Evolution Problem Drill 09: The Tree of Life

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Evolution Problem Drill 09: The Tree of Life"

Transcription

1 Evolution Problem Drill 09: The Tree of Life Question No. 1 of 10 Question 1. The age of the Earth is estimated to be about 4.0 to 4.5 billion years old. All of the following methods may be used to estimate the age of the Earth except which? Question #01 (A) Radiometric dating the amount of a particular radioisotope may be measured in ancient rocks to determine when the rocks originated. (B) Measuring the amount of carbon dioxide present in ice core samples. (C) Radiometric dating The amount of a particular radioisotope may be measured in rocks from the Earth s moon. (D) Measuring the age of meteorites because they should have been created at about the same time as the Earth. Radiometric dating using ancient rocks from the Earth is one way to determine the age of the Earth. B. Correct! Measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in ice core samples will not tell you anything about the age of the Earth. Radiometric dating using rocks from the Earth s moon is one way to determine the age of the Earth. Measuring the age of meteorites, using radiometric dating, is one way to determine the age of the Earth. Note that this question is asking which of the methods describe about measuring the age of the Earth is NOT used. Therefore, the correct answer is the answer that suggests that measuring the amount of carbon dioxide from ice cores is useful in determining the age of the Earth. The best way to measure the age of the Earth is through radiometric dating. Radiometric dating is useful because we can measure the amount of a particular radioisotope in ancient rocks of the Earth and estimate their age. This is possible because after rocks are created, these isotopes decay at a steady rate, allowing us to estimate when the rocks were created based on how much of the isotope is currently present. However, we have been able to get more accurate estimates using rocks from meteorites and from the moon, which should have been created at about the same time as the Earth. This is true because the crust of the Earth is constantly being recycled and determining which rocks are ancient is difficult.

2 Question No. 2 of 10 Question 2. All of the following is evidence that the Earth has change since its origin except which of the following? When constructing the tree of life, what type of data/characters should you use? Question #02 (A) Fossils of the same species from long ago can be found in both South America and Africa despite the distance between these continents today. (B) Ice core samples that suggest that carbon dioxide levels fluctuate over time, resulting in periodic ice ages. (C) Tree rings that suggest cyclic patterns in rainfall over the past 100 years. (D) Carbon dating of human like fossils. This evidence suggests that South America and Africa existed in closer proximity sometime in the past compared to today plate tectonics. This evidence suggests that the Earth s climate has changed over time. This evidence suggests that the Earth s climate is changing even today. D. Correct! This evidence does not suggest that the Earth is changing over time, but that life on Earth is changing. Note that this question is asking for which of the following statements does NOT provide evidence that the Earth has changed over time. The Earth has physically changed over time through the movement of the continents and through changes in the atmosphere and climate. There is evidence that the Earth s land masses are moving even today. Fossil patterns suggest that the Earth once had one huge land mass, and that this land mass has separated and slowing moving to form the continents that we observe today. The fact that we can find similar fossils on continents that are separated today by oceans suggests that these land masses once existed much closer to each other. In addition, we know that the Earth s atmosphere and climate have changed over time. We have evidence from ice core samples, from which we can obtain carbon dioxide levels from the past and also from sediment samples and even tree rings. It is well known that carbon levels fluctuate over time and that temperature is in turn affected. Low carbon levels are associated with ice ages from the past.

3 Question No. 3 of 10 Question 3. Why was the discovery of ribozymes important to the Abiotic Origin of life on Earth theory? Question #03 (A) Ribozymes are RNA molecules with only the ability to replicate. (B) Ribozymes are RNA with catalytic activity, giving them the potential to replicate and evolve. (C) Ribozymes are DNA with protein like activity, giving them the potential to replicate and evolve. (D) Ribozymes are DNA molecules with only the ability to replicate. Ribozymes are RNA molecules, but they also have the ability to evolve. B. Correct! Ribozymes are RNA molecules that possess catalytic activity, giving them both a genotype and phenotype. Ribozymes are not DNA molecules. Ribozymes are not DNA molecules. Ribozymes are important to the Abiotic Origin of life on Earth theory because they are simple molecules that have the capacity to both replicate and evolve. A ribozyme is an RNA molecule with catalytic activity. Therefore, this molecule has both a genotype (RNA is a heritable material) and a phenotype (protein-like catalytic activity), and perhaps the potential to self-replicate. Because ribozymes have been experimentally shown to evolve, it is thought that proteins and nucleic acids may have formed the first cells, and thus the first life on Earth.

4 Question No. 4 of 10 Pick the answer (4) Go back to review the core concept tutorial as needed. Question 4. How does horizontal gene transfer affect the Tree of Life? Question #04 (A) Horizontal gene transfer does not affect the tree of life because the tree of life is based on relatedness due to common descent. (B) Horizontal gene transfer affects the tree of life because genes can be transferred between individuals within the same generation and between generations. (C) Horizontal gene transfer affects the tree of life because with horizontal gene transfer, genes are transferred from one generation to the next. (D) Horizontal gene transfer affects the tree of life because genes are no longer transferred from parent to offspring. If the tree of life is based on relatedness due to common descent, or vertical gene transfer, then horizontal gene transfer should affect species relationships and affect the tree. B. Correct! Genes are not only thought to be transferred vertically, but also horizontally. Genes are not transferred from one generation to the next with horizontal gene transfer. That type of gene transfer is vertical. Genes are also transferred vertically from parent to offspring. Genes were once thought to only be transferred from parent to offspring, from one generation to the next, in a vertical fashion. The tree of life was consequently supposedly based on this vertical transmission of genes and should represent relationships between species based on relatedness to common ancestors. With the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer, genes are being exchanged between species that exist at the same time (horizontal) and between ancestral species and their descendents (vertical). Therefore, many genes that are used to construct the tree of life will produce different trees. Species may share genes, but not be closely related due to common descent. This creates a dilemma for tree construction and interpretation.

5 Question No. 5 of 10 Question 5. Fossil data suggest that the Cambrian explosion occurred roughly 500 to 550 million years ago. In contrast, dates based on sequence data suggest that the Cambrian explosion occurred between 900 and 1200 million years ago. Why would one expect these two approaches to yield slightly different answers? Question #05 (A) The estimate made from the sequence data is likely an over-estimate because sequence divergence would be large for a time-scale this long. (B) Estimates made from sequence data are inaccurate due to the inaccuracy of the molecular clock. (C) Estimates made from fossil data are inaccurate due to the inaccuracy of radiometric dating. (D) The estimate made from fossil data is likely an underestimate because one would not expect to observe fossils of a species until that species becomes common. Sequence divergence would be large between species that have been separated for long periods of time, but this is not why sequence data should differ from fossil data. The molecular clock has been shown to be quite accurate and useful in dating species origins and divergence times. Radiometric dating has been shown to be quite accurate as isotopes are known to decay at a predictable rate. D. Correct! Both methods are most likely accurate estimates, but the fossils did not occur until long after the actual speciation event. Fossil data and sequence data should yield different estimates of speciation events, radiations, and extinctions. This is because fossils can only be found once the species has become common enough to leave fossil evidence. It is likely that a species does not become common for a long time after a speciation event. Consequently, fossil dating necessarily underestimates the true time of a species origination. In contrast, molecular data provide an estimate of the true divergence date between two species.

6 Question No. 6 of 10 Question 6. Which of the following statements is not correct about biological classification? Question #06 (A) All of the butterflies within the Nymphalidaea Family are also part of the same Class. (B) All of the plants within Liliopsida Class are also part of the same Phylum. (C) Biological classification was originally based on relationships between organisms based on common ancestry. (D) Biological classification was originally based on relationships between organisms based on similarities. This statement is correct. All organisms within a Family are also part of all categories of classification above Family. This statement is correct. All organisms within a Class are also part of all categories of classification above Class. C. Correct! Biological classification was not originally based on common ancestry. Biological classification was originally based on similarities between organisms, and still is. Note that this question is asking for which of the following statements is NOT correct about biological classification. Biological classification has occurred since the time of the early Greek philosophers and was originally based on similarities between organisms. If two organisms looked alike it was assumed that they belonged within the same category or were closely related. Classification today is also based on similarities between organisms, but we have more traits to observe and compare with the advent of molecular biology and genetics. We also try to classify organisms now based on common ancestry, which can often be elicited using molecular data and techniques. Because of this biological classification often reflects evolutionary history, which is based on relatedness due to common ancestry. The important thing to remember with biological classification is that similar organisms are grouped as species and species grouped into Genus, etc. organisms are placed into bigger and bigger collections so that all organisms that fit into the category before also all belong to the higher category. The largest category is Kingdom and the smallest, species.

7 Question No. 7 of 10 Question 7. Which of the following statements is correct about the 5 identified mass extinctions? Question #07 (A) The Triassic mass extinction occurred about 200 mya and included the extinction of the dinosaurs. (B) The Cretaceous mass extinction is thought to have been caused by a large body mass that hit near the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. (C) The largest mass extinction included the loss of 50% of the marine life. (D) The oldest mass extinction may have been caused by global warming. The Triassic mass extinction did not include the extinction of the dinosaurs. B. Correct! It is thought that an asteroid caused the Cretaceous mass extinction 65 mya. The largest mass extinction included the loss of 95% of the marine life. The oldest mass extinction was likely caused by a glaciation event. The following information characterizes each of the 5 mass extinction events: Ordovician (440 mya) loss of about 50% of animals; may have been caused by glaciation event. Devonian (365 mya) lasted about 3 my and characterized by several short extinction events and loss of many warm water species; may have been caused by climate change/global cooling. Permian (215 mya) largest mass extinction with 95% loss of marine life and 70% loss of land organisms; may have been caused by land mass movement. Triassic (200 mya) least significant mass extinction; may have been caused by climate change. Cretaceous (K-T) (65 mya) second largest mass extinction characterized by loss of dinosaurs; may have been caused by asteroid that hit near Yucatan Peninsula.

8 Question No. 8 of 10 Question 8. From the explanations below, choose the best answer that explains the probable fate of any given species? Question #08 (A) The fate of any given species is that it will exist into perpetuity. (B) The fate of any given species is that it will speciate and form two new species. (C) The fate of any given species is that it will go extinct. (D) The fate of any given species is that it will remain unchanged with time. Most species have gone extinct. Although this is possible, it is not the most likely fate of any given species. C. Correct! Out of all species that ever existed, nearly all are extinct. A species is likely to undergo genetic changes with time due to changing environments and chance. The probably fate of any given species from the past or present is that it will go extinct. Out of all species that ever existed, most are extinct. The number of extant species that exist today is miniscule in comparison to the number that existed in the past and eventually went extinct. Extinction is nearly certain. However, note that there is a balance between extinction and speciation for any given time. That is, overall biodiversity remains relatively constant except in the instance of a mass extinction event. However, given enough time after a mass extinction event, the balance will return.

9 Question No. 9 of 10 Question 9. Endosymbiosis of organelles is a special example of a horizontal transfer even between species. Which of the following statements about endosymbiosis below is not correct? Question #09 (A) Endosymbiotic events likely only occurred once, but were followed by secondary events that established there role. (B) The chloroplasts of plants are thought to have evolved through endosymbiosis between a eukaryote and cyanobacterium. (C) The mitochondria of eukaryotes are thought to have evolved through the endosymbiosis between a eukaryote and proteobacteria. (D) Endosymbiotic events should not have any affect on the relationships that exist between the three domains. This statement is true. Endosymbiotic events likely only occurred once. This statement is true. Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria are very similar. This statement is true. Mitochondria and proteobacteria are very similar. D. Correct! This statement is not true. Endosymbiotic events result in similar genomic material between very different species. Note that this question is asking for which statement about endosymbiosis is NOT correct. Endosymbiosis is a horizontal transfer event that results in a symbiotic relationship between two organisms. Endosymbiosis is thought to be responsible for the acquisition of photosynthetic capabilities in plants and the mitochondria of eukaryotes. It is thought that these eukaryote cells engulfed bacterial cells and incorporated their genomes into there own, resulting in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Evidence that this occurred is that the genetic make-up of chloroplasts and mitochondria in eukaryotes is very similar to the genetic make-up of cyanobacteria and proteobacteria, respectively. These events likely only occurred once, but were then followed by secondary events that established there existence. Because of horizontal transfer events like this, eukaryotes and bacteria may appear to be more closely related then they truly are because of the similar genetic make-up. In fact, eukaryotes are more closely related to archaea than bacteria.

10 Question No. 10 of 10 Question 10. Which theory would Darwin have preferred, punctuated equilibrium or phyletic gradualism, and why? Question #10 (A) Darwin would have likely preferred the theory of phyletic gradualism because he did not have a fossil record to suggest that evolution occurs in any other way but slowly over time. (B) Darwin would have likely preferred the theory of phyletic gradualism because he observed abrupt changes in finch species during the time he spent on the Galapagos Islands. (C) Darwin would have likely preferred the theory of punctuated equilibrium because he was able to observe abrupt evolutionary changes within and between species in his lifetime. (D) Darwin would have likely preferred the theory of punctuated equilibrium because there was an extensive fossil record for him to study to suggest this pattern of evolution. A. Correct! Darwin believed that evolution was a slow and gradual process and did not have evidence otherwise. Phyletic gradualism would not be consistent with abrupt changes in finch species over a short amount of time. Darwin did not observe abrupt evolutionary changes within his lifetime. Darwin did not have the luxury of an extensive fossil record to study. Charles Darwin most likely would have supported the theory of Phyletic Gradualism over Punctuated Equilibrium given the evidence and observations he made during his lifetime. He believed evolution was a slow and gradual process and that species changed slowly over time, eventually leading to speciation. This is evident from his drawing of a phylogenetic tree in the Origin of Species. Punctuated Equilibrium is the idea that changes in life on Earth occur during speciation events through large-scale abrupt changes. There is evidence for this type of change in the fossil record, where we observe very little change for large periods of time followed by large changes over short periods of time. This theory suggests that evolution occurs all at one time and that in between these times there are evolutionary static periods. Observations like these in the fossil record may be due to how species speciate. It is possible that these large, abrupt changes occur in small populations where the effects of drift are much more pronounced compared to larger populations of the same species. The larger populations will remain relatively static in comparison because genetic changes are occurring more slowly. However, fossils may not accumulate for these small populations simply by chance and abruptly appear in the fossil record once the larger populations have caught up, making it appear like speciation and evolution is punctuated. Phyletic Gradualism on the other hand is the idea that changes in life on Earth occur steadily and gradually over time. That is, genetic changes are slow and gradual within species over time and during speciation events. If Gradualism is true, the fossil record should reflect constant change over time. The lack of this evidence in the fossil record may be due to missing fossil data. Perhaps the intermediate forms just have not been discovered yet.

11

Chapter 19. History of Life on Earth

Chapter 19. History of Life on Earth Chapter 19 History of Life on Earth Adapted from Holt Biology 2008 Chapter 19 Section 3: Evolution of Life Key Vocabulary Terms Adapted from Holt Biology 2008 Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic prokaryotes Adapted

More information

Origins of Life and Extinction

Origins of Life and Extinction Origins of Life and Extinction What is evolution? What is evolution? The change in the genetic makeup of a population over time Evolution accounts for the diversity of life on Earth Natural selection is

More information

Phylogeny & Systematics

Phylogeny & Systematics Phylogeny & Systematics Phylogeny & Systematics An unexpected family tree. What are the evolutionary relationships among a human, a mushroom, and a tulip? Molecular systematics has revealed that despite

More information

MACROEVOLUTION Student Packet SUMMARY EVOLUTION IS A CHANGE IN THE GENETIC MAKEUP OF A POPULATION OVER TIME Macroevolution refers to large-scale

MACROEVOLUTION Student Packet SUMMARY EVOLUTION IS A CHANGE IN THE GENETIC MAKEUP OF A POPULATION OVER TIME Macroevolution refers to large-scale MACROEVOLUTION Student Packet SUMMARY EVOLUTION IS A CHANGE IN THE GENETIC MAKEUP OF A POPULATION OVER TIME Macroevolution refers to large-scale evolutionary changes such as speciation events, origin of

More information

Name: Period Study Guide 17-1 and 17-2

Name: Period Study Guide 17-1 and 17-2 Name: Period Study Guide 17-1 and 17-2 17-1 The Fossil Record (pgs. 417-422) 1. What is the fossil record? 2. What evidence does the fossil record provide? 1. 2. 3. List the 2 techniques paleontologists

More information

Theory of Evolution. Chapter 15

Theory of Evolution. Chapter 15 Theory of Evolution Chapter 15 The History of Evolutionary Thought Evolution The development of new types of organisms from preexisting types of organisms over time. Also could be described as a heritable

More information

Revision Based on Chapter 19 Grade 11

Revision Based on Chapter 19 Grade 11 Revision Based on Chapter 19 Grade 11 Biology Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Most fossils are found in rusty water. volcanic rock. sedimentary

More information

Summary The Fossil Record Earth s Early History. Name Class Date

Summary The Fossil Record Earth s Early History. Name Class Date Name Class Date Chapter 17 Summary The History of Life 17 1 The Fossil Record Fossils are preserved traces and remains of ancient life. Scientists who study fossils are called paleontologists. They use

More information

Chapter 16: Evolutionary Theory

Chapter 16: Evolutionary Theory Chapter 16: Evolutionary Theory Section 1: Developing a Theory Evolution: Artificial Selection: Evolution: I. A Theory to Explain Change Over Time B. Charles Darwin C. Theory: D. Modern evolutionary theory

More information

Outline. Origin and History of Life

Outline. Origin and History of Life Origin and History of Life Chapter 19 Primitive Earth Origin of First Cells Fossils The Precambrian The Paleozoic The Mesozoic The Cenozoic Continental Drift Mass Extinctions Outline 1 2 The Primitive

More information

Origin of Life. What is Life? The evolutionary tree of life can be documented with evidence. The Origin of Life on Earth is another

Origin of Life. What is Life? The evolutionary tree of life can be documented with evidence. The Origin of Life on Earth is another sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes Origin of Life 500 Paleozoic 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 ARCHEAN Millions of years ago 1000 PROTEROZOIC Cenozoic Mesozoic 4000

More information

Chapters 25 and 26. Searching for Homology. Phylogeny

Chapters 25 and 26. Searching for Homology. Phylogeny Chapters 25 and 26 The Origin of Life as we know it. Phylogeny traces evolutionary history of taxa Systematics- analyzes relationships (modern and past) of organisms Figure 25.1 A gallery of fossils The

More information

Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages )

Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages ) Chapter 17 The History of Life Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages 417 422) Key Concepts What is the fossil record? What information do relative dating and radioactive dating provide about fossils? What

More information

Origin of an idea about origins

Origin of an idea about origins Origin of an idea about origins Biological evolution is the process of change during the course of time because of the alteration of the genotype and the transfer of these altered genes to the next generation.

More information

sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes Life s Origin & Early Evolution (Ch. 20)

sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes Life s Origin & Early Evolution (Ch. 20) sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes Life s Origin & Early Evolution (Ch. 20) 2007-2008 ARCHEAN Millions of years ago PRECAMBRIAN PROTEROZOIC 0 500 1000 Cenozoic

More information

The History of Life. Fossils and Ancient Life (page 417) How Fossils Form (page 418) Interpreting Fossil Evidence (pages ) Chapter 17

The History of Life. Fossils and Ancient Life (page 417) How Fossils Form (page 418) Interpreting Fossil Evidence (pages ) Chapter 17 Chapter 17 The History of Life Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages 417 422) This section explains how fossils form and how they can be interpreted. It also describes the geologic time scale that is used

More information

Chapter Study Guide Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages )

Chapter Study Guide Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages ) Name Class Date Chapter Study Guide Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages 417-422) Key Concepts What is the fossil record? What information do relative dating and radioactive dating provide about fossils?

More information

Name Class Date. Crossword Puzzle Use the clues below to complete the puzzle.

Name Class Date. Crossword Puzzle Use the clues below to complete the puzzle. Chapter 17 The History of Life Chapter Vocabulary Review Crossword Puzzle Use the clues below to complete the puzzle. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Across 2. time span shorter than an era, such as Quaternary

More information

Fossils Biology 2 Thursday, January 31, 2013

Fossils Biology 2 Thursday, January 31, 2013 Fossils Biology 2 Evolution Change in the genetic composition of a group of organisms over time. Causes: Natural Selection Artificial Selection Genetic Engineering Genetic Drift Hybridization Mutation

More information

of EVOLUTION???????????? states that existing forms of life on earth have arisen from earlier forms over long periods of time.

of EVOLUTION???????????? states that existing forms of life on earth have arisen from earlier forms over long periods of time. Evolution The WHAT theory IS of EVOLUTION???????????? states that existing forms of life on earth have arisen from earlier forms over long periods of time. Some of the strongest evidence to support evolution

More information

BIOLOGY 432 Midterm I - 30 April PART I. Multiple choice questions (3 points each, 42 points total). Single best answer.

BIOLOGY 432 Midterm I - 30 April PART I. Multiple choice questions (3 points each, 42 points total). Single best answer. BIOLOGY 432 Midterm I - 30 April 2012 Name PART I. Multiple choice questions (3 points each, 42 points total). Single best answer. 1. Over time even the most highly conserved gene sequence will fix mutations.

More information

Chapter 14 The History of Life

Chapter 14 The History of Life Section 1: Fossil Evidence of Change Section 2: The Origin of Life Click on a lesson name to select. 14.1 Fossil Evidence of Change Land Environments Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago. Gravity pulled

More information

9.1- Earth Forms and Life Begins

9.1- Earth Forms and Life Begins 9.1- Earth Forms and Life Begins About Earth: Earth was formed about 4.6 billion years ago! The first life on earth appeared about 4 billion years ago Life started out as small, single-celled organisms

More information

Tracing Evolutionary History (Outline)

Tracing Evolutionary History (Outline) Tracing Evolutionary History (Outline) Four stages leading to emergence of living cells Geophysical conditions impact on biodiversity: - continental drift and volcanism, earthquakes and meteorites Living

More information

EVOLUTION change in populations over time

EVOLUTION change in populations over time EVOLUTION change in populations over time HISTORY ideas that shaped the current theory James Hutton & Charles Lyell proposes that Earth is shaped by geological forces that took place over extremely long

More information

Earth s History. The principle of states that geologic processes that happened in the past can be explained by current geologic processes.

Earth s History. The principle of states that geologic processes that happened in the past can be explained by current geologic processes. Earth s History Date: Been There, Done That What is the principle of uniformitarianism? The principle of states that geologic processes that happened in the past can be explained by current geologic processes.

More information

EVOLUTION. Evolution - changes in allele frequency in populations over generations.

EVOLUTION. Evolution - changes in allele frequency in populations over generations. EVOLUTION Evolution - changes in allele frequency in populations over generations. Sources of genetic variation: genetic recombination by sexual reproduction (produces new combinations of genes) mutation

More information

EVOLUTION change in populations over time

EVOLUTION change in populations over time EVOLUTION change in populations over time HISTORY ideas that shaped the current theory James Hutton (1785) proposes that Earth is shaped by geological forces that took place over extremely long periods

More information

Final Revision G8 Biology ( ) Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Final Revision G8 Biology ( ) Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Final Revision G8 Biology ( 2017-2018 ) Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1 A species is a group of similar organisms that A can mate with each

More information

The history of Life Section 19.1: The fossil record

The history of Life Section 19.1: The fossil record The history of Life Section 19.1: The fossil record Fossils and Ancient Life Fossils provide information about extinct species Fossils can vary greatly Different sizes, types and degrees of preservation

More information

Ch. 25/26 Warm-Up. 2. List 3 pieces of evidence to support the endosymbiont theory.

Ch. 25/26 Warm-Up. 2. List 3 pieces of evidence to support the endosymbiont theory. Ch. 25/26 Warm-Up 1. Answer the following using the diagram below: A B C 3 4 2 D 1 a. a common ancestor for D & F b. most closely related species c. least related species d. new species C arises at this

More information

B. Phylogeny and Systematics:

B. Phylogeny and Systematics: Tracing Phylogeny A. Fossils: Some fossils form as is weathered and eroded from the land and carried by rivers to seas and where the particles settle to the bottom. Deposits pile up and the older sediments

More information

CHAPTER 19 THE HISTORY OF LIFE. Dr. Bertolotti

CHAPTER 19 THE HISTORY OF LIFE. Dr. Bertolotti CHAPTER 19 THE HISTORY OF LIFE Dr. Bertolotti Essential Question: HOW DO FOSSILS HELP BIOLOGISTS UNDERSTAND THE HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH? WHAT DO FOSSILS REVEAL ABOUT ANCIENT LIFE? FOSSILS AND ANCIENT

More information

Lesson 1 Syllabus Reference

Lesson 1 Syllabus Reference Lesson 1 Syllabus Reference Outcomes A student Explains how biological understanding has advanced through scientific discoveries, technological developments and the needs of society. Content The theory

More information

Fossils provide evidence of the change in organisms over time.

Fossils provide evidence of the change in organisms over time. Section 1: Fossils provide evidence of the change in organisms over time. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the similarities and differences between

More information

17-1 The Fossil Record Slide 1 of 40

17-1 The Fossil Record Slide 1 of 40 1 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life Fossils and Ancient Life Paleontologists are scientists who collect and study fossils. All information about past life is called the fossil record. The fossil record includes

More information

Fundamentals of Biology Valencia College BSC1010C

Fundamentals of Biology Valencia College BSC1010C 1 Fundamentals of Biology Valencia College BSC1010C 1 Studying Life Chapter objectives: What Is Biology? Is All Life on Earth Related? How Do Biologists Investigate Life? How Does Biology Influence Public

More information

UNIT 4: History Of Biological Diversity

UNIT 4: History Of Biological Diversity UNIT 4: History Of Biological Diversity CHAPTER 14: The History of Life PAST NOW FUTURE? What is this? Earth s Early history Approximately 4.6 billion years ago, the Earth was formed when many pieces of

More information

I. History of Life on Earth

I. History of Life on Earth Evolution I. History of Life on Earth I. History of Life A. Early History of Earth I. Early earth was inhospitable hot, with many volcanoes little free oxygen and lots of carbon dioxide other gases present:

More information

The History of Life, the Universe and Everything or What do you get when you multiply six by nine. Chapters 17 (skim) and 18

The History of Life, the Universe and Everything or What do you get when you multiply six by nine. Chapters 17 (skim) and 18 The History of Life, the Universe and Everything or What do you get when you multiply six by nine Chapters 17 (skim) and 18 The Origin of Life The problem: Life begets life. There must be a beginning,

More information

17-1 The Fossil Record Slide 2 of 40

17-1 The Fossil Record Slide 2 of 40 2 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life What is the fossil record? 3 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life Fossils and Ancient Life Paleontologists are scientists who collect and study fossils. All information about

More information

Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages )

Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages ) Name Class Date Chapter 17 The History of Life Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages 417 422) This section explains how fossils form and how they can be interpreted. It also describes the geologic time

More information

REVIEW 6: EVOLUTION. 1. Define evolution: Was not the first to think of evolution, but he did figure out how it works (mostly).

REVIEW 6: EVOLUTION. 1. Define evolution: Was not the first to think of evolution, but he did figure out how it works (mostly). Name: REVIEW 6: EVOLUTION 1. Define evolution: 2. Modern Theory of Evolution: a. Charles Darwin: Was not the first to think of evolution, but he did figure out how it works (mostly). However, Darwin didn

More information

.Biology Chapter 14 Test: The History of Life

.Biology Chapter 14 Test: The History of Life Class: Date:.Biology Chapter 14 Test: The History of Life True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. On the geologic time scale, an eon is longer than an era. 2. The oblong shape of

More information

Name Date Class. Patterns of Evolution

Name Date Class. Patterns of Evolution Concept Mapping Patterns of Evolution Complete the flowchart about patterns of evolution. These terms may be used more than once: adaptive radiation, change in response to each other, convergent evolution,

More information

8/23/2014. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

8/23/2014. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Objectives Explain the following characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification: a. binomial nomenclature b. hierarchical classification List the major

More information

AP Biology Review Packet 5- Natural Selection and Evolution & Speciation and Phylogeny

AP Biology Review Packet 5- Natural Selection and Evolution & Speciation and Phylogeny AP Biology Review Packet 5- Natural Selection and Evolution & Speciation and Phylogeny 1A1- Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution. 1A2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in

More information

Microbial Taxonomy and the Evolution of Diversity

Microbial Taxonomy and the Evolution of Diversity 19 Microbial Taxonomy and the Evolution of Diversity Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Taxonomy Introduction to Microbial Taxonomy

More information

Theory a well supported testable explanation of phenomenon occurring in the natural world.

Theory a well supported testable explanation of phenomenon occurring in the natural world. Evolution Theory of Evolution Theory a well supported testable explanation of phenomenon occurring in the natural world. Evolution the process by which modern organisms changed over time from ancient common

More information

Earth History. What is the Earth s time scale? Geological time Scale. Pre-Cambrian. FOUR Eras

Earth History. What is the Earth s time scale? Geological time Scale. Pre-Cambrian. FOUR Eras The Earth is 4.6 billion years old! Earth History Mrs. Burkey ESS Cy Creek HS 17-18 If the Earth formed at midnight 6:00 am First life appears 10:00 pm First animals/plants on land 11:59 pm First humans

More information

The Theory of Evolution

The Theory of Evolution Name Date Class CHAPTER 13 DIRECTED READING The Theory of Evolution Section 13-1: The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Darwin Proposed a Mechanism for Evolution Mark each statement below T if it

More information

Biology 3201 Unit 4 Ecology Ch Adaptation and Speciation

Biology 3201 Unit 4 Ecology Ch Adaptation and Speciation Biology 3201 Unit 4 Ecology Ch. 21 - Adaptation and Speciation Speciation Speciation: the formation of a new species Biological species: a group of organisms able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

More information

Evaluate evidence provided by data from many scientific disciplines to support biological evolution. [LO 1.9, SP 5.3]

Evaluate evidence provided by data from many scientific disciplines to support biological evolution. [LO 1.9, SP 5.3] Learning Objectives Evaluate evidence provided by data from many scientific disciplines to support biological evolution. [LO 1.9, SP 5.3] Refine evidence based on data from many scientific disciplines

More information

AP: CHAPTER 24: THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES 1. Define the term species.

AP: CHAPTER 24: THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES 1. Define the term species. AP Biology Chapter 24 Guided Reading Assignment Ms. Hall Name AP: CHAPTER 24: THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES 1. Define the term species. 2. How do the patterns of speciation differ? a. anagenesis b. cladogenesis

More information

Thursday, March 21, 13. Evolution

Thursday, March 21, 13. Evolution Evolution What is Evolution? Evolution involves inheritable changes in a population of organisms through time Fundamental to biology and paleontology Paleontology is the study of life history as revealed

More information

1. Evolution and Classification

1. Evolution and Classification 1. Evolution and Classification 1.1 Origin of Life and Plants 1.2 Animal Evolution 1.3 Human Evolution 1.4 Mechanisms of Evolution 1.5 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 1.6 Mechanisms of Speciation 1.7 Classification

More information

Understanding Natural Selection

Understanding Natural Selection Understanding Natural Selection Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Sailed around the world 1831-1836 What did Darwin s Travels reveal The diversity of living species was far greater than anyone had previously

More information

AP Biology Essential Knowledge Cards BIG IDEA 1

AP Biology Essential Knowledge Cards BIG IDEA 1 AP Biology Essential Knowledge Cards BIG IDEA 1 Essential knowledge 1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution. Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by scientific

More information

Enduring Understanding: Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution Pearson Education, Inc.

Enduring Understanding: Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution Pearson Education, Inc. Enduring Understanding: Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution. Objective: You will be able to identify the key concepts of evolution theory Do Now: Read the enduring understanding

More information

EVOLUTION. HISTORY: Ideas that shaped the current evolutionary theory. Evolution change in populations over time.

EVOLUTION. HISTORY: Ideas that shaped the current evolutionary theory. Evolution change in populations over time. EVOLUTION HISTORY: Ideas that shaped the current evolutionary theory. Evolution change in populations over time. James Hutton & Charles Lyell proposes that Earth is shaped by geological forces that took

More information

CH_15_Evolution.notebook. February 28, Cellular Evolution. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck. Endosymbiont Theory. Charles Darwin

CH_15_Evolution.notebook. February 28, Cellular Evolution. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck. Endosymbiont Theory. Charles Darwin Cellular Evolution The first cells were prokaryotic They did not need oxygen (the atmosphere did not contain oxygen until 1.8 billion years ago) Eukaryotic cells were found in the fossil record about 2

More information

Chapter 26. Origin of Life

Chapter 26. Origin of Life Chapter 26. Origin of Life 1 The history tree of life can be documented with evidence as already discussed. The Origin of Life on Earth is another story 2 Origin of Life hypothesis Abiotic synthesis of

More information

Evidence for Evolution

Evidence for Evolution Evidence for Evolution 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Paleontology Comparative Anatomy Embryology Comparative Biochemistry Geographical Distribution How old is everything? The History of Earth as a Clock Station 1: Paleontology

More information

Chapter 25: The Origin and Evolutionary History of Life on Earth

Chapter 25: The Origin and Evolutionary History of Life on Earth Chapter 25: The Origin and Evolutionary History of Life on Earth Chemical conditions of the early Earth A model for the first cells First life Life changes the planet: oxygenating Earth s oceans and atmosphere

More information

19. When allele frequencies change as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population

19. When allele frequencies change as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population CP Biology: Evolution Name: Per: Directions: Use your textbook to help you answer the practice questions for each chapter. It is important that you READ the chapter sections and not just search for the

More information

MAIN IDEA: Early scientists proposed ideas about evolution. In a phrase, tell what each scientist did to help develop evolutionary theory.

MAIN IDEA: Early scientists proposed ideas about evolution. In a phrase, tell what each scientist did to help develop evolutionary theory. SECTION 10.1 KEY CONCEPT EARLY IDEAS ABOUT EVOLUTION Study Guide There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin. VOCABULARY evolution fossil gradualism species catastrophism uniformitarianism

More information

LECTURE #25: Mega Disasters - Mass Extinctions, Meteorite Impacts...

LECTURE #25: Mega Disasters - Mass Extinctions, Meteorite Impacts... GEOL 0820 Ramsey Natural Disasters Spring, 2018 LECTURE #25: Mega Disasters - Mass Extinctions, Meteorite Impacts... Date: 19 April 2018 I. Time & Life on Earth geologic time scale o divided into named

More information

Evolution Evidence of Change

Evolution Evidence of Change 6 Evolution Evidence of Change lesson 3 Evolution and Plate Tectonics Grade Seven Science Content Standard. 4.f. Students know how movements of Earth's continental and oceanic plates through time, with

More information

Chapter 19. Microbial Taxonomy

Chapter 19. Microbial Taxonomy Chapter 19 Microbial Taxonomy 12-17-2008 Taxonomy science of biological classification consists of three separate but interrelated parts classification arrangement of organisms into groups (taxa; s.,taxon)

More information

UNIT 4: EVOLUTION Chapter 12: The History of Life. I. The Fossil Record (12.1) A. Fossils can form in several ways

UNIT 4: EVOLUTION Chapter 12: The History of Life. I. The Fossil Record (12.1) A. Fossils can form in several ways UNIT IV Chapter 12 The History Of Life UNIT 4: EVOLUTION Chapter 12: The History of Life I. The Fossil Record (12.1) A. Fossils can form in several ways 1. Permineralization- minerals carried by water

More information

Evolution. Species Changing over time

Evolution. Species Changing over time Evolution Species Changing over time Objectives I can differentiate between natural selection and artificial selection and I can give examples of each. I can explain several reasons for genetic variation

More information

THE HISTORY OF THE THEORY. Darwin presented that happens and offered an of how it happens. Theory a broad that has been and

THE HISTORY OF THE THEORY. Darwin presented that happens and offered an of how it happens. Theory a broad that has been and Evolution Notes THE HISTORY OF THE THEORY Why is the evolutionary theory associated with Charles Darwin? Darwin presented that happens and offered an of how it happens. o Evolution the process by which

More information

First, an supershort History of the Earth by Eon

First, an supershort History of the Earth by Eon HISTORY OF LIFE WRITTEN IN THE ROCKS (geological record): notice how at first no life, very simple if for billions of years, complex life only recently 600 mya In these chapters, two primary themes: History

More information

This is DUE: Tuesday, Dec 4, 2012 Come prepared to share your findings with your group.

This is DUE: Tuesday, Dec 4, 2012 Come prepared to share your findings with your group. Biology 160 Reading Guide 13: Ecosystems, Part I NAME: This is DUE: Tuesday, Dec 4, 2012 Come prepared to share your findings with your group. *As before, please turn in only the Critical Thinking questions

More information

Chapter 15 Theory of Evolution

Chapter 15 Theory of Evolution Chapter 15 Theory of Evolution 15-1 History of Evolutionary Thought Evolution- the development of new species form pre-existing species. -change over time. In the 1800 s scientists began to present evidence

More information

Biology, Quarter 4, Unit 4.1. Evolution. Overview

Biology, Quarter 4, Unit 4.1. Evolution. Overview Evolution Overview Number of instructional days: 21 (1 day = 50 minutes) Content to be learned Distinguish between microevolution and macroevolution. Explain how macroevolution accounts for the speciation,

More information

Origins of Life: Teacher Packet

Origins of Life: Teacher Packet Origins of Life: Teacher Packet Compiled by: Morehead State University Star Theatre with help from Bethany DeMoss Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Corresponding Standards 2 Vocabulary 5 How Big is

More information

Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total)

Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) Chapter 22 Descent

More information

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification 1. BRIEFLY summarize the main points that Darwin made in The Origin of Species.

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification 1. BRIEFLY summarize the main points that Darwin made in The Origin of Species. AP Biology Chapter Packet 7- Evolution Name Chapter 22: Descent with Modification 1. BRIEFLY summarize the main points that Darwin made in The Origin of Species. 2. Define the following terms: a. Natural

More information

History of Biological Diversity. Evolution: Darwin s travel

History of Biological Diversity. Evolution: Darwin s travel History of Biological Diversity Evolution: Darwin s travel Developing the Theory of Evolution The Gal√°pagos Islands Darwin noticed that the different islands all seemed to have their own, slightly different

More information

Review Session #5. Evolu0on Ecology

Review Session #5. Evolu0on Ecology Review Session #5 Evolu0on Ecology The theory of EVOLUTION states that existing forms of life on earth have arisen from earlier forms over long periods of time. Some of the strongest evidence to support

More information

Biology. Slide 1 of 40. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1 of 40. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1 of 40 2 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life What is the fossil record? 3 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life The fossil record provides evidence about the history of life on Earth. It also shows how different

More information

Evolution and diversity of organisms

Evolution and diversity of organisms Evolution and diversity of organisms Competency Levels - 7 3.1.1 Uses the theories of origin of life and natural selection to analyze the process of evolution of life 3.2.1 Constructs hierarchy of taxa

More information

Biology II. Evolution

Biology II. Evolution Biology II Evolution Observation-Something we know to be true based on one or more of our five senses. Inference- A conclusion which is based on observations Hypothesis- a testable inference usually stated

More information

THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION Why evolution matters Theory: A well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation

More information

Study Guide. Section 1: Fossil Evidence of Change CHAPTER 14

Study Guide. Section 1: Fossil Evidence of Change CHAPTER 14 Name Date Class Study Guide CHAPTER 14 Section 1: Fossil Evidence of Change In your textbook, read about Earth s early history. For each statement below, write true or false. 1. Solid Earth formed about

More information

Biodiversity. The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life

Biodiversity. The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life Biodiversity The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life How the 6 kingdoms came about At first, only two kingdoms were recognized Then Haeckel proposed a third kingdom Protista (where protists had both plant

More information

Notes on Life & Geologic Time Name:

Notes on Life & Geologic Time Name: Notes on Life & Geologic Time Name: S.W.B.A.T Explain how time can be divided into units Relate changes of Earth s to divisions on the geologic time scale Describe how plate tectonics affects Geologic

More information

Bio 175 FALL 2004 EVOLUTION FINAL EXAMINATION Monday December 6, 2004

Bio 175 FALL 2004 EVOLUTION FINAL EXAMINATION Monday December 6, 2004 1 Bio 175 FALL 2004 EVOLUTION FINAL EXAMINATION Monday December 6, 2004 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Write your NAME ON EVERY PAGE and ANSWER ONLY IN THE SPACE PROVIDED. 2. Please read the question carefully

More information

Evolution. Darwin s Voyage

Evolution. Darwin s Voyage Evolution Darwin s Voyage Charles Darwin Explorer on an observation trip to the Galapagos Islands. He set sail on the HMS Beagle in 1858 from England on a 5 year trip. He was a naturalist (a person who

More information

Adaptation. Evolution. What is evolution? What are the tools used by scientists to understand evolutionary time?

Adaptation. Evolution. What is evolution? What are the tools used by scientists to understand evolutionary time? Adaptation Evolution: The golden Thread Adaptation - Process where species acquire* traits that allow them to survive in their environments. Limited range of physiological modifications. Inheritance of

More information

Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY!

Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY! Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY Chapter 1 KEY FIGURES: 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 VOCABULARY: Adaptation: a trait that increases the fitness Cells: a developed, system bound with a thin outer layer made of

More information

Evolution Problem Drill 10: Human Evolution

Evolution Problem Drill 10: Human Evolution Evolution Problem Drill 10: Human Evolution Question No. 1 of 10 Question 1. Which of the following statements is true regarding the human phylogenetic relationship with the African great apes? Question

More information

Lab 2A--Life on Earth

Lab 2A--Life on Earth Lab 2A--Life on Earth Geology 1402 Chapters 3 & 7 in the textbook 1 A comment Many people including professional scientist are skeptical of evolution or outright reject it. I am not attempting to change

More information

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life You Must Know The taxonomic categories and how they indicate relatedness. How systematics is used to develop phylogenetic trees. How to construct a phylogenetic

More information

Life at Its Many Levels

Life at Its Many Levels Slide 1 THE SCOPE OF BIOLOGY Biology is the scientific study of life Slide 2 Life at Its Many Levels Biologists explore life at levels ranging from the biosphere to the molecules that make up cells Slide

More information

Earth s history can be broken up into 4 time periods: Precambrian Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era

Earth s history can be broken up into 4 time periods: Precambrian Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era Earth s History Video Clip Earth s History Earth s history can be broken up into 4 time periods: Precambrian Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era Scientists have put together a timeline of Earth s history

More information

Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection

Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection Appendix C AP Biology Concepts at a Glance Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. Enduring understanding 1.A: Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time

More information

A. Incorrect! Form is a characteristic used in the morphological species concept.

A. Incorrect! Form is a characteristic used in the morphological species concept. CLEP Biology - Problem Drill 23: Evolutionary Processes No. 1 of 10 The biological-species concept is based on. (A) Form. (B) Similar size. (C) Similar appearance to all other individuals in the population.

More information