# Section 1 Matter and Energy

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1 CHAPTER OUTLINE Section 1 Matter and Energy Key Idea questions > What makes up matter? > What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas? > What kind of energy do all particles of matter have? Kinetic Theory > What makes up matter? > According to the kinetic theory of matter, all matter is made of atoms and molecules. These atoms and molecules act like tiny particles that are always in motion. The following rules determine the speed of the particles: The higher the temperature of the substance is, the faster the particles move. At the same temperature, more massive particles move slower than less massive ones. The kinetic theory helps to explain the differences between the three common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. States of Matter > What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas? > You can classify matter as a solid, a liquid, or a gas by determining whether the shape and volume are definite or variable. Solids have a definite shape and volume. Liquids change shape, not volume. Super Summary Chapter Outline p. 1

2 Gases change both shape and volume. fluid: a nonsolid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or liquid Plasma is the most common state of matter. plasma: a state of matter that consists of free-moving ions and electrons Energy s Role > What kind of energy do all particles of matter have? > Because they are in motion, all particles of matter have kinetic energy. energy: the capacity to do work Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy. temperature: a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object Thermal energy depends on particle speed and number of particles. thermal energy: the total kinetic energy of a substance s atoms Super Summary Chapter Outline p. 2

3 Section 2 Changes of State Key Idea questions > What happens when a substance changes from one state of matter to another? > What happens to mass and energy during physical and chemical changes? Energy and Changes of State > What happens when a substance changes from one state of matter to another? > The identity of a substance does not change during a change of state, but the energy of a substance does change. Some changes of state require energy. Changes of state that require energy are melting, evaporation, and sublimation. evaporation: the change of state from a liquid to a gas sublimation: the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas Energy is released in some changes of state. Changes of state that release energy are freezing and condensation. condensation: the change of state from a gas to a liquid Conservation of Mass and Energy > What happens to mass and energy during physical and chemical changes? > Mass and energy are both conserved. Neither mass nor energy can be created or destroyed. Super Summary Chapter Outline p. 3

4 Mass cannot be created or destroyed. In chemical changes, as well as in physical changes, the total mass of the substances undergoing the change stays the same before and after the change. This is the law of conservation of mass. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy may be changed to another form during a physical or chemical change, but the total amount of energy present before and after the change is the same. This is the law of conservation of energy. Super Summary Chapter Outline p. 4

5 Section 3 Fluids Key Idea questions > How do fluids exert pressure? > What force makes a rubber duck float in a bathtub? > What happens when pressure in a fluid changes? > What affects the speed of a fluid in motion? Pressure > How do fluids exert pressure? > Fluids exert pressure evenly in all directions. pressure: the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface example: when you pump up a bicycle tire, air particles constantly push against each other and against the tire walls Pressure can be calculated by dividing force by the area over which the force is exerted: pressure = force area P = F A The SI unit for pressure is the pascal. pascal: the SI unit of pressure; equal to the force of 1 N exerted over an area of 1 m 2 (symbol, Pa) Buoyant Force > What force makes a rubber duck float in a bathtub? > All fluids exert an upward buoyant force on matter. buoyant force: the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a fluid Super Summary Chapter Outline p. 5

6 Archimedes principle is used to find buoyant force: The buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid that the object displaces. An object will float or sink based on its density. If an object is less dense than the fluid in which it is placed, it will float. If an object is more dense than the fluid in which it is placed, it will sink. Pascal s Principle > What happens when pressure in a fluid changes? > Pascal s principle states that a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid will be transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid. In other words, if the pressure in a container is increased at any point, the pressure increases at all points by the same amount Mathematically, Pascal s principle is stated as P 1 = P 2. Because P = F/A, Pascal s principle can also be expressed as F 1 /A 1 = F 2 /A 2. Hydraulic devices are based on Pascal s principle. Fluids in Motion > What affects the speed of a fluid in motion? > Fluids move faster through small areas than through larger areas, if the overall flow rate remains constant. Fluids also vary in the rate at which they flow. Viscosity depends on particle attraction. viscosity: the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow Super Summary Chapter Outline p. 6

7 Fluid pressure decreases as speed increases. This is known as Bernoulli s principle. Super Summary Chapter Outline p. 7

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