Chapter 3 Phases of Matter Physical Science

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 3 Phases of Matter Physical Science"

Transcription

1 Chapter 3 Phases of Matter Physical Science CH 3- States of Matter 1

2 What makes up matter? What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas? What kind of energy do all particles of matter have? Kinetic theory Kinetic Theory 3 Parts 1. All matter is made of tiny particles. 2. These tiny particles are always in motion. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move. 3. At the same temperature, more massive (heavier) particles move slower Animation CH 3- States of Matter 2

3 Kinetic Molecular Theory: This motion is different for the 3 states of matter. Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Kinetic theory State the three parts of Kinetic Theory 6 CH 3- States of Matter 3

4 States of Matter States of Matter When a substance changes from one phase of matter to another, the identify of the substance does NOT change. Water freezes to a solid and melts to a liquid, but it is still just water. Microscopic view of matter CH 3- States of Matter 4

5 Activity! Describing Solid-Liquid-Gas Please fill out the following spreadsheet and then collect data. Find it or write (?) Solid Liquid Gas Volume L*W*H Shape Mass Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Activity! Describing Solid-Liquid-Gas Possible Answers! Solid Liquid Gas Volume Easy to find in ml or cm3 Easy to find. Use graduated cylinder ml Difficult to find in a classroom. Shape Many different forms. Easy to mold. Takes shape of the container. No Shape Mass Generally Heavy / Weigh in grams Easy to find. Generally Heavy / Weigh in grams. Lighter in mass / Harder to weigh in a classroom Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy CH 3- States of Matter 5

6 States of Matter SOLIDS Characteristics of Solids Solids have a definite shape and volume The particles are held closely together by strong attractions Packed close together Vibrate in place. Don t flow Fill in the blanks Solids have a rigid structure. They do not need a container to maintain shape. But they can still vibrate in place. CH 3- States of Matter 6

7 Characteristics of Solids Definite volume and a definite shape. Particles are packed close together in relatively fixed positions. Particles are held by strong attractive forces between them. Particles vibrate about in a fixed position. States of Matter LIQUIDS Characteristics of Liquids 1. Has a definite volume but no definite shape. Volume remains the same, but shape changes. 2. Take shape of container. 3. Particles are held close together but can flow freely. 4. The particles in a liquid move much faster than in a solid. This allows the particles of a liquid to temporarily overcome the attractive forces between them. CH 3- States of Matter 7

8 Liquids can fill the bottom of their container. Particles are close together, but not as close as particles in a. solid CH 3- States of Matter 8

9 Characteristics of Liquids Definite volume and not definite shape. Particles are close together Takes shape of container Particles flow freely and slide past each other GASES States of Matter Characteristics of Gases CH 3- States of Matter 9

10 gas A expands to fill any available space. Gases can exert pressure on their container. These particles are approximately 10 times farther apart than those of a liquid or solid. Characteristics of Gases Gases Attractive forces between gas particles are much weaker than those in liquids and solids. Gases Particles move very rapidly and are at great distance from one another. Gases No definite shape nor definite volume. CH 3- States of Matter 10

11 States of Matter PLASMA Characteristics of Plasma High-energy plasma collides with gas particles. Ionized gas that emits electrons. PLASMA States of Matter Plasmas are similar to gases but have some properties that are different. Example: plasmas conduct electric current, while gases do NOT! The glow of fluorescent light is caused by artificial plasma which is formed by passing electric currents through gases. CH 3- States of Matter 11

12 Energy s Role Energy is the ability to change or move matter, or to do work. The energy of motion is called kinetic energy Because atoms and molecules are always in motion, all particles of matter have kinetic energy. CH 3- States of Matter 12

13 Energy s Role Gas Which is a solid, which is a liquid, and which is a gas? Solid Liquid CH 3- States of Matter 13

14 Identify as a Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy CH 3- States of Matter 14

15 CH 3- States of Matter 15

16 CH 3- States of Matter 16

17 CH 3- States of Matter 17

18 CH 3- States of Matter 18

19 Chapter 3.2 Changes of State What happens when a substance changes from one state of matter to another? What happens to mass and energy during physical and chemical changes? Energy and Changes of State The identity of a substance does not change during a change in state The ability to change or move matter As you add energy to a liquid, the temperature goes up separating molecules Some changes of state require energy Melting, evaporation and sublimation CH 3- States of Matter 19

20 Energy and Changes of State The change of state from a liquid to a gas Boiling Point- The temperature at which a liquid boils. The temperature of boiling water is 100 o C on the celsius scale and 212 o F on the Fahrenheit scale. The temp in the room is about 22 C and 70 F. Are the following temperatures hot or cold? 65 F CH 3- States of Matter 20

21 Sublimation The process in which a solid changes directly into a gas Ex. Dry ice (Carbon dioxide in the solid form) changes directly from a solid to a gas Video Clip Melting Point The temperature at which a substances changes from solid to liquid. 32 degrees F 0 degrees C Melting point depends on the pressure. CH 3- States of Matter 21

22 Energy is released in some changes of state Freezing and condensation Name the physical phase change Melting Freezing Sublimation Evaporation Condensation Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy CH 3- States of Matter 22

23 Melting sublimation Boiling or Solid Liquid evaporation Gas Freezing Condensation CH 3- States of Matter 23

24 Why are the arrows on each side of the graph the same length? Look at the vertical lines. What is the energy doing if it is not increasing the temperature? 47 Energy of System CH 3- States of Matter 24

25 Please sketch the following into your notes Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Joke of the Day What is the name of the first electricity detective? Sherlock Ohms CH 3- States of Matter 25

26 Energy Deposition Sublimation Energy Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy CH 3- States of Matter 26

27 The temperature of a substance does not change during a change of state. For example, if you add energy to ice at 0 o C, the temperature will NOT rise until all of the ice has melted. When energy is added Move up a step. When energy is removed Go down a step. Boiling Water Vapor 100 Temperature ( o C) 0 Ice Water Heat added Melting Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy CH 3- States of Matter 27

28 Latent Heat: The energy absorbed or released when a substance changes its physical state. Temperature ( o C) Latent Heat Boiling Water Latent Heat Water Vapor Ice Melting Heat added Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Conservation of Mass and Energy Mass cannot be created or destroyed. Matter can change form, and turn into different forms, but the TOTAL mass stays the same. Gas has mass! CH 3- States of Matter 28

29 Conservation of Mass and Energy The Law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy can convert from one form to another, but the TOTAL energy, before and after the change, is the same. Conservation of Mass and Energy Law Conservation of Matter In any physical or chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed Matter can be changed from one form to another. Heat Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy CH 3- States of Matter 29

30 Law Conservation of Matter Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Chapter 3.3 Fluids How do fluids exert pressure? What force makes a rubber duck float in a bathtub? What happens when pressure in a fluid changes? What affects the speed of a fluid in motion? CH 3- States of Matter 30

31 Fluids A nonsolid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other. Liquids and gases are fluids, because their particles can move past each other. Pressure Pressure is the amount of force exerted on a given area of surface. Fluids exert pressure evenly in all directions. How does the pressure change if you remove some of the air? CH 3- States of Matter 31

32 Pressure Pressure = force area P = F A The SI unit of pressure is the pascal. One pascal (1 Pa) is the force of one newton exerted over an area of one square meter (1N/m 2 ). The newton is the SI unit of force. Blaise Pascal Buoyant Force Buoyancy is the force with which a more dense fluid pushes a less dense fluid substance upward. How does this relate to me? Buoyancy tells me whether or not an object will float. All fluids exert an upward buoyant force on matter. Archimededs principle is used to find buoyant force. CH 3- States of Matter 32

33 Archimedes Principle Buoyant Force The buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force that equals the weight of the fluid that the object displaces. Archimedes Principle Explains why a steel ship floats! 66 CH 3- States of Matter 33

34 Buoyant Force Density An object will float or sink based on its density. You can determine if a substance will float or sink by comparing densities. Pascal s Principle A change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid will be transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid. P=force/ area Hydraulic devices are based on Pascal s Principle. CH 3- States of Matter 34

35 Fluids In Motion Fluids move faster through small areas than through larger areas. Rates at which they flow also varies. Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to flow. Stronger attraction between particles, the more viscous How does this relate to me? Viscosity tells me how thick a liquid or gas is. Which has a greater viscosity? Water or honey 70 CH 3- States of Matter 35

36 CH 3- States of Matter 36

37 Chapter 3.4 Behavior of Gases What are some properties of gases? How can you predict the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume changes on gases? Think about this. The gas in the toy balloon expands outward, as shown below. After this expansion, does the pressure of the gas a. increase? b. decrease? c. remain unchanged? Volume goes up Pressure goes down The temperature of the water vapor in the pressure cooker increases. Does the pressure of the gas a. increase? b. decrease? c. remain unchanged? Temperature increases Pressure increases CH 3- States of Matter 37

38 Properties of Gases Have low densities and are compressible. Mostly empty space. Gases fill containers uniformly and completely. Gases diffuse and mix rapidly. Gases Laws The gas laws will help you understand and predict the behavior of gases in specific situations. Boyle s Law (relates pressure to volume) Gay-Lussac s Law (relates pressure to temperature) Charles s Law (relates temperature to volume) CH 3- States of Matter 38

39 Boyle s Law Boyle s law relates the pressure of a gas to its volume. For a constant temperature, as the pressure goes up the volume goes down. As the volume goes up the pressure goes down. Pressure Temperature is constant Volume Gases Laws Robert Boyle ( ). Son of Earl of Cork, Ireland. Boyle s Law A bicycle pump is an example. Gases Laws As the volume of the air trapped in the pump is reduced, its pressure goes up, and air is forced into the tire. CH 3- States of Matter 39

40 Boyle s Law Gases Laws (pressure 1 ) (volume 1 ) = (pressure 2 ) (volume 2 ) P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 The gas in a balloon has a volume of 7.5 L at kpa. In the atmosphere, the has expands to a volume of 11 L. Assuming a constant temperature, what is the final pressure in the balloon? V 1 = P 1 = V 2 = P 2 =? V 1 = 7.5 L P 1 = kpa V 2 = 11 L P 2 =? P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 P 2 = P 1 V 1 V 2 P 2 = (100.0 kpa)(7.5 L) 11 L P 2 = 68 kpa Gases Laws Gay-Lussac s Law Relates gas pressure to temperature. The pressure of a gas increases as the temperature increases. If the volume of the gas does not change. The pressure decreases as the temperature decreases. Volume is constant Pressure Temperature P lower in winter than summer CH 3- States of Matter 40

41 Charle s Law Gases Laws Charles s law relates temperature to volume. For a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the gas s temperature increases. Likewise, the volume of the gas decreases as the gas s temperature decreases. Pressure is constant Volume Temperature Charles s Law CH 3- States of Matter 41

Section 1 Matter and Energy

Section 1 Matter and Energy CHAPTER OUTLINE Section 1 Matter and Energy Key Idea questions > What makes up matter? > What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas? > What kind of energy do all particles of matter have?

More information

States of Matter Unit

States of Matter Unit Learning Target Notes Section 1: Matter and Energy What makes up matter? Matter is made of atoms and molecules that are in constant motion. Kinetic Theory of Matter A. Particles that make up matter are

More information

Unit 4: The Nature of Matter

Unit 4: The Nature of Matter 16 16 Table of Contents Unit 4: The Nature of Matter Chapter 16: Solids, Liquids, and Gases 16.1: Kinetic Theory 16.2: Properties and Fluids 16.3: Behavior of Gases 16.1 Kinetic Theory Kinetic Theory kinetic

More information

Matter and Thermal Energy

Matter and Thermal Energy Section States of Matter Can you identify the states of matter present in the photo shown? Kinetic Theory The kinetic theory is an explanation of how particles in matter behave. Kinetic Theory The three

More information

CHAPTER 4 - STATES OF MATTER. Mr. Polard Physical Science Ingomar Middle School

CHAPTER 4 - STATES OF MATTER. Mr. Polard Physical Science Ingomar Middle School CHAPTER 4 - STATES OF MATTER Mr. Polard Physical Science Ingomar Middle School SECTION 1 MATTER VOCABULARY SECTION 1 Matter : anything that takes up space and has mass (pg 72, 102) Solid : Matter with

More information

Kinetic Theory. States of Matter. Thermal Energy. Four States of Matter. Kinetic Energy. Solid. Liquid. Definition: How particles in matter behave

Kinetic Theory. States of Matter. Thermal Energy. Four States of Matter. Kinetic Energy. Solid. Liquid. Definition: How particles in matter behave Kinetic Theory Definition: How particles in matter behave States of Matter All Matter is composed of small particles. Particles are in constant random motion. Particles collide with each other and walls

More information

Chapter: States of Matter

Chapter: States of Matter Table of Contents Chapter: States of Matter Section 1: Matter Section 2: Changes of State Section 3: Behavior of Fluids 1 What is matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter Matter

More information

Chapter 2. States of Matter

Chapter 2. States of Matter Chapter 2 States of Matter 2-1 Matter Matter Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass. Is air matter? Yes. It takes up space and has mass. It has atoms. All matter is made up of atoms. ( Dalton

More information

Matter & Energy. Objectives: properties and structures of the different states of matter.

Matter & Energy. Objectives: properties and structures of the different states of matter. Matter & Energy Objectives: 1. Use the kinetic theory to describe the properties and structures of the different states of matter. 2. Describe energy transfers involved in changes of state. 3. Describe

More information

Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws

Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws Unit 3 - Stevens 1 Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws Vocabulary: Solid Term Definition Example Liquid Gas No definite shape, but definite volume; Particles close together, but can move around

More information

Solids (cont.) Describe the movement of particles in a solid and the forces between them.

Solids (cont.) Describe the movement of particles in a solid and the forces between them. Solids A solid is matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume. The attractive forces between the particles in a solid are strong and pull them close together. Solids (cont.) Describe the movement

More information

Chapter 3. States of Matter

Chapter 3. States of Matter Chapter 3 States of Matter 1. Solid 2. Liquid 3. Gas States of Matter Two More (discuss later) Plasma Bose-Einstein condensate States of Matter Solid (definite shape and volume) Particles are tightly packed

More information

Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Chapter 14

Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Chapter 14 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter 14 Matter & Thermal Energy Matter can exist as a solid, a liquid, a gas or a plasma. The Molecular Kinetic Theory of Matter explains their differences and how they can

More information

Ch10.4 Attractive Forces

Ch10.4 Attractive Forces Ch10.4 Attractive Forces Intermolecular Forces are the forces holding molecules to each other. Solids have strong forces Gases (vapor) have weak forces Intermolecular forces determine the phase of matter.

More information

Ch Kinetic Theory. 1.All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles.

Ch Kinetic Theory. 1.All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles. Ch. 15.1 Kinetic Theory 1.All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles. Kinetic Theory 2.These tiny particles are always in motion. The higher the temperature, the faster the

More information

THE PARTICLE MODEL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. STATES CHANGES

THE PARTICLE MODEL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. STATES CHANGES THE PARTICLE MODEL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. STATES CHANGES The particle model of a gas A gas has no fixed shape or volume, but always spreads out to fill any container. There are

More information

Name Date Class THE NATURE OF GASES

Name Date Class THE NATURE OF GASES 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES Section Review Objectives Describe the assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases Interpret gas pressure in terms of kinetic theory Define the relationship between

More information

Outline Chapter 5 Matter and Energy Temperature. Measuring Temperature Temperature Temperature. Measuring Temperature

Outline Chapter 5 Matter and Energy Temperature. Measuring Temperature Temperature Temperature. Measuring Temperature Outline Chapter 5 Matter and Energy 5-1. Temperature 5-2. Heat 5-3. Metabolic Energy 5-4. Density 5-5. Pressure 5-6. Buoyancy 5-7. Gas Laws 5-8. Kinetic Theory of Gases 5-9. Molecular Motion and Temperature

More information

States of Matter. What physical changes and energy changes occur as matter goes from one state to another?

States of Matter. What physical changes and energy changes occur as matter goes from one state to another? Name States of Matter Date What physical changes and energy changes occur as matter goes from one state to another? Before You Read Before you read the chapter, think about what you know about states of

More information

Matter. Energy- which is a property of matter!! Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass

Matter. Energy- which is a property of matter!! Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass Matter Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass Can you think of anything that is not made of matter? Energy- which is a property of matter!! Matter is made up of moving particles! Instead of

More information

Chemistry Joke. Once you ve seen 6.02 x You ve seen a mole!

Chemistry Joke. Once you ve seen 6.02 x You ve seen a mole! States of Matter Chemistry Joke Once you ve seen 6.02 x 10 23 atoms You ve seen a mole! Kinetic Theory Kinetic Theory explains the states of matter based on the concept that the particles in all forms

More information

Chapter 8. Chapter 8. Preview. Bellringer. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter. Objectives. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter, continued

Chapter 8. Chapter 8. Preview. Bellringer. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter. Objectives. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter, continued States of Matter Preview Bellringer Section 2 Behavior of Gases In the kitchen, you might find three different forms of water. What are these three forms of water, and where exactly in the kitchen would

More information

Chapter 3. Preview. Section 1 Three States of Matter. Section 2 Behavior of Gases. Section 3 Changes of State. States of Matter.

Chapter 3. Preview. Section 1 Three States of Matter. Section 2 Behavior of Gases. Section 3 Changes of State. States of Matter. States of Matter Preview Section 1 Three States of Matter Section 2 Behavior of Gases Section 3 Changes of State Concept Mapping Section 1 Three States of Matter Bellringer In the kitchen, you might find

More information

Unit 8 Kinetic Theory of Gases. Chapter 13-14

Unit 8 Kinetic Theory of Gases. Chapter 13-14 Unit 8 Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 13-14 This tutorial is designed to help students understand scientific measurements. Objectives for this unit appear on the next slide. Each objective is linked to

More information

States of Matter: Study Guide

States of Matter: Study Guide Name: nswer KEY States of Matter: Study Guide Period: Date: 1. Describe the volume, shape and molecular arrangement in the following states of matter: Solid Volume Shape Molecular rrangement Definite Definite

More information

Physical Science Exam 3 Study Guide. Dr. Karoline Rostamiani. Chapter 3

Physical Science Exam 3 Study Guide. Dr. Karoline Rostamiani. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Section 1 States of Matter What is matter made of? What are the three most common states of matter? How do particles behave in each state of matter? Solids, Liquids, and Gases Materials can be

More information

1 Three States of Matter

1 Three States of Matter CHAPTER 3 1 Three States of Matter SECTION States of Matter BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is matter made of? What are the three most common

More information

States of Matter. Essential Question: How does the movement of atoms and molecules relate to matter s different phases?

States of Matter. Essential Question: How does the movement of atoms and molecules relate to matter s different phases? States of Matter Essential Question: How does the movement of atoms and molecules relate to matter s different phases? These notes come from pages 60 to 73 in your Physical Science Textbook All Matter

More information

MATTER AND HEAT. Chapter 4 OUTLINE GOALS

MATTER AND HEAT. Chapter 4 OUTLINE GOALS Chapter 4 MATTER AND HEAT OUTLINE Temperature and Heat 4.1 Temperature 4.2 Heat 4.3 Metabolic Energy Fluids 4.4 Density 4.5 Pressure 4.6 Buoyancy 4.7 The Gas Laws Kinetic Theory of Matter 4.8 Kinetic Theory

More information

There are three phases of matter: Solid, liquid and gas

There are three phases of matter: Solid, liquid and gas FLUIDS: Gases and Liquids Chapter 4 of text There are three phases of matter: Solid, liquid and gas Solids: Have form, constituents ( atoms and molecules) are in fixed positions (though they can vibrate

More information

Vocabulary. Pressure Absolute zero Charles Law Boyle s Law (take a moment to look up and record definitions in your notes)

Vocabulary. Pressure Absolute zero Charles Law Boyle s Law (take a moment to look up and record definitions in your notes) The Gas Laws Vocabulary Pressure Absolute zero Charles Law Boyle s Law (take a moment to look up and record definitions in your notes) Key Concepts What causes gas pressure in a closed container? What

More information

Kinetic Theory of Matter notes 2012

Kinetic Theory of Matter notes 2012 Kinetic Theory of Matter notes 2012 Kinetic Theory of Matter 3 parts: 1) All matter is made up of and that act as tiny 2) These tiny particles are always in. State of matter depends on its molecular motion

More information

Matter & Energy. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature.

Matter & Energy. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Matter & Energy 1) All matter is made up of atoms and molecules that act as tiny particles. 1 2 2) These tiny particles are always in motion. State of matter depends on its molecular motion as measured

More information

SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES

SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES CHAPTER 2 SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES SECTION 2 1 States of Matter (pages 56-60) This section explains how shape, volume, and the motion of particles are useful in describing solids, liquids, and gases.

More information

Matter and Its Properties. Unit 2

Matter and Its Properties. Unit 2 Matter and Its Properties Unit 2 Lesson 1: Physical & Chemical Properties & Changes Unit 2: Matter and Its Properties Section 1: Physical Properties & Change Lesson 1: Physical & Chemical Properties &

More information

Study Guide for Chapters 2, 3, and 10

Study Guide for Chapters 2, 3, and 10 Study Guide for Chapters 2, 3, and 10 1. What is matter? Where can it be found? Anything that has mass and takes up space. 2. What units are used to measure volume? Liters and meters cubed 3. How would

More information

Objectives. Inertia. Is air matter? Is Light matter? Chapter 2. Chapter 2. Table of Contents. Chapter 2. Chapter 2. Section 1 What Is Matter?

Objectives. Inertia. Is air matter? Is Light matter? Chapter 2. Chapter 2. Table of Contents. Chapter 2. Chapter 2. Section 1 What Is Matter? The Properties of Matter Section 1 What Is Matter? Table of Contents Section 1 What Is Matter? Section 2 Physical Properties Section 3 Chemical Properties Objectives Describe the two properties of all

More information

Chapter 7.1. States of Matter

Chapter 7.1. States of Matter Chapter 7.1 States of Matter In this chapter... we will learn about matter and different states of matter, many of which we are already familiar with! Learning about Kinetic Molecular Theory will help

More information

Gases and States of Matter: Unit 8

Gases and States of Matter: Unit 8 Gases and States of Matter: Unit 8 States of Matter There are three states (also called phases) of matter. The picture represents the same chemical substance, just in different states. There are three

More information

* Defining Temperature * Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. * Temperature * Internal energy

* Defining Temperature * Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. * Temperature * Internal energy * Defining Temperature * We associate temperature with how hot or cold an object feels. * Our sense of touch serves as a qualitative indicator of temperature. * Energy must be either added or removed from

More information

Thermal Physics. Temperature (Definition #1): a measure of the average random kinetic energy of all the particles of a system Units: o C, K

Thermal Physics. Temperature (Definition #1): a measure of the average random kinetic energy of all the particles of a system Units: o C, K Thermal Physics Internal Energy: total potential energy and random kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance Symbol: U Units: J Internal Kinetic Energy: arises from random translational, vibrational,

More information

Ch. 1 States of Matter

Ch. 1 States of Matter Ch. 1 States of Matter Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The surface of water can act like a sort of skin due to a property of liquids called

More information

Conceptual Chemistry

Conceptual Chemistry Conceptual Chemistry Objective 1 Describe, at the molecular level, the difference between a gas, liquid, and solid phase. Solids Definite shape Definite volume Particles are vibrating and packed close

More information

CIE Physics IGCSE. Topic 2: Thermal Physics

CIE Physics IGCSE. Topic 2: Thermal Physics CIE Physics IGCSE Topic 2: Thermal Physics Summary Notes Simple kinetic molecular model of matter Molecular model Solids Molecules close together in regular pattern Strong intermolecular forces of attraction

More information

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change. Chapter 12: States of Matter

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change. Chapter 12: States of Matter CHEMISTRY Matter and Change Chapter 12: States of Matter CHAPTER 12 States of Matter Section 12.1 Section 12.2 Section 12.3 Section 12.4 Gases Forces of Attraction Liquids and Solids Phase Changes Click

More information

Unit 13 Lesson 1 What Are Solids, Liquids, and Gases? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 13 Lesson 1 What Are Solids, Liquids, and Gases? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 13 Lesson 1 What Are Solids, Liquids, and Gases? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company What s the Matter? Matter has mass and volume. It cannot be created or destroyed. Mass is the

More information

Section 16.3 Phase Changes

Section 16.3 Phase Changes Section 16.3 Phase Changes Solid Liquid Gas 3 Phases of Matter Density of Matter How packed matter is (The amount of matter in a given space) Solid: Liquid: Gas: High Density Medium Density Low Density

More information

Lesson 6 Matter. Introduction: Connecting Your Learning

Lesson 6 Matter. Introduction: Connecting Your Learning Lesson 6 Matter Introduction: Connecting Your Learning The previous lessons discussed mechanics and many forms of motion. Lesson 6 introduces the second major topic in physics, which is matter. This lesson

More information

Thermodynamics and States of Matter

Thermodynamics and States of Matter Thermodynamics and States of Matter There are three states (also called phases) ) of matter. The picture to the side represents the same chemical substance, just in different states. There are three states

More information

OUTLINE. States of Matter, Forces of Attraction Phase Changes Gases The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry

OUTLINE. States of Matter, Forces of Attraction Phase Changes Gases The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry UNIT 6 GASES OUTLINE States of Matter, Forces of Attraction Phase Changes Gases The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry STATES OF MATTER Remember that all matter exists in three physical states: Solid Liquid

More information

Measurement Matter and Density. Name: Period:

Measurement Matter and Density. Name: Period: Measurement Matter and Density Name: Period: Studying Physics and Chemistry Physics Tells us how fast objects move or how much it takes to get objects to, turn or stop. Chemistry Explains how different

More information

Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Solids, Liquids, and Gases Date Class _ Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left. _ 1. The surface of water can act like a sort of skin due to a property

More information

CHAPTER 1 Matter in our Surroundings CONCEPT DETAILS

CHAPTER 1 Matter in our Surroundings CONCEPT DETAILS CHAPTER 1 Matter in our Surroundings CONCEPT DETAILS KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept] 1. Particle nature of Matter *** 2. States of Matter **** 3. Interchange in states of Matter

More information

States of Matter. The Solid State. Particles are tightly packed, very close together (strong cohesive forces) Low kinetic energy (energy of motion)

States of Matter. The Solid State. Particles are tightly packed, very close together (strong cohesive forces) Low kinetic energy (energy of motion) States of Matter The Solid State Particles are tightly packed, very close together (strong cohesive forces) Low kinetic energy (energy of motion) Fixed shape and volume Crystalline or amorphous structure

More information

Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat Thermodynamics Starting a different area of physics called thermodynamics Thermodynamics focuses on energy rather than

More information

Chapter: Heat and States

Chapter: Heat and States Table of Contents Chapter: Heat and States of Matter Section 1: Temperature and Thermal Energy Section 2: States of Matter Section 3: Transferring Thermal Energy Section 4: Using Thermal Energy 1 Temperature

More information

CHM Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) Charles Taylor 1/9

CHM Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) Charles Taylor 1/9 CHM 111 - Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) - 2015 Charles Taylor 1/9 Introduction In CHM 110, we used kinetic theory to explain the behavior of gases. Now, we will discuss solids and liquids. While

More information

STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Ma/er. Four States. Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Ma/er. Four States. Solid Liquid Gas Plasma STATES OF MATTER The Four States of Ma/er Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Four States STATES OF MATTER Ø What makes a substance a par:cular state of ma

More information

Science 8 Chapter 7 Section 1

Science 8 Chapter 7 Section 1 Science 8 Chapter 7 Section 1 Describing Fluids (pp. 268-277) What is a fluid? Fluid: any thing that flows; a liquid or a gas While it would seem that some solids flow (sugar, salt, etc), they are not

More information

If we change the quantity causing the deformation from force to force per unit area, we get a relation that does not depend on area.

If we change the quantity causing the deformation from force to force per unit area, we get a relation that does not depend on area. 2/24 Chapter 12 Solids Recall the rigid body model that we used when discussing rotation. A rigid body is composed of a particles constrained to maintain the same distances from and orientations relative

More information

WARM-UP. 1. What are the four states of matter? 2. What is melting point? 3. How does water change from a liquid to a gas? 4. Define viscosity.

WARM-UP. 1. What are the four states of matter? 2. What is melting point? 3. How does water change from a liquid to a gas? 4. Define viscosity. WARM-UP 1. What are the four states of matter? 2. What is melting point? 3. How does water change from a liquid to a gas? 4. Define viscosity. STATES OF MATTER: WEB QUEST With your lab partner, you will

More information

relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure.

relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure. 1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the least common state of matter is the liquid state. a) Liquids can exist only within a relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure. 2) The kinetic-molecular

More information

Name. Objective 1: Describe, at the molecular level, the difference between a gas, liquid, and solid phase.

Name. Objective 1: Describe, at the molecular level, the difference between a gas, liquid, and solid phase. Unit 6 Notepack States of Matter Name Unit 4 Objectives 1. Describe, at the molecular level, the difference between a gas, liquid, and solid phase. (CH 10) 2. Describe states of matter using the kinetic

More information

Matter. Anything that has mass and occupies space. Chemistry. is the study of matter and how it changes.

Matter. Anything that has mass and occupies space. Chemistry. is the study of matter and how it changes. Matter Chapter 2.1 Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space. Chemistry is the study of matter and how it changes. PLEASE KEEP YOUR HANDS IN THE BOAT AND PLEASE DON T FEED THE ANIMALS. Pure

More information

Chemistry Day 5. Friday, August 31 st Tuesday, September 4 th, 2018

Chemistry Day 5. Friday, August 31 st Tuesday, September 4 th, 2018 Chemistry Day 5 Friday, August 31 st Tuesday, September 4 th, 2018 Do-Now Title: BrainPOP: States of Matter 1. Write down today s FLT 2. List two examples of gases 3. List two examples of things that are

More information

Unit 4: Gas Laws. Matter and Phase Changes

Unit 4: Gas Laws. Matter and Phase Changes Unit 4: Gas Laws Matter and Phase Changes ENERGY and matter What is 에너지 A fundamental property of the universe that cannot be easily defined. Energy No one knows what energy is, only what it does or has

More information

Hood River Valley High

Hood River Valley High Chemistry Hood River Valley High Name: Period: Unit 7 States of Matter and the Behavior of Gases Unit Goals- As you work through this unit, you should be able to: 1. Describe, at the molecular level, the

More information

Distillation & Pressure. States of Matter. Kinetic Theory. Phase Change H2O & D=M/V

Distillation & Pressure. States of Matter. Kinetic Theory. Phase Change H2O & D=M/V Kinetic Theory States of Matter Phase Change Distillation & Pressure H2O & D=M/V 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 500 Question 1-100 When

More information

The Can Demonstration

The Can Demonstration The Can Demonstration With your table, make a prediction as to what will happen to the can. Discuss why you think that the can imploded. What are some reasons? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xg5niowf_zw&t=28s

More information

Unit 2. Phases of Matter and Density

Unit 2. Phases of Matter and Density Name Pd Unit 2 Phases of Matter and Density Name Pd Name Pd Homework for Unit 2 1. Vocab for Unit 2; due: 2. Pg 17 (1-5), pg 19 (1-5), pg21 (1-5) complete sentences; due: 3. Pg 23 (1-6), pg 27 (1-6) complete

More information

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages )

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages ) Name Date Class 13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains

More information

Physical Science. Thermal Energy & Heat

Physical Science. Thermal Energy & Heat Physical Science Thermal Energy & Heat Sometimes called internal energy Depends on the object's mass, temperature, and phase (solid, liquid, gas) TOTAL potential and kinetic energy of all the particles

More information

What is a change of state? What happens during a change of state? What can happen when a substance loses or gains energy?

What is a change of state? What happens during a change of state? What can happen when a substance loses or gains energy? CHAPTER 3 3 Changes of State SECTION States of Matter BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a change of state? What happens during a change

More information

Unit 08 Review: The KMT and Gas Laws

Unit 08 Review: The KMT and Gas Laws Unit 08 Review: The KMT and Gas Laws It may be helpful to view the animation showing heating curve and changes of state: http://cwx.prenhall.com/petrucci/medialib/media_portfolio/text_images/031_changesstate.mov

More information

Chapter 10. Lesson Starter. Why did you not smell the odor of the vapor immediately? Explain this event in terms of the motion of molecules.

Chapter 10. Lesson Starter. Why did you not smell the odor of the vapor immediately? Explain this event in terms of the motion of molecules. Preview Lesson Starter Objectives The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases The Kinetic-Molecular Theory and the Nature of Gases Deviations of Real Gases from Ideal Behavior Section 1 The Kinetic-Molecular

More information

4 Discuss and evaluate the 5th state of matter. 3 - Differentiate among the four states of matter in terms of energy,

4 Discuss and evaluate the 5th state of matter. 3 - Differentiate among the four states of matter in terms of energy, Goal: Differentiate among the four states of matter in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions. 4 States of Mater Sections 3.1, 3.2 4 Discuss and evaluate the 5 th state of matter. 3 -

More information

Chapter 14 9/21/15. Solids, Liquids & Gasses. Essential Questions! Kinetic Theory! Gas State! Gas State!

Chapter 14 9/21/15. Solids, Liquids & Gasses. Essential Questions! Kinetic Theory! Gas State! Gas State! Chapter 14 Solids, Liquids & Gasses Essential Questions What is the kinetic theory of matter? How do particles move in the different states of matter? How do particles behave at the boiling and melting

More information

Kinetic Theory of Matter. Matter & Energy

Kinetic Theory of Matter. Matter & Energy Kinetic Theory of Matter Matter & Energy 1 Kinetic Theory of Matter All matter is made up of atoms and molecules that act as tiny particles. 2 Kinetic Theory of Matter These tiny particles are always in

More information

Solid Liquid Gas 1. Solids have a fixed volume and a definite shape.

Solid Liquid Gas 1. Solids have a fixed volume and a definite shape. 1 MATTER:- Anything or everything which occupies space and has mass is called matter. This word is used to cover all the substances and the material from which the universe is made. For example, the air

More information

Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy

Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy By now you know that substances are made of atoms and molecules. These atoms and molecules are always in motion and have attractions to each other. When

More information

Chapter 10 Notes: Gases

Chapter 10 Notes: Gases Chapter 10 Notes: Gases Watch Bozeman Videos & other videos on my website for additional help: Big Idea 2: Gases 10.1 Characteristics of Gases Read p. 398-401. Answer the Study Guide questions 1. Earth

More information

STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015. Solid. Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma

STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015. Solid. Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma Unit 10: States of Matter Lesson 10.1: States and Their Changes (Review) STATES OF MATTER The Four States of Matter Solid } Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma STATES OF MATTER Based upon particle

More information

STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015

STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015 The Four States of Matter Unit 10: States of Matter Lesson 10.1: States and Their Changes (Review) Solid } Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma Based upon particle arrangement Based upon energy of

More information

Introduction to Chemistry

Introduction to Chemistry Introduction to Chemistry CHEMISTRY = the study of the composition of matter, its chemical and physical changes, and the changes that accompany these changes. Scientific law vs. theory: Scientific law-

More information

Unit Outline. I. Introduction II. Gas Pressure III. Gas Laws IV. Gas Law Problems V. Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases VI.

Unit Outline. I. Introduction II. Gas Pressure III. Gas Laws IV. Gas Law Problems V. Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases VI. Unit 10: Gases Unit Outline I. Introduction II. Gas Pressure III. Gas Laws IV. Gas Law Problems V. Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases VI. Real Gases I. Opening thoughts Have you ever: Seen a hot air balloon?

More information

Chapter Practice Test Grosser

Chapter Practice Test Grosser Class: Date: Chapter 10-11 Practice Test Grosser Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of

More information

Changing States of Matter By Cindy Grigg

Changing States of Matter By Cindy Grigg By Cindy Grigg 1 On Earth, almost all matter exists in just three states. Matter is usually a solid, a liquid, or a gas. Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is rare on Earth. It sometimes can be found

More information

Matter, Atoms & Molecules

Matter, Atoms & Molecules Matter, Atoms & Molecules Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. All matter is made of tiny particles called atoms, which are too small to see with the naked eye. Matter Matter is anything

More information

E6 PROPERTIES OF GASES Flow-times, density, phase changes, solubility

E6 PROPERTIES OF GASES Flow-times, density, phase changes, solubility E6 PROPERTIES OF GASES Flow-times, density, phase changes, solubility Introduction Kinetic-Molecular Theory The kinetic energy of an object is dependent on its mass and its speed. The relationship, given

More information

THE PHASES OF MATTER. Solid: holds its shape and does not flow. The molecules in a solid vibrate in place, but on average, don t move very far.

THE PHASES OF MATTER. Solid: holds its shape and does not flow. The molecules in a solid vibrate in place, but on average, don t move very far. THE QUESTIONS What are the phases of matter? What makes these phases different from each other? What is the difference between melting, freezing, boiling and condensation? How do you interpret a Temperature

More information

Everything in the universe can be classified as either matter or energy. Kinetic Energy Theory: All particles of matter are in constant motion.

Everything in the universe can be classified as either matter or energy. Kinetic Energy Theory: All particles of matter are in constant motion. Physical Science Everything in the universe can be classified as either matter or energy. Kinetic Energy Theory: All particles of matter are in constant motion. State of Matter Bose- Einstein Condensate

More information

Unit 6. Unit Vocabulary: Distinguish between the three phases of matter by identifying their different

Unit 6. Unit Vocabulary: Distinguish between the three phases of matter by identifying their different *STUDENT* Unit Objectives: Absolute Zero Avogadro s Law Normal Boiling Point Compound Cooling Curve Deposition Energy Element Evaporation Heat Heat of Fusion Heat of Vaporization Unit 6 Unit Vocabulary:

More information

SCH 3UI Unit 08 Outline: Kinetic Molecular Theory and the Gas Laws. The States of Matter Characteristics of. Solids, Liquids and Gases

SCH 3UI Unit 08 Outline: Kinetic Molecular Theory and the Gas Laws. The States of Matter Characteristics of. Solids, Liquids and Gases SCH 3UI Unit 08 Outline: Kinetic Molecular Theory and the Gas Laws Lesson Topics Covered Handouts to Print 1 Note: The States of Matter solids, liquids and gases state and the polarity of molecules the

More information

1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the common state of matter is the liquid state.

1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the common state of matter is the liquid state. I. Properties of LIQUIDS: 1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the common state of matter is the liquid state. a) can exist only within a relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure. 2) The kinetic-molecular

More information

3-3: The Behavior of Gases. 8 th Grade Physical Sciences

3-3: The Behavior of Gases. 8 th Grade Physical Sciences 8 th Grade Physical Sciences How Gas Behaves To understand how a gas behaves, we must first remind ourselves about volume, temperature, and pressure Volume How much space it takes up m 3 - meters cubed

More information

Unit 1 Lesson 6 Changes of State. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 1 Lesson 6 Changes of State. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company The Fact of the Matter What happens when matter changes state? The three most familiar states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A change of state is the change of a substance from one physical form

More information

CBSE Class 9 Science Revision Notes CHAPTER 1 Matter in our Surroundings

CBSE Class 9 Science Revision Notes CHAPTER 1 Matter in our Surroundings CBSE Class 9 Science Revision Notes CHAPTER 1 Matter in our Surroundings Anything that occupies space and has mass and is felt by senses is called matter. According to indian ancient philosphor, matter

More information

A).5 atm B) 1 atm C) 1.5 atm D) 2 atm E) it is impossible to tell

A).5 atm B) 1 atm C) 1.5 atm D) 2 atm E) it is impossible to tell 1. ne atmosphere is equivalent to A) 1.00 g ml 1 B) 22,400 ml ) 273 K D) 760. mmhg E) 298 K 2. A cylinder contains 2.50 L of air at a pressure of 5.00 atmospheres. At what volume, will the air exert a

More information

Section Using Gas Laws to Solve Problems

Section Using Gas Laws to Solve Problems Gases and Gas Laws Section 13.2 Using Gas Laws to Solve Problems Kinetic Molecular Theory Particles of matter are ALWAYS in motion Volume of individual particles is zero. Consists of large number of particles

More information