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1 Biology 1 of 40

2 2 of 40

3 Fossils and Ancient Life What is the fossil record? 3 of 40

4 Fossils and Ancient Life The fossil record provides evidence about the history of life on Earth. It also shows how different groups of organisms, including species, have changed over time. 4 of 40

5 Fossils and Ancient Life The fossil record provides incomplete information about the history of life. Over 99% of all species that have lived on Earth have become extinct, which means that the species has died out. Those species that still exist are referred to as being extant. 5 of 40

6 How Fossils Form How Fossils Form Most fossils form in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock forms when exposure to the elements breaks down existing rock into small particles of sand, silt, and clay. 6 of 40

7 How Fossils Form Fossil Formation Water carries small rock particles to lakes and seas. 7 of 40

8 How Fossils Form Dead organisms are buried by layers of sediment, which forms new rock. 8 of 40

9 How Fossils Form The preserved remains may be later discovered and studied. 9 of 40

10 Interpreting Fossil Evidence Interpreting Fossil Evidence Paleontologists determine the age of fossils using relative dating or radioactive dating. 10 of 40

11 Interpreting Fossil Evidence Relative Dating In relative dating, the age of a fossil is determined by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rock. Rock layers form in order by age the oldest on the bottom, with more recent layers on top. 11 of 40

12 Interpreting Fossil Evidence Relative Dating 12 of 40

13 Interpreting Fossil Evidence Index fossils are used to compare the relative ages of fossils. An index fossil is a species that is recognizable and that existed for a short period but had a wide geographic range. 13 of 40

14 17-1 The Fossil Record Interpreting Fossil Evidence Radioactive Dating Scientists use radioactive decay to assign an absolute age to rocks. Radioactive dating is the use of half-lives to determine the age of a sample. A half-life is the length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay. 14 of 40

15 Interpreting Fossil Evidence 15 of 40

16 Geologic Time Scale The basic divisions of the geologic time scale are eras and periods. 16 of 40

17 17 of 40

18 Extinction Rate Millions of years ago ,500 Extinction rate ) ( Extinction rate Permian mass extinction Number of taxonomic families Cretaceous mass extinction 2,000 1,500 1,000 Number of families ( ) Proterozoic eon Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Paleozoic Carboniferous Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleogene Cenozoic 0 Neogene 18 of 40

19 Geologic Time Scale Geologic time begins with Precambrian Time, which covers about 88% of Earth s history. Vendian of 40

20 Geologic Time Scale Eras Geologists divide the time between Precambrian time and the present into three eras: Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era 20 of 40

21 Geologic Time Scale Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian of 40

22 Geologic Time Scale Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic of 40

23 Geologic Time Scale 23 of 40

24 Geologic Time Scale Clock Model of Earth s History Radiation of mammals First humans First land plants First prokaryotes First multicellular organisms Cenozoic Era Mesozoic Era Paleozoic Era Precambrian Time First eukaryotes Accumulation of atmospheric oxygen 24 of 40

25 17-1 Continue to: - or - Click to Launch: 25 of 40

26 17-1 Which of the following statements about fossils is NOT true? a. Most fossils form in sedimentary rock. b. Fossils occur in a particular order. c. Only a small portion of fossils are from extinct organisms. d. Fossils can be used in relative dating of rock formations. 26 of 40

27 17-1 The fossil record consistently shows evidence that a. all forms of life have existed in all geologic eras. b. living organisms have only been on Earth for a short time. c. living things have changed over time. d. ancient life-forms are much the same as forms found living today. 27 of 40

28 17-1 Index fossils assist paleontologists in dating rocks because they represent species that a. were widely distributed and existed for a very long time. b. existed in a single location for a short period of time. c. were widely distributed and existed for a short time. d. existed in a single location for a very long time. 28 of 40

29 17-1 Determining the age of a fossil by comparing its placement with fossils in other layers of rock is called a. carbon-14 dating. b. fossil-indexing. c. relative dating. d. absolute dating. 29 of 40

30 17-1 According to the geologic time scale, geologic time begins with a. Precambrian Time. b. the Paleozoic Era. c. the Quaternary Period. d. the Cambrian Era. 30 of 40

31 END OF SECTION

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