A. Correct! Taxonomy is the science of classification. B. Incorrect! Taxonomy is the science of classification.

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1 DAT - Problem Drill 07: Diversity of Life Question No. 1 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 1. What is taxonomy? Question #01 (A) Taxonomy is the science of classification. (B) Taxonomy is the science of diversification. (C) Taxonomists classify groups into individuals. (D) Taxonomists classify groups into domains and classphyls. (E) Scientific names consist of three to four components, known as binomial nomenclature. A. Correct! Taxonomy is the science of classification. Taxonomy is the science of classification. Taxonomists classify groups into taxa. Taxonomists classify groups into taxa. Scientific names consist of two components, known as binomial nomenclature. Taxonomy is the science of classification, so taxonomists classify organisms. Taxonomists then classify groups into taxa. And they develop rules for naming called, nomenclature. Finally they are involved in the identification of organisms and placement of them into groups. Scientific names consist of two components, known as binomial nomenclature. The correct answer is (A).

2 Question No. 2 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 2. Which of the following statements about a cladogram is true? Question #02 (A) A Cladogram is a diagram that shows the relationships between entities. The order of branching is significant. (B) A Cladogram is a diagram that shows the relationships between entities. The order of branching is not significant. (C) It is the first word of a scientific name which usually describes a specific characteristic of the organisms. (D) It is the second word of a scientific name which usually describes a specific characteristic of the organisms. (E) Cladograms do not take into account any relationships between entities. A. Correct! A Cladogram is a diagram that shows the relationships between entities. The order of branching is significant. A Cladogram is a diagram that shows the relationships between entities. The order of branching is significant. A Specific Epithet is the second word of a scientific name which usually describes a specific characteristic of the organisms. A Specific Epithet is the second word of a scientific name which usually describes a specific characteristic of the organisms. Cladograms do take into account any relationships between entities. A Cladogram is a diagram that shows the relationships between entities. Within a cladogram, the order of branching is significant. The correct answer is (A).

3 Question No. 3 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 3. Ribosomes. Question #03 (A) Since all living organisms have ribosomes it is possible to sequence the DNA coding for the ribosome from these different organisms. (B) Since most living organisms have ribosomes it is possible to sequence the DNA coding for the ribosome from these different organisms. (C) The ribosomes can be used as a molecular chronometer because the DNA coding for the ribosome changes at a varying rate. (D) The ribosomes can be used as a molecular chronometer because the RNA coding for the ribosome changes at an established rate. (E) One way to date the evolution of new genetic traits and organisms is to use a mammalian chronometer. A. Correct! Since all living organisms have ribosomes it is possible to sequence the DNA coding for the ribosome from these different organisms. Since all living organisms have ribosomes it is possible to sequence the DNA coding for the ribosome from these different organisms. The ribosomes can be used as a molecular chronometer because the DNA coding for the ribosome changes at an established rate. The ribosomes can be used as a molecular chronometer because the DNA coding for the ribosome changes at an established rate. One way to date the evolution of new genetic traits and organisms is to use a molecular chronometer. One way to date the evolution of new genetic traits and organisms is to use a molecular chronometer. Since all living organisms have ribosomes it is possible to sequence the DNA coding for the ribosome from these different organisms. The ribosomes can be used as a molecular chronometer because the DNA coding for the ribosome changes at an established rate. By comparing the DNA sequences it is possible to tell how far apart in time (evolution) the organism s are. By tracking these changes it is possible to determine the rate of evolution of organisms. The correct answer is (A).

4 Question No. 4 of Which of the following statements about sequencing ribosomal RNA is true? Question #04 (A) The first step is to isolate the RNA that codes for the ribosome. (B) The first step is to isolate the DNA that codes for the mitochondria. (C) Using PCR, lots of copies (amplify) of the ribosomes are made. (D) Using PCR, lots of copies (amplify) of the DNA are made. (E) After the phylogenetic tree is constructed, the DNA is sequenced and the sequences are compared. A. Incorrect! The first step is to isolate the DNA that codes for the ribosome. The first step is to isolate the DNA that codes for the ribosome. Using PCR, lots of copies (amplify) of the DNA are made. D. Correct! Using PCR, lots of copies (amplify) of the DNA are made. After the DNA is sequenced, the sequences are compared and a phylogenetic tree is constructed. The sequencing of ribosomal RNA involves the following steps: (1) Isolate the DNA that codes for the ribosome, (2) Using PCR to make lots of copies (amplify) the DNA, (3) Sequence the DNA, (4) Compare the sequences, and (5) construct a phylogenetic tree. The correct answer is (D).

5 Question No. 5 of Which of the following statements about co-evolution is true? Question #05 (A) Co-Evolution is the interdependent evolution of species that interact ecologically. (B) Co-Evolution is the independent evolution of species that do not interact ecologically. (C) Each party in a co-evolutionary relationship acts independently and exerts no selective pressures on the other. (D) Each party in a co-evolutionary relationship exerts no pressure on the other, and thereby has no affect on each others' evolution. (E) Evolution in a group interaction, such as that between two members of the same species is co-evolution. A. Correct! Co-Evolution is the interdependent evolution of species that interact ecologically. Co-Evolution is the interdependent evolution of species that interact ecologically. Each party in a co-evolutionary relationship exerts selective pressures on the other, thereby affecting each others' evolution. Each party in a co-evolutionary relationship exerts selective pressures on the other, thereby affecting each others' evolution. Evolution in a one-to-one interaction, such as that between a specialized hostsymbiont or host-parasite pair, is co-evolution. Co-Evolution is the interdependent evolution of species that interact ecologically. Each party in a co-evolutionary relationship exerts selective pressures on the other, thereby affecting each others' evolution. Evolution in a one-to-one interaction, such as that between a specialized host-symbiont or host-parasite pair, is co-evolution. The correct answer is (A).

6 Question No. 6 of Three Domain System? Question #06 (A) The modern three domain system separates Prokaryotes and protists. (B) Prokaryotes are divided into archaea and bacteria, and eukaryotes are divided into eukarya. (C) Prokaryotes are divided into protista and bacteria, and eukaryotes are divided into eukarya. (D) Bacteria are the most ancient life form. Archaea came next. And Eukarya, relative to the origin of life, are very new on Earth. (E) Archaea is the most ancient life form. Eukarya came next. And Bacteria, relative to the origin of life, are very new on Earth. A. Incorrect! The modern three domain system separates Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. B. Correct! Prokaryotes are divided into archaea and bacteria, and eukaryotes are divided into eukarya. Prokaryotes are divided into archaea and bacteria, and eukaryotes are divided into eukarya. Archaea is the most ancient life form. Bacteria came next. And Eukarya, relative to the origin of life, are very new on Earth. Archaea is the most ancient life form. Bacteria came next. And Eukarya, relative to the origin of life, are very new on Earth. The modern three domain system separates Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Prokaryotes are divided into archaea and bacteria, and eukaryotes are divided into eukarya. Prokaryotes have two domains because they have been around much longer and are more numerous than eukaryotes. Archaea is the most ancient life form. Bacteria came next. And Eukarya, relative to the origin of life, are very new on Earth. The correct answer is (B).

7 Question No. 7 of Which of the following statements about the kingdom protista is true? Question #07 (A) Protists do not have mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. (B) The kingdom Protista includes cellular organisms that can be classified in the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi. (C) The kingdom Protista includes cellular organisms that cannot be classified in the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi. (D) Most protists are multicellular but single cell forms exist. (E) All protists exist as single cell forms. A. Incorrect! Protists can have mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The kingdom Protista includes cellular organisms that cannot be classified in the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi. C. Correct! The kingdom Protista includes cellular organisms that cannot be classified in the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi. Most protists are single cell but multicellular forms exist. Most protists are single cell but multicellular forms exist. The kingdom Protista includes cellular organisms that cannot be classified in the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi. This is based in part on the unique development of protista members. Protists include minute flagellated cells, kelp, slime mold, water mold and plant-like protists algae and animal-like protozoa. Characteristics of Protists are, they have a nucleus and membranous organelles, have mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, Have golgi bodies and microtubules and some have chloroplasts. The correct answer is (C).

8 Question No. 8 of The Kingdom Fungi. Question #08 (A) Fungi are prokaryotes in the domain Eukarya. (B) Fungi are eukaryotes in the domain protista. (C) Yeasts, eubacteria and mushrooms are examples of fungi. (D) Yeasts, molds and mushrooms are examples of fungi. (E) Only Sexual reproduction takes place via spores. A. Incorrect! Fungi are eukaryotes in the domain Eukarya. Fungi are eukaryotes in the domain Eukarya. Yeasts, molds and mushrooms are examples of fungi. D. Correct! Yeasts, molds and mushrooms are examples of fungi. Sexual and asexual reproduction is via spores. Fungi are eukaryotes in the domain Eukarya. Fungi are multi-cellular heterotrophs. They consume dead/decaying organic matter by absorbing the rotting food directly into their cells. Fungi are heterotrophic and have chitin in their cell wall and typically have filamentous growth with multicellular hyphae forming mycelium. Sexual and asexual reproduction is via spores. Yeasts, molds and mushrooms are examples of fungi. The correct answer is (D).

9 Question No. 9 of Which of the following statements about the kingdom animalia is true? Question #09 (A) Animals are multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs. (B) Animals are multicellular prokaryotic heterotrophs. (C) Animals are composed of hyperdiploid cells with the exception of gametes which are haploid. (D) Animals are composed of diploid cells with the exception of gametes which are supradiploid. (E) Most animals develop from embryos, some develop from spores. A. Correct! Animals are multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs. Animals are multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs. Animals are composed of diploid cells with the exception of gametes which are haploid. Animals are composed of diploid cells with the exception of gametes which are haploid. Animals develop from embryos. Animalia are eukaryotes in the domain Eukarya. Animals are multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs. Most animals consume plants, or animals (including insects), or both. Characteristics of animals are, they are composed of diploid cells, with the exception of gametes, go through embryonic stages that include the blastula and gastrula and Animals have distinct types of cell junctions. Animals are Eukaryotic, Multicellular, Heterotrophs without cell wall and Life cycle of animals include a dominant diploid adult that produces eggs or sperms by meiosis. The correct answer is (A).

10 Question No. 10 of Viruses. Question #10 (A) Viruses are one of the smallest infectious agents; and they are classified as living biological organisms. (B) Viruses are one of the smallest infectious agents; however they are not classified as living biological organisms. (C) There are specialized viruses that are attacked and killed by bacteria, they are known as bacteriophytes. (D) The lytic cycle at the end of the virus cycle, the host cell is intact and viable and virus particles are released. (E) The lytic cycle at the end of the virus cycle, the host cell is damaged and the virus is also killed off. A. Incorrect! Viruses are one of the smallest infectious agents; however they are not classified as living biological organisms. B. Correct! Viruses are one of the smallest infectious agents; however they are not classified as living biological organisms. There are specialized viruses that specifically attack and invade bacteria, they are known as bacteriophages. The lytic cycle at the end of the virus cycle, the host cell is damaged and virus particles are released. The lytic cycle at the end of the virus cycle, the host cell is damaged and virus particles are released. Viruses are one of the smallest infectious agents; however they are not classified as living biological organisms. Viruses contain genes made from either RNA or DNA, protein coats and some contain an envelope surrounding them. Viruses must infect a host cell in order to replicate and impact the organism. Examples include: influenza viruses, HIV and rotaviruses. There are two forms of viral replication: (1) Lytic cycle at the end of the virus cycle, the host cell is damaged and virus particles are released. (2) Lysogenic cycle this does not cause the destruction of the host cell, and the viral genetic information can be passed on to host daughter cells. The correct answer is (B).