3 What is an Animal? 1. Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic, eukaryotes that ingest and digest their food. 2. Animals lack a cell wall. 3. Are capable of moving (during some point in their lives). 4. All animals have regulatory genes called Hox genes.
4 To date > 1.5 million species of animals have been described by biologists ~ 10, 000 new species are described each year Estimates of the total number of animal species are around 10 million.
5 What is a Species? Species Concepts: 1. Typological species concept: species are distinct, unchanging entities defined by unique, morphological features. This concept has been abandoned by biologists.
6 Some Problems with the Typological Species Concept It ignores evolution: species are not unchanging entities 1. Artificial selection: artificial selection for oil content in corn High oil Low oil
7 Natural selection: Trinidadian guppies
8 Some Problems with the Typological Species Concept Sexual Dimorphism: the sexes differ morphologically male female Sailfin molly
9 Some Problems with the Typological Species Concept Alternative morphs: Hornless morph Horned morph e.g. horn polymorphisms in beetles
10 Some Problems with the Typological Species Concept Cline: a change in in morphology along an environmental gradient Size in yarrow
11 Some Problems with the Typological Species Concept Latitude Drosophila subobscura
12 Some Problems with the Typological Species Concept Cryptic species: some species are similar morphologically but differ in other important ways Western meadowlark Eastern meadowlark
13 What is a species? Species Concepts: 2. Biological species concept: a species is a population or group of populations that can potentially interbreed and produce viable,fertile offspring, but that is reproductively isolated from other populations.
14 There is tremendous morphological variation within Homo sapiens. But all humans can potentially interbreed. In contrast, some species are very similar morphologically but can not interbreed
15 Western meadowlark Eastern meadowlark
16 Mechanisms of reproductive isolation: 1. Prezygotic barriers: prevent mating or fertilization Behavioral
17 Western meadowlark Eastern meadowlark
18 Mechanisms of reproductive isolation: 1. Prezygotic barriers: prevent mating or fertilization Behavioral Temporal
20 Mechanisms of reproductive isolation: 1. Prezygotic barriers: prevent mating or fertilization Behavioral Temporal Habitat isolation
21 Aquatic garter snake Terrestrial garter snake
22 Mechanisms of reproductive isolation: 1. Prezygotic barriers: prevent mating or fertilization 2. Postzygotic barriers: prevent hybrid from developing into a viable, fertile adult
23 Some problems with the biological species concept: 1. It is hard to apply especially to fossil data. 2. Species exist in time and space: the biological species concept has no time component. 3. What do we do with asexual organisms?
24 Bdelloid Rotifers haven t reproduced sexually for > 80 million years- each individual is reproductively isolated! An estimated 2000 species are completely asexual.
25 Species Concepts: 1. Typological species concept 2. Biological species concept 3. Evolutionary species concept Incorporates time 4. Ecological species concept Incoporates niche 5. Phylogenetic species concept Incorporates unique, evolved traits These have all been proposed to solve some of the problems of the other concepts
26 To date > 1.5 million species of animals have been described by biologists ~ 10, 000 new species are described each year Estimates of the total number of animal species are around 10 million. How do biologists organize all of this diversity?
27 Classification and Phylogeny of Animals Taxonomy: the branch of biology that deals with the systematic classification and naming of species (or groups of species) (long pre-darwinian history).
28 Taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus ( ) Swedish botanist Systema Naturae: a classification scheme that used morphology to group organisms into hierarchical categories
29 Taxonomy Linnaean Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species In this scheme the major categories are called taxa Higher taxa are increasingly inclusive Each species is given a unique binomial name: Binomial nomenclature
30 Taxonomy Linnaean Classification: an example Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Piciformes Family: Picidae Genus: Melanerpes species: carolinus
31 Taxonomy Linnaean Classification: another example Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Piciformes Family: Picidae Genus: Melanerpes species: erythrocephalus
32 Taxonomy Linnaean Classification: another example Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Piciformes Family: Ramphastidae Keeled toucan Genus: Ramphastos species: sulfuratus
34 Classification and Phylogeny of Animals Taxonomy: the branch of biology that deals with the systematic classification and naming of species (or groups of species) (long pre-darwinian history). Systematics: the branch of biology that seeks to understand the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms (post-darwinian). -One of the major goals of systematics is the construction of phylogenies
35 Systematics Phylogeny: an evolutionary tree that depicts the relationships between living and extinct species (or higher taxonomic groups) A B C D Most recent common ancestor of A and B Most recent common ancestor of C and D Most recent common ancestor of A, B, C and D
36 Systematics What kind of information is used to construct phylogenies? Characters: organismal features that vary among species (morphological or molecular characteristics)
37 Morphological characters used to construct phylogenies- Levels of organization: 1. Cellular level: an aggregation of cells that are functionally differentiated, but that are not organized into tissues 2. Tissue level: cells are organized into tissues that have a specific function 3. Organ level: tissues are aggregated into organs that have specialized functions
38 sponges jellyfish, corals, etc. other animals cellular level tissue level organ level
39 Morphological characters used to construct phylogenies Type of symmetry: the arrangement of body structures relative to some axis of the body 1. Asymmetrical: 2. Radial symmetry: 3. Bilateral symmetry:
40 Asymmetrical No plane can divide the body into two symmetrical halves Bilateral Radial > 1 plane can divide the body into two symmetrical halves 1 plane divides the body into two symmetrical halves
41 sponges jellyfish, corals, etc. other animals bilateral symmetry asymmetrical radial symmetry
42 Characters used to construct phylogenies The presence of different body structures Developmental patterns Molecular data: DNA / RNA sequence data
43 What kind of information is used to establish these relationships? Characters: organismal features that vary among species (morphological or molecular characteristics) Homologous characters: characters that are similar to one another due to shared ancestry (not necessarily shared function)
44 Examples of homologous characters: Vertebrate forelimbs
45 Analogous characters: characters that are similar to one another in function, but not ancestry. Analogous characters are not useful in determining the evolutionary relationships between organisms.
46 Examples of analogous characters: bat wings and insect wings Bat wing Fly wing
47 Classification and Phylogeny of Animals Taxonomy: the branch of biology that deals with the systematic classification and naming of species (or groups of species) (long pre-darwinian history). Systematics: the branch of biology that seeks to understand the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms (post-darwinian).
Chapter 25/26 Taxonomy and Biodiversity Evolutionary biology The major goal of evolutionary biology is to reconstruct the history of life on earth Process: a- natural selection b- mechanisms that change
Classification Systems - Taxonomy Why Classify? 2.5 million kinds of organisms Not complete- 20 million organisms estimated Must divide into manageable groups To work with the diversity of life we need
Class: _ Date: _ Ch 17 Practice test 1. A segment of DNA that stores genetic information is called a(n) a. amino acid. b. gene. c. protein. d. intron. 2. In which of the following processes does change
Outline Classification of Living Things Chapter 20 Mader: Biology 8th Ed. Taxonomy Binomial System Species Identification Classification Categories Phylogenetic Trees Tracing Phylogeny Cladistic Systematics
CHAPTER 14 How Biological Diversity Evolves PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell,
What makes things alive? CRITERIA FOR LIFE Learning Goals I can determine if something is alive based on the criteria for life. I can describe the history of life on Earth. I can describe how organisms
Chapter Review 1. Use the phylogenetic tree shown at the right to complete the following. a. Explain how many clades are indicated: Three: (1) chimpanzee/human, (2) chimpanzee/ human/gorilla, and (3)chimpanzee/human/
Concept 15.4 Modern Taxonomy reflects evolutionary history. What is Taxonomy: identification, naming, and classification of species. Common Names: can cause confusion - May refer to several species (ex.
A mind is a fire to be kindled, not a vessel to be filled. - Mestrius Plutarchus, or Plutarch, a leading thinker in the Golden Age of the Roman Empire (lived ~45 125 A.D.) Lecture 2 Distinction between
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Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Objectives Explain the following characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification: a. binomial nomenclature b. hierarchical classification List the major
Name Living Environment Classification Notes Characteristics of Living Things All living things have a cellular organization, contain similar chemicals, use energy, grow and develop, respond to their surroundings,
Evolution and Taxonomy Laboratory 1 Introduction Evolution refers to the process by which forms of life have changed through time by what is described as descent with modification. Evolution explains the
Classification of Organisms Table of Contents Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Classification Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification
NAME pg. 1 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primate Hominidae Homo sapiens Mnemonic: DUMB KING PHILIP CAME OVER FOR GOOD SOUP Domain
Phylogeny Chapter 26 Taxonomy Taxonomy: ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences Carolus Linnaeus developed binomial nomenclature,
Classification Systems Classification is just a fancy word for organization. So this chapter is equivalent to Biology cleaning its room! A Vast Science Biology, the study of life, is no simple science.
NOTES CH 24: The Origin of Species Species Hummingbirds of Costa Rica SPECIES: a group of individuals that mate with one another and produce fertile offspring; typically members of a species appear similar
Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food. Heterotrophs must get energy by eating autotrophs or other heterotrophs.
Biology Classification Unit 11 11:1 Classification and Taxonomy CLASSIFICATION: process of dividing organisms into groups with similar characteristics TAXONOMY: the science of classifying living things
Name Class Date Section 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity (pages 447-450) Key Concepts How are living things organized for study? What is binomial nomenclature? What is Linnaeus s system of classification?
Classification.. Vocabulary Classification the process of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities Taxonomy the science of naming and classifying organisms trait a characteristic or behavior
Classification of Living Organisms Learning Outcome B1 Learning Outcome B1 Apply the Kingdom System of classification to study the diversity of organisms. Student Achievement Indicators Students who have
Objectives Classification Notes 8.1 Summarize classification Describe the evidence used to classify organisms. List the seven levels of classification. Describe and list the six kingdoms of living organisms
The Tree of Life Chapter 17 1 17.1 Taxonomy The science of naming and classifying organisms 2000 years ago Aristotle Grouped plants and animals Based on structural similarities Greeks and Romans included
Speciation and Classification Species- a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring Forming a new species Each population of a single species lives in a different place.
CH. 18 Classification Name:_ 1. Biologists use a classification system to group organisms in part because organisms a. are going extinct. b. are very numerous and diverse. c. are too much alike. d. share
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS 1. Taxonomy The branch of biology that deals with the classification of living organisms About 1.8 million species of plants and animals have been identified. Some scientists
Section 1: The History of Classification Section 2: Modern Classification Section 3: Domains and Kingdoms Click on a lesson name to select. Early Systems of Classification Biologists use a system of classification
Chapter 18: Classification Dichotomous Key A way to identify unknown organisms Contains major characteristics of groups of organisms Pairs of CONTRASTING descriptions 4. After each description key either
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SPECIATION Origin of new species=speciation -Process by which one species splits into two or more species, accounts for both the unity and diversity of life SPECIES BIOLOGICAL CONCEPT Population or groups
Topics Need for systematics Applications of systematics Linnaeus plus Darwin Approaches in systematics Principles of cladistics Systematics pp. 474-475. Systematics - Study of diversity and evolutionary
9.3 Classification Lesson Objectives Outline the Linnaean classification, and define binomial nomenclature. Describe phylogenetic classification, and explain how it differs from Linnaean classification.
Chapter 18 Key Idea: Biologists use taxonomic systems to organize their knowledge of organisms. These systems attempt to provide consistent ways to name and categorize organisms. The practice of naming
Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Biologists estimate that there are about 5 to 100 million species of organisms living on Earth today. Evidence from morphological, biochemical, and gene sequence
Wake Acceleration Academy - Biology Note Guide Unit 6: Evolution & The Diversity of Life Extra Resources Website: http://waa-science.weebly.com Module 1: Darwin and Natural Selection Vocabulary Term Charles
Classification of Living Things Unit II pp 98 Why There is a Need for Classifying There are over 2 million different types of organisms known. biologists can organize living things into groups. Taxonomy
Taxonomy Taxonomy Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms. It has two main purposes: to identify organisms to represent relationships among organisms Binomial Nomenclature Our present biological
Zoology Zoology involves studying all aspects of organisms belonging to the animal kingdom taxonomy, animal physiology, comparative anatomy, and ecology. Our study of Zoology will be focused on the different
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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 10 Classification and Phylogeny of Animals Order in Diversity History Systematic zoologists have three
Name: Period: Chapter 17 assignments Pages/Sections Date Assigned Date Due Topic: The Tree of Life Objective: How may we organize so many different organisms? The Tree of Life o organize organisms by structure
Carolus Linnaeus System for Classifying Organisms Unit 3 Lesson 2 Students will be able to: Conclude some of the classification benefits and importance. Define what is meant by species. Describe the binomial
CLASSIFICATION NOTES Classification Classification = arrangement of living things into groups according to their observed similarities. Important because it allows us to be able to study life easier Living
CLASS XI BIOLOGY NOTES CHAPTER 1: LIVING WORLD Biology is the science of life forms and non-living processes. The living world comprises an amazing diversity of living organisms. In order to facilitate
Name: AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 7th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Unit 9: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) Chapter 22 Descent
The Origin of Species Introduction A species can be defined as a group of organisms whose members can breed and produce fertile offspring, but who do not produce fertile offspring with members of other
CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny To trace phylogeny or the evolutionary history of life, biologists use evidence from paleontology, molecular data, comparative
Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies Taxonomy Classification originated with Carolus Linnaeus in the 18 th century. Based on structural (outward and inward) similarities Hierarchal scheme, the largest most
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Chapter 18 Systematics: Seeking Order Amidst Diversity Bird Diversity in Indonesia Chapter 18 At a Glance 18.1 How Are Organisms Named and Classified? 18.2 What Are the Domains of Life? 18.1 How Are Organisms
Classification of Organisms Main Idea *****Chapter 14***** Students should be able to: * Understand why a classification system is important * Understand that there are a variety of ways to classify organisms
Taxonomy Branch of Biology dealing with classification and naming of living things Species of Organisms There are an estimated 3 to 100 million species of organisms (most agree with 11 million) This is
Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math Rapid Learning Center Presents Teach Yourself AP Biology in 24 Hours 1/37 *AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which does not
Unit Two: Biodiversity Chapter 4 A. Classifying Living Things (Ch.4 - page 100) Scientific knowledge is constantly evolving ( changing ): new evidence is discovered laws and theories are tested and possibly
18.1 Finding order in diversity Binomial Nomenclature In the 1730s, Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus developed a two-word naming system called binomial nomenclature. In deciding how to place organisms
Classification Classification & Naming Classwork 1. What is the correct order of the current classification hierarchy, from most general to most specific? 2. Are two organisms in domain more or less closely
The Classification of Plants and Other Organisms Chapter 18 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1 Define taxonomy Explain why the assignment of a scientific name to each species is important for biologists KEY TERMS TAXONOMY
Biology 2201(A) Unit 02 Biodiversity Page 1 of 12 Biology 2201 Unit 02 Biodiversity Section 01 Test Taxonomy/Classification Instructions for Students: 1. This test is composed of two parts. Part 1 consists
Finding Order in Diversity Videos Scishow Taxonomy: https://youtu.be/f38bmgpcz_i Bozeman Taxonomy: https://youtu.be/tyl_8gv7rie Terms to Know 1. Radiometric Dating 12. Miller and Urey s 2. Geologic Time
Station 1 Explain how scientists use each item below to determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms. 1. Structural similarities: 2. Breeding behavior: 3. Geographical distribution: 4. Chromosome
Classifying Organisms What are living things, and how can they be classified? binomial nomenclature species genus dichotomous key cladogram Classifying Living Things Classification: organizing information
OBJECTIVE SHEET SYSTEMATICS AND CLASSIFICATION 1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. 2. Clarify the purpose behind systematics and phylogeny. 3. Identify the structures of a phylogenetic
Chapter 17 Organizing Life's Diversity Key Concepts: Chapter 17 1. List the 3 domains and the 6 kingdoms. 2. Our current system of classification was originally based on structures; scientists now base
Name: Period: Biology Test Review: Classification/Taxonomy MAKE SURE YOUR BOOKLET IS COMPLETELY FINISHED! If you are missing information, it can be found on your teacher s webpage. I. Definitions Try to
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1. Evolution and Classification 1.1 Origin of Life and Plants 1.2 Animal Evolution 1.3 Human Evolution 1.4 Mechanisms of Evolution 1.5 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 1.6 Mechanisms of Speciation 1.7 Classification
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS Chapter 18 How many species are there? About 1.8 million species have been given scientific names Nearly 2/3 of which are insects 99% of all known animal species are smaller
Speciation and Extinction First, the eyes... (Continuing from yesterday) First, the eyes... Broad Specific Taxonomic Group Humans are in... Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia
Assessment Chapter Test B Classification of Organisms In the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches the term or phrase. 1. Archaea 2. Bacteria a. kingdom; includes Euglena
Biological Evolution Darwinian Evolution and Natural Selection 1. Linnaean Classification Major Concepts 2. Fossils 3. Radioactive Dating 4. Fossil Record and Genetic Analysis 5. Theory of Evolution Random,
CLASSIFICATION Finding Order in Diversity WHAT IS TAXONOMY? Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name. WHY CLASSIFY? To study the diversity of life, biologists
Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Outline Overview: Investigating the Tree of Life Evolutionary biology is about both process and pattern. o The processes of evolution are natural selection
Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Investigating the Tree of Life Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species or group of
KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today. Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. White
Classification Classification Classify to group things together based on similarities Why Classify? To make organisms/items easier to identify To make organisms/items easier to compare Allows us to predict
Classification and Viruses Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Biologists use a classification system to group organisms in part
Essential idea: Species are named and classified using an internationally agreed system. Evolution and Biodiversity 5.3- Classification and Biodiversity Nature of science: Cooperation and collaboration
Unit 8 Classification Chapter 18: Classification www.pearsonrealize.com 18.1 Finding Order in Diversity (510) 18.2 Modern Evolutionary Classification (516) 18.3 Building the Tree of Life (523) Name: Teacher:
Chapter 18 Classification Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter on the line provided that best answers the question or completes the statement. 1. Scientists assign each kind of organism a universally
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SECTION 17-1 REVIEW BIODIVERSITY VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. 1. taxonomy, taxon 2. kingdom, species 3. phylum, division 4. species name, species
NAME: DATE: PER: CLASSIFICATION OF LIFE Powerpoint Notes 1. Species of Organisms a) There are known species of organisms b) This is only of all organisms that ever lived. c) are still being found and identified.
Name: PRE-LAB This lab is designed to introduce you to the basics of animal classification (systematics) and taxonomy of animals. This is a field that is constantly changing with the discovery of new animals,
Classification Table of Contents Objectives Explain why and how organisms are classified. List the eight levels of classification. Explain scientific names. Describe how dichotomous keys help in identifying