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1 Name: Period Study Guide 17-1 and The Fossil Record (pgs ) 1. What is the fossil record? 2. What evidence does the fossil record provide? List the 2 techniques paleontologists use to determine the age of rocks The Law of Superposition is a general law stating that in any sequence of sediments or rocks that has not been overturned, the youngest sediments or rocks are at the top of the sequence, and the oldest are at the bottom. Figure 17-3 is an illustration of this concept. Number the rock layers in the order they were formed. Use the diagram of the rock layers to number the fossils in order. 5. Radioactive dating involves the use of half-lives. What is a half-life? 6. What is the drawback of using relative dating? 7. What is the benefit of using radioactive decay as a dating technique? 8. Study Figure 17-4 on page 420. Over time, potassium 40 (parent material) decays into Argon 40 (daughter material). The half- life is 1.25 billion years. A. How long does it take for ½ of potassium 40 to turn into argon 40? B. This is called the. C. What fraction of potassium 40 will be present after five half-lives?.

2 Name: Period Study Guide 17-1 and Earth s Early History (pgs ) 1. According to geologic evidence, how old is the Earth? 2. Was early Earth a friendly environment to living things? Explain (hint: Figure 17-7) 3. Why did the early Earth not have oceans? 4. What process added oxygen to Earth s atmosphere? 5. Which type of organism began changing the Earth s atmosphere? 6. How long ago did photosynthetic bacteria arrive on the evolutionary scene? MILLER AND UREY EXPERIMENT 7. What were Miller and Urey attempting to do by using gases, water, and electrical charges?

3 Name Period Study Guide Chapter 15 Study Guide 15-1 The Puzzle of Life s Diversity (pgs ) 1. What is biological diversity? 2. While doing research, which 2 questions do scientists ask that relate biological diversity and evolution? a. b. 3. Explain the theory of evolution. 4. What was the significance of Darwin s voyage on the Beagle for the world of science? Study Guide 15-2 Ideas That Shaped Darwin s Thinking (pgs ) 1. CIRCLE the correct choice from each statement below about ideas and theories of the world PRIOR to Darwin s influence (17 th -18 th century). a. The fossil record showed (little or significant) change. b. Mass extinctions came about by (slow or catastrophic) changes, leading to several creation events. c. Organisms were (unchanged or changed) over time. d. Life forms were believed to have lived for several (thousands or millions) of years. 2. During the 18 th -19 th centuries several scientists were gathering information suggesting that the Earth was very old, and had changed slowly over time. For each scientist below, identify what information they contributed that Darwin considered while developing his Theory of Natural Selection. The Biology and History timeline on pages will be helpful. Hutton: Lyell: Lamarck 3 key elements of his theory of evolution a. b. c. Malthus: Wallace:

4 Name Period Study Guide Chapter 15 Study Guide 15-3 Darwin Presents His Case (pgs ) 1. Darwin termed the phrase artificial selection. Use the following words in one sentence to explain artificial selection: ARTIFICIAL SELECTION, USEFUL, HUMANS, NATURE, VARIATION. 2. Darwin s theory of Evolution by Natural Selection had 2 main points. Struggle for existence AND Survival of the Fittest. Explain what each term means: STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE: *Fitness: *Adaptations: SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST: 3. Explain natural selection and how it results in changes in a population over time. 4. The modern theory of evolution includes competition, natural selection and the principle of Descent With Modification. According to the principle of (decent with modification OR common descent) all species living and extinct were derived from a common ancestor. CIRCL ONE. 5. Darwin argued that living things have been evolving on Earth for millions of years. Fill in the table below to explain each piece of evidence of evolution. 1.Fossil Record: What is the main limitation? 2.Geographic Distribution of Living Things: 3.Homologous Body Structures: ***Vestigial organs what are they? 4.Similarities in Embryology: 5. Biochemical Evidence comparison of amino acid sequence of proteins as determined by an organism s DNA. The more similar the sequences, the more closely related the organisms are. 6.Theory of Plate Tectonics (page 14) 6. Is the evolutionary theory finalized? Most scientists agree on the theory, but what precisely is still up for debate?

5 Name: Period: Study Guide Chapter 16: Evolution of Populations 16-1 Genes and Variation (pages ) 1. Circle one: Variety within a species increases or decreases the chance of survival in populations. 2. Define population: 3. What is a gene pool? 4. Explain the relative frequency of an allele. 5. True or False: Dominant alleles always have the highest percent of relative frequency. 6. Describe evolution in genetic terms using relative frequencies : 7. A homozygous black mouse has two alleles for black fur. A heterozygous black mouse has one allele for black fur and one allele for brown fur. A homozygous brown mouse has two alleles for brown fur. Useful information: Each rectangle represents one mouse with two alleles for fur color. Use the graph to color the gene pool of the sample population. Color alleles for black fur black, and alleles for brown fur brown. Answer the questions that follow. 8. What are the 2 main sources of genetic variation? 1. Explain: 2. Explain: 9. Draw and label the graphs for Figure 16-3 and 16-4 to show the comparison in number of phenotypes between singe-gene traits and polygenic traits.

6 Name: Period: Study Guide Chapter 16: Evolution of Populations 16-2 Evolution as Genetic Change (pages ) Part A 1. Why is it that natural selection acts on the phenotype, not genotype, of an organism? 2. How does natural selection act on single-gene traits and evolution? 3. A color mutation occurred in a brown mouse population, causing darker fur. The table below shows how the population changed over the next 30 generations. A. What is happening to the relative frequency of the lighter fur color allele? B. What is happening to the relative frequency of the darker fur color allele? C. Is the darker color mutation favorable or unfavorable? D. What might cause the change shown in the table? E. How do you predict the mouse population will look after 40 generations? 4. In polygenic traits, natural selection can affect the distributions of phenotypes in any of 3 ways. Describe each way below, give an example, and draw a diagram of each. Directional Selection: Figure 16-6 Example: Stabilizing Selection: Figure 16-7 Example: Disruptive Selection: Figure 16-8 Example:

7 Name: Period: Study Guide Chapter 16: Evolution of Populations 16-2 Part B (Pages ) 5. Random change in the allele frequency is called 6. Genetic drift occurs more often in LARGER or SMALLER populations. (circle one) 7. How does genetic drift take place? 8. When may genetic drift occur? 9. Explain the founder effect. 10. Genetic Drift Diagram: In a small population, an individual with particular alleles may have more descendants than another individual, by chance. This kind of chance can, over time, lead to an allele s becoming more common in a population. Draw what the descendants of these populations might look like. Draw 12 descendants for each population, using page 400 as a guide. A. Draw a beetle that could be found in both descendant populations. B. Why are the beetles in the two descendant populations different? 11. Define genetic equilibrium. 12. If allele frequencies do not change, what happens to the population? 13. List the 5 conditions that are required to maintain genetic equilibrium from generation to generation

8 Name: Period: Study Guide Chapter 16: Evolution of Populations 16-3 The Process of Speciation (pages ) 1. What is speciation? 2. Fill in the chart below about isolating mechanisms, explain each term and give an example. REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION EXAMPLE: BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION EXAMPLE: GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION EXAMPLE: TEMPORAL ISOLATION EXAMPLE: 3. In the space below, diagram how speciation in Darwin s Finches occurred. Use Figure FOUNDERS ARRIVE GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION OCCURS CHANGES IN THE POOL

9 Name: Period Study Guide Chp Patterns of Evolution pages What is macroevolution? 2. More than 99% of all species that have ever lived are now extinct. What is extinction? 3. What is a mass extinction? 4. What opportunities result from mass extinctions? 5. ADAPTIVE RADIATION V.S. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION Explain: Explain: 6. When 2 species evolve in response to changes in each other (plants and pollinators) it is called. 7. How quickly does evolution operate? LABEL each graph: GRADUALSIM OR PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM. (pg 439)

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