellularity, and life moves onto land. For each event, also label the number of years ago it occurred. Page 11 of 16

12 11. What was the earliest form of life on the planet? How long ago did this life-form first occur? 12. What unique ability originated with the first cyanobacteria? How did this alter life on Earth and lead to diverse adaptations? 13. Study Figure What are three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis? Concept 25.4 The rise and fall of groups of organisms reflect differences in speciation and extinction rates. 14. Define continental drift. How can continents move? 15. What is thought to have caused the Permian mass extinction 251 million years ago (mya)? 16. What is an adaptive radiation? Why did a large-scale adaptive radiation occur after each mass extinction? Concept Major changes in body form can result from changes in the sequences and regulation of developmental genes. 17. What is heterochrony? Page 12 of 16

13 18. Homeotic genes are master regulatory genes that determine the location and organization of body parts. Mutations in a homeotic gene can have a profound effect on morphology. Homeotic gene mutations can contribute to the potential for evolutionary change. The Hox genes are one class of homeotic genes. What do they control? Concept Evolution is not goal oriented. 19. What is it called when a structure that has evolved in one context becomes co-opted for another purpose? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 20. Which of the following represents a probable sequence of events in the biological history of Earth? A. metabolism before mitosis B. DNA genes before RNA genes C. eukaryotes before prokaryotes D. an oxidizing atmosphere before a reducing atmosphere Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 1. Define the following terms: a. phylogeny b. systematics c. taxonomy d. taxon - Concept 26.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships. 2. Study Figure Choose a particular species not described in this section of the textbook. List the 8 levels of Linnaean classification for that species. Domain: Kingdom: Phylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Page 13 of 16

14 3. Define the following terms: a. phylogenetic tree b. branch point c. sister taxa - Concept 26.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data. 4. Use the following blank diagram to compare and explain monophyletic, paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Include the definition of each term below the diagram. Monophyletic group Paraphyletic group Polyphyletic group 5. Distinguish between a shared ancestral character and a shared derived character. Name one character in humans that fits each category. 6. What is the relationship between the outgroup and the ingroup in cladistics? Page 14 of 16

15 7. How is the principle of parsimony applied to understanding evolution? 8. What is the principle of maximum parsimony? 9. What is the principle of maximum likelihood? Concept 26.4 An organism s evolutionary history is documented in its genome. 10. What is the difference between orthologous genes and paralogous genes? Concept 26.5 Molecular clocks help track evolutionary time. 11. What is the concept of a molecular clock and how is it useful? 12. What assumption underlies the use of a molecular clock? Concept 26.6 Our understanding of the tree of life continues to change based on new data. 13. What is horizontal gene transfer? Describe its importance in the construction and interpretation of phylogenetic trees. Page 15 of 16

16 14. Modern taxonomists have adopted a three-domain system, which consists of the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. This system arose from the finding that there are two distinct lineages of prokaryotes. a. On the figure above, place an arrow at the point showing the common ancestor of all three domains. b. What two domains include all prokaryotes? c. Which two domains are most closely related? d. Which kingdom was made obsolete by the three-domain system? Why? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 15. How would one apply the principle of parsimony to the construction of a phylogenetic tree? A. Choose the tree with the fewest branch points. B. Choose the tree in which the branch points are based on as many shared derived characters as possible. C. Base phylogenetic trees only on the fossil record, as this provides the simplest explanation for evolution. D. Choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, either in DNA sequences or morphology. Page 16 of 16

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