Taxonomy/Kingdoms 6. What are the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organism?

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1 Name Spring Final Exam Review Due DNA Technology Genetic Modifications (Engineering) Cloning 1. Refer to the diagram as needed. What color face will the cloned lamb have? Explain why in 2 or more sentences. White faced sheep because white sheep donated cell. Black face sheep only provide egg with nucleus(dna) removed. 2. What is plasmid? Small circular DNA How is plasmid technology useful? Used to clone and manipulate genes 3. The police use DNA fingerprints to solve a crime. Draw a sample gel electrophoresis showing a sample and three suspects, one of which committed the crime. 4. What is the role of restriction enzymes in gel electrophoresis (also known as DNA fingerprinting)? Cut sections of DNA that can be used to study relationships of species. 5. What role does the size of the DNA fragment have to do with the way it moves through the gel matrix? Bigger fragment move slower. Smaller fragment at the bottom on + side Taxonomy/Kingdoms 6. What are the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organism? Similar both have DNA, ribosomes Prokaryotic don t have nucleus or membrane organelles. Eukaryotic have nucleus and organelles 1

2 7. Why do we have standardized taxonomic systems, such as Linnaeus s binomial nomenclature? So there is no confusion when studying a species 8. What are the levels of organization, from smallest to largest? Species, Genius, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, Domain 9. Complete the table: Domain??? Kingdom Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Cell type pro pro Eu Eu Eu Eu (pro or eu) Unicellular or unicellular unicellular both both multicellular multicellular multicellular Autotroph or Both Both Both both autotroph Heterotroph Heterotroph Asexual or Asexual Asexual Both Both Both both Sexual reproduction Cell wall Yes Yes Yes yes yes no (yes or no) Examples e.coli Methangens Amoeba, paramecium Mushrooms, Yeasts Mosses, trees, flowers People, dogs, birds 10. What can you infer about two organisms found close together on a phylogentic tree or cladogram? common ancestor 11. If two organisms share the same class, what else do they share? Phylum 12. What can you infer about the DNA of two closely related species? More closely related is the change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms. 2

3 Evolution 13. Compare and contrast Darwin and Lamarck s ideas. Lamark Change directed to meet organism needs. Darwin- Variation exists regardless of organism's need 14. What criteria must be met for a population to be in equilibrium? Does this happen in nature? 15. Define the following: a. Genetic drift is the change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms. make their own food b. Gene flow is the transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another c. Migration seasonal movement of animals from one region to another Immigration d. Natural selection process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring 16. Do organisms evolve or populations? Explain why. population 17. Draw a graph showing directional, diversifying and stabilizing selection. Ecology 18. Define the following terms: a. Producer organism makes its own food b. Consumer eat other consumers and producers c. Heterotroph can make their own food (us, dogs) d. Autotroph (make their own food(plants) e. Niche animals habitat 19. Explain why in a biomass pyramid there is typically a higher number of organisms on the bottom than then top. Give an example of when that may not be true. More energy at the bottom b) polluted pond ecosystem 20. Where in the pyramid is the most energy found? On bottom 21. Would a predator get more energy from a secondary consumer or a primary consumer? primary 22. How much energy would get transferred to a quaternary consumer if the producers have a total energy of 145,000 kj?

4 23. Define the following terms: a. Mutualism relationship between 2 organisms where both benefit. b. Commensalism relationships between two organisms where one organism benefits from the other without affecting it. c. Parasitism organism feed off another (flea) d. Competition organism that fight over prey and space e. Predation organism feed on prey (fox and rabbit) 24. What is the main difference between primary and secondary successions? Primary= eat plants only secondary= eat plants and animals Botany 25. List in order of least complex to most complex the levels of organization starting from organelle to ecosystem. Molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere 26. What are the 2 types of tissues found in vascular plants and what do they transport? Xylem water Pholem water and food/nutrients 27. What is the purpose of a flower?? Identify all the parts of a flower and identify if it s a male or female part. Sketch the flower on your own paper and label it. A) Reproduction 6. Anther 7. Filament Pistol Female Stamen Male 1.Style 2. Stigma 3. Ovary 4. Ovules 28. What is the purpose of a cone? What type of plants are cones? 4

5 Reproductive structures. Pine trees/ fir trees Conifers" 29. Explain what each type of response is and give an example of a positive and a negative response a. Gravitropism (geotropism) grows downward /gravity b. Phototropism grows toward light c. Thigmotropism grows toward touch or feel 30. What effect does each of the following hormones have when found in high concentrations in a plant? a. Auxin Elongates cells for stem growth b. Cytokines Promotes cells division and growth c. Gibberellin Causes seed germination d. Abscisic acid Prevents water loss 31. List the characteristics that all members of the plant kingdom share. Autotrophs, eukaryotes and multicellular 32. Explain the purpose of the following structures and organelles. a. Stoma tiny opening in leaves b. Guard cell open and close to let water, O 2, H 2 O leave stoma c. Vacuole stores water d. Cell wall protective outer layer e. Cuticle waxy layer of leaf f. Chloroplast photosynthesis 33. What adaptions might a plant or animal that lives in a desert have? Spines instead of leaves to conserve water 34. What adaptions might a plant or animal that lives in a tropical rainforest have? Broad leaves to capture sunlight 35. What adaptions might a plant or animal that lives in the tundra have? Smaller plants close to ground Body Systems 36. Draw a table such as below and fill in the interactions with each system. Digestive Immune/Lymphatic Circulatory Respiratory Nervous Endocrine Skeletal/Muscular Excretory Digestive Immune/Lymphatic Circulatory 5

6 Respiratory Nervous Endocrine Skeletal/Muscular Excretory 37. How does the nervous system maintain homeostasis? ends messages that control all the systems in the body. 38. Give an example of how the endocrine system helps maintains homeostasis. Releases insulin to bring your sugar to normal levels 39. Give an example of a positive feedback loop. Childbirth, bloodclotting 40. Give an example of a negative feedback loop. Increase/drop in sugar level 6

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