Unit 9: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total)

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1 Name: AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 7th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Unit 9: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life 1. What were the two major points of Darwin s publication The Origin of Species? 2. Define the following terms: a. Natural selection - b. Evolutionary adaptation - c. Evolution - d. Taxonomy - 3. Detail the impact/position/contribution to evolutionary theory made by the individuals below. Also include a timeframe of the contributions of each person. a. Aristotle - b. Linnaeus - c. Cuvier - d. Lyell - e. Lamarck - f. Malthus - g. Hutton - Page 1 of 17

2 4. How does catastrophism relate to the ideas of gradualism? 5. How did the Voyage of the Beagle impact Darwin s research? 6. How did Alfred Wallace impact Darwin in his work? 7. What part did adaptation play in Darwin s thinking? 8. What did Darwin mean by descent with modification? 9. How did the concept of artificial selection impact Darwin s ideas? 10. What three word phrase summarizes Darwin s mechanism of evolution? 11. Explain the evolution of drug resistance in bacteria in terms of natural selection. Page 2 of 17

3 12. Define the following terms: a. Homologous structures - b. Vestigial structures - c. Analogous structures What is biogeography and why is it important to the study of evolution? 14. How do the fossil record and sedimentary rock provide evidence to evolution? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 15. As shown in the diagram above, analysis of forelimb anatomy of humans, bats, and whales shows that humans and bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, while whales have diverged considerably in the shapes and proportions of their bones. However, analysis of several genes in these species suggests that all three diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. Which of the following is the best explanation for these data? A. Whales are not properly defined as mammals. B. Genes mutate more rapidly in whales than in humans or bats. C. Evolution of human and bat forelimbs was adaptive, but not for whales. D. Humans and bats evolved by natural selection, and whales evolved by Lamarckian mechanisms. E. Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy. Page 3 of 17

4 Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations 1. What is the smallest unit of evolution? Why is this important to understand? 2. Define the following terms: a. Microevolution - b. Population - c. Population genetics - d. Gene pool - 3. What is the Hardy-Weinberg Theorem? Why does it appear to be an apparent contradiction to evolution? 4. What is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? 5. What are the five conditions for H-W equilibrium to be maintained? 6. How can the H-W equation be used today in terms of human health? Page 4 of 17

5 7. Label the blank diagram to relate the H-W equation to a Punnett square. 8. What are the two broad processes that make evolution possible? 9. Describe the impact of the following: a. Point mutation - b. Gene duplication - c. Sexual recombination What is the relationship between mutation rates and generation span? Page 5 of 17

6 11. Define the following processes: a. Genetic drift - b. Bottleneck effect - c. Founder effect - d. Gene flow Why is a discussion of adaptive evolution necessary? What role does natural selection play in this important process? 13. Give examples of phenotypical variation that is NOT inheritable. 14. Explain the terms phenotypic polymorphism and genetic polymorphism in common terms and relying on examples from your own experience. 15. How do we measure genetic variation? 16. How can very small differences in nucleotide sequences lead to such diversity in the human population? Page 6 of 17

7 17. What is geographic variation and how does the term cline relate to this process? 18. What is different about the terms fitness and relative fitness? 19. Why is it said that evolution acts on phenotypes and not genotypes? 20. Label the diagram below to differentiate between the modes of selection. Page 7 of 17

8 21. How does diploidy preserve genetic variation? 22. How does balancing natural selection relate to the term balanced polymorphism? 23. Define and give an example of the following terms: a. Heterozygote advantage - b. Frequency dependent selection - c. Neutral variation - d. Sexual dimorphism - e. Intrasexual selection - f. Intersexual selection What are the limitations to Natural Selection? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 25. At a locus with a dominant and a recessive allele in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 16% of the individuals are homozygous for the recessive allele. What is the frequency of the recessive allele in the population? A B C D E Page 8 of 17

9 Chapter 24 The Origin of Species 1. Define the following terms: a. Speciation - b. Anagenesis - c. Cladogenesis - 2. What is the biological species concept? 3. What are the differences between prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to reproduction? 4. Identify each of the following as prezygotic or postzygotic barriers and write a brief definition of each: a. Habitat isolation - b. Temporal isolation - c. Behavioral isolation - d. Mechanical isolation - e. Gametic isolation - f. Reduced hybrid viability - g. Reduced hybrid fertility - h. Hybrid breakdown - Page 9 of 17

10 5. Explain these concepts of species: a. Morphological species concept - b. Paleontological species concept - c. Ecological species concept - d. Phylogenetic species concept - 6. What is the basis for allopatric speciation? 7. What does sympatric speciation mean? 8. What is the difference between autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy? 9. In what types of organisms are polyploidy speciation more common and why do you think this occurs? 10. What is adaptive radiation and why do island chains tend to be discussed often with this topic? Page 10 of 17

11 11. Compare and contrast the models of punctuated equilibrium to gradualism as models for the rate of evolution. Does one have to exclude the other? 12. Define the following terms: a. Heterochrony - b. Allometric growth c. Paedomorphosis - d. Homeotic genes What impact have the Hox genes had on vertebrates? 14. How does the evolution of the horse exemplify the concept that evolution is driven by the interactions between organisms and their environments? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 15. A genetic change that caused a certain Hox gene to be expressed along the tip of a vertebrate limb bud instead of farther back is thought to have made possible the evolution of the tetrapod limb. This type of change is illustrative of A. punctuated equilibrium. B. the origin of a new species due to allopolyploidy. C. the influence of environment on an individual's development. D. paedomorphosis, or retention of ancestral juvenile structures in an adult organism. E. a change in a developmental gene or in its regulation that altered the spatial organization of body parts. Page 11 of 17

12 Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systematics 1. Define the following terms: a. Phylogeny - b. Systematics - c. Molecular systematics - d. Homoplasies - e. Taxonomy - f. Binomial nomenclature - g. Phylogenetic trees - h. Cladogram - i. Clade - j. Cladistics - k. Shared primitive character - l. Shared derived character - 2. Use the following blank diagram to compare and explain monophyletic, paraphyletic and polyphyletic include the definition of each term in your diagram. Page 12 of 17

13 3. What is the relationship between the ingroup and the outgroup in classification? 4. What is the difference in the meaning between the lengths of lines in a phylogram and ultrametric tree? 5. Use a dictionary to look up the term parsimony and write its definition in the space below: 6. How is the principle of parsimony applied to understanding evolution? 7. What is the principle of maximum parsimony and the principle of maximum likelihood? 8. What is the difference between orthologous genes and paralogous genes? 9. What is the concept of a molecular clock and how is it useful? Page 13 of 17

14 AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 10. How would one apply the principle of parsimony to the construction of a phylogenetic tree? A. Choose the tree with the fewest branch points. B. Choose the tree that assumes all evolutionary changes are equally probable. C. Choose the tree in which the branch points are based on as many shared derived characters as possible. D. Base phylogenetic trees only on the fossil record, as this provides the simplest explanation for evolution. E. Choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, either in DNA sequences or morphology. Chapter 26 The Tree of Life: An Introduction to Biological Diversity 1. Define the following a. Protobionts b. Ribozymes c. Radiometric Dating d. Half-life e. Magnetic Reversals f. Geologic Record g. Stromatolites h. Serial Endosymbiosis i. Pangea j. Three Domain System - 2. According to the best scientific evidence currently available, how old is the Earth? Page 14 of 17

15 3. Label the diagram below to describe and explain Urey and Miller s 1953 experiment. 4. Where were the first organic compounds on Earth probably formed? 5. Explain the evidence that has led scientists to infer that RNA developed before DNA. 6. What did the atmosphere of early Earth primarily consist of? Page 15 of 17

16 7. Label the diagram and write a short paragraph to explain serial endosymbiosis. 8. List the periods in which there were mass extinctions, and explain the current hypotheses about the causes of each extinction. 9. During which period are we currently living? Page 16 of 17

17 10. When did the first prokaryotes evolve? How did the evolution of prokaryotes change the early Earth? 11. Name several traits of the first prokaryotes. 12. Contrast the five kingdom system with the three domain system. 13. Mitochondria and plastids likely formed in eukaryotes in what way? 14. How, and by whom, was the first concept of taxonomy set up? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 15. Which of the following represents a probable sequence of events in the biological history of Earth? A. animals before algae B. metabolism before mitosis C. DNA genes before RNA genes D. eukaryotes before prokaryotes E. an oxidizing atmosphere before a reducing atmosphere Page 17 of 17

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