Biology Science Crosswalk

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1 SB1. Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. a. Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction. b. Explain how enzymes function as catalysts. c. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids). d. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion).. SB1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. a. Construct an explanation of how cell structures and organelles (including nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts, lysosome, Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, ribosomes, and mitochondria) interact as a system to maintain homeostasis. b. Develop and use models to explain the role of cellular reproduction (including binary fission, mitosis, and meiosis) in maintaining genetic continuity. c. Construct arguments supported by evidence to relate the structure of macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) to their interactions in carrying out cellular processes. (Clarification statement: The function of proteins as enzymes is limited to a conceptual understanding.) d. Plan and carry out investigations to determine the role of cellular transport (e.g., active, passive, and osmosis) in maintaining homeostasis. e. Ask questions to investigate and provide explanations about the roles of photosynthesis and respiration in the cycling of matter and flow of energy within the cell (e.g., single-celled alga). The original SB2 standard was split into two standards. This is the first standard. SB2. Students will analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. (Clarification statement: Instruction should focus on understanding the inputs, outputs, and functions of photosynthesis and respiration and the functions of the major sub-processes of each including glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, SB2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to analyze how genetic information is expressed in cells. a. Construct an explanation of how the structures of DNA and RNA lead to the expression of information within the cell via the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

2 a. Distinguish between DNA and RNA. b. Explain the role of DNA in storing and transmitting cellular information. c. Using Mendel s laws, explain the role of meiosis in reproductive variability. d. Describe the relationships between changes in DNA and potential appearance of new traits including Substitutions -rays and ultraviolet) e. Compare the advantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction in different situations. f. Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine, and agriculture. The original SB2 standard was split into two standards. This is the second standard. SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Construct an argument based on evidence to support the claim that inheritable genetic variations may result from: new genetic combinations through meiosis (crossing over, nondisjunction); non-lethal errors occurring during replication (insertions, deletions, substitutions); and/or heritable mutations caused by environmental factors (radiation, chemicals, and viruses). c. Ask questions to gather and communicate information about the use and ethical considerations of biotechnology in forensics, medicine, and agriculture. (Clarification statement: The element is intended to include advancements in technology relating to economics and society such advancements may include Genetically Modified Organisms.) SB3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. a. Use Mendel s laws (segregation and independent assortment) to ask questions and define problems that explain the role of meiosis in reproductive variability. b. Use mathematical models to predict and explain patterns of inheritance. (Clarification statement: Students should be able to use Punnett squares (monohybrid and dihybrid crosses) and/or rules of probability, to analyze the following inheritance patterns: dominance, codominance, incomplete dominance.) c. Construct an argument to support a claim about the relative advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction. SB4. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to illustrate the organization of interacting systems within singlecelled and multi-celled organisms.

3 a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals). c. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems. d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms. a. Construct an argument supported by scientific information to explain patterns in structures and function among clades of organisms, including the origin of eukaryotes by endosymbiosis. Clades should include: archaea bacteria eukaryotes SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems by pyramid. (Clarification statement: This is reflective of 21st century classification schemes and nested hierarchy of clades and is intended to develop a foundation for comparing major groups of organisms. The term 'protist' is useful in describing those eukaryotes that are not within the animal, fungal or plant clades but the term does not describe a well-defined clade or a natural taxonomic group.) b. Analyze and interpret data to develop models (i.e., cladograms and phylogenetic trees) based on patterns of common ancestry and the theory of evolution to determine relationships among major groups of organisms. c. Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence to compare and contrast the characteristics of viruses and organisms. SB5. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to assess the interdependence of all organisms on one another and their environment. a. Plan and carry out investigations and analyze data to support explanations about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in (Clarification statement: Factors include size, carrying capacity, response to limiting factors, and keystone species.) and P).

4 c. Relate environmental conditions to successional changes in d. Assess and explain human activities that influence and modify the environment such as global warming, population growth, pesticide use, and water and power consumption. e. Relate plant adaptations, including tropisms, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. f. Relate animal adaptations, including behaviors, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. SB5. Students will evaluate the role of natural selection in the development of the theory of evolution. a. Trace the history of the theory. b. Explain the history of life in terms of biodiversity, ancestry, and the rates of evolution. c. Explain how fossil and biochemical evidence support the theory. d. Relate natural selection to changes in organisms. e. Recognize the role of evolution to biological resistance (pesticide and antibiotic resistance). b. Develop and use models to analyze the cycling of matter and flow of energy within ecosystems through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Arranging components of a food web according to energy flow. Comparing the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid. Explaining the need for cycling of major biochemical elements (C, O, N, P, and H). c. Construct an argument to predict the impact of environmental change on the stability of an ecosystem. d. Design a solution to reduce the impact of a human activity on the environment. (Clarification statement: Human activities may include chemical use, natural resources consumption, introduction of nonnative species, greenhouse gas production.) e. Construct explanations that predict an organism s ability to survive within changing environmental limits (e.g., temperature, ph, drought, fire). SB6. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to assess the theory of evolution. a. Construct an explanation of how new understandings of Earth s history, the emergence of new species from pre-existing species, and our understanding of genetics have influenced our understanding of biology. b. Analyze and interpret data to explain patterns in biodiversity that result from speciation c. Construct an argument using valid and reliable sources to support the claim that evidence from comparative morphology (analogous vs. homologous structures), embryology, biochemistry (protein sequence) and genetics support the theory that all living organisms are related by way of common descent. d. Develop and use mathematical models to support explanations of how undirected genetic changes in natural selection and genetic drift have led to changes in populations of organisms

5 (Clarification statement: Element is intended to focus on basic statistical and graphic analysis. Hardy Weinberg would be an optional application to address this element.) e. Develop a model to explain the role natural selection plays in causing biological resistance (e.g., pesticides, antibiotic resistance, and influenza vaccines).

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