GENETICS - CLUTCH CH.22 EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS.

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2 CONCEPT: OVERVIEW OF EVOLUTION Evolution is a process through which variation in individuals makes it more likely for them to survive and reproduce There are principles to the theory of evolution - Variation: Individuals within a population have variation in morphology, physiology, and behavior - Heredity: Offspring resemble their parents more than they resemble unrelated individuals - Selection: Some forms are more successful at surviving and reproducing than other forms EXAMPLE: The neutral theory of evolution states that evolution is caused by genetic drift of mutations Most mutations that occur, and are kept in a population are neutral mutations - Synonymous mutations change one codon to an alternative codon, so there is no change in amino acid - Nonsynonymous mutations cause a change in amino acid There are two ideas of how these mutations lead to evolution - Single step selection: In a single step, random mutation or arrangement causes a selection for that trait - Cumulative selection: Multiple single steps are accumulated that lead to selection for that trait EXAMPLE: Infinite monkey hypothesis explains cumulative selection Page 2

3 PRACTICE: 1. The neutral theory of evolution states that which of the following is most responsible for evolution? a. National Selection b. Allele creation through mutation c. Gene Flow d. Genetic Drift e. Random mating 2. Which of the following is not one of the three main principles of evolution? a. Variation b. Heredity c. Mutation d. Selection Page 3

4 CONCEPT: SPECIATION Speciation is the formation of a new species through Reproductive isolation is a collection of evolutionary mechanisms that block reproduction - Prezygotic mechanism prevents zygote formation - Can be behavioral, temporal, mechanical, or gametic isolation - Postzygotic mechanism prevents reproductive success of the offspring - Can be offspring inviability, or sterility Biological species concept describes the differences necessary to consider two organisms different species EXAMPLE: There are two types of - Allopatric speciation is when a geographic barrier splits the population in two groups - This prohibits the exchange of genes between the two populations - Sympatric speciation is speciation in the absence of an external barrier - Reproductive isolating mechanism evolve independent of a geographic barrier EXAMPLE: Allopatric Speciation Barrier Formation Isolation Page 4

5 PRACTICE: 1. Which of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanism? a. Two organisms do not produce offspring because one is sleeping while the other is awake b. Two organisms do not produce offspring because one does not contain the appropriate body parts to mate with the other organisms c. Two organisms do not produce offspring because the fetus is always lost through miscarriage d. Two organisms do not produce offspring because one lives in water and the other lives on land 2. Which type of speciation occurs when a geographic barrier splits the population into two or more groups? a. Allopatric b. Sympatric c. Metapatric d. Geopatric Page 5

6 CONCEPT: PHYLOGENETIC TREES Phylogenetic trees are representations of phylogeny Phylogeny is the evolutionary relationship among a group of organisms A phylogenetic tree consists of multiple structures - Nodes represent different organisms being compared - Terminal nodes are organisms for which we have data (usually present-day organisms) - Internal nodes are common ancestors that existed before divergence - Branches represent evolutionary connections between organisms - Often, the length of the branch represents the amount of time between divergence Rooted trees are trees with an internal node that represents a common ancestor to all other nodes on the tree EXAMPLE: Page 6

7 Phylogenetic trees are often constructed using Homology refers to similarities among various species that are due to a common shared ancestor - Can have homologous DNA sequences and phenotypic traits A monophyletic group (clade) is a group of species all descended from the groups most common ancestor The cladistics approach reconstructs phylogenetic tree by comparing all possible pathways of evolution - Principle of parsimony states that the preferred hypothesis (tree) is the simplest one EXAMPLE: Homologous Structures Page 7

8 PRACTICE: 1. Which of the following structures on a phylogenetic tree represents the evolutionary connections between organisms? a. Internal node b. Terminal node c. Branches d. Roots 2. Which principle is NOT used to construct a phylogenetic tree? a. Principle of parsimony b. Cladistics approach c. Principle of speciation d. Homology Page 8

SPECIATION. REPRODUCTIVE BARRIERS PREZYGOTIC: Barriers that prevent fertilization. Habitat isolation Populations can t get together

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