# Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy

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1 Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy By now you know that substances are made of atoms and molecules. These atoms and molecules are always in motion and have attractions to each other. When atoms and molecules are heated, they move faster and when they are cooled, they move slower. But how do the atoms and molecules actually get heated and cooled? To answer this question, you really have to think about the moving atoms and molecules as having energy. Energy is the ability to do work or cause change in matter. Energy can exist in a variety of forms, such as electrical, mechanical, chemical, sound, or thermal. You use electrical energy when you turn on a lamp to produce light. You produce sound energy when you play a musical instrument or sing. The chemical energy in the food you eat keeps your body moving and working. The energy of moving objects is called kinetic energy. If the speed of an object increases, its kinetic energy increases. If the speed of the object decreases, its kinetic energy decreases. So, if the atoms or molecules of a substance are moving fast, they have more kinetic energy than when they are moving more slowly. 1) Write a definition for Energy and Kinetic Energy: 2) What happens to the speed of an object if you increase the kinetic energy? What happens to the speed if you decrease kinetic energy? 3) Which has more kinetic energy, a snail walking along a sidewalk or a cheetah running on a savanna? Why?

2 Thermal Energy and Heat The kinetic energy of the moving atoms and molecules in a substance is called thermal energy. The amount of thermal energy depends on the amount the substance. If you have a cup of water and you pour half out, the part that is left has half the number of particles. It therefore has half the thermal energy that the full cup of water had. Thermal energy determines how warm a substance feels. The more thermal energy an object or substance has, the warmer it is. A warm cup of water has more thermal energy than a cold cup of water. The warm and cold water have about the same amount of particles, but the particles in the warm water are moving faster. They have more kinetic energy. Therefore, they have more thermal energy and feel warmer. It s often useful to know just how warm something is. To find this out, you can use a thermometer. A thermometer indicates the temperature of a material. We use temperature as a measure of thermal energy. More specifically, Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance. By taking the temperature of something, you are actually getting information about the kinetic energy of the moving atoms or molecules of the substance, but not the kinetic energy of any particular one. There are more than a billion trillion atoms or molecules in even a small sample of a substance. They are constantly moving and bumping into each other and transferring little amounts of energy between each other. So at any time, the atoms and molecules don t all have the same kinetic energy. Some are moving faster and some are moving slower than others but most are about the same. So when you measure the temperature of something, you are actually measuring the average kinetic energy of its atoms or molecules. 1) Write a definition for Thermal Energy and Temperature: 2) Why does a warm cup of water have more thermal energy than a cold cup of water? **Be sure you talk about the kinetic energy of the molecules 3) What is used to measure the amount of thermal energy a substance has?

3 Heat: Transferring Thermal Energy If you put a room temperature metal spoon into a hot liquid like soup or hot chocolate, the metal spoon gets hotter. But what actually has to happen for the hot liquid to make the metal hotter? The answer is an energy transfer! More specifically, heat is the energy that is transferred from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature. In our example of a spoon in hot liquid, the molecules of hot liquid are moving quickly so they have a lot of kinetic energy. When the room temperature spoon is placed in the liquid, the fast moving molecules in the liquid run into the slower moving atoms in the spoon and speed them up. In this way, the faster moving molecules transfer some of their kinetic energy to the slower moving atoms in the spoon, giving the atoms in the spoon more kinetic energy. Thermal energy can only be transferred from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature. In other words, heat always travels from hotter objects to cooler objects! 1) Write a definition for heat: 2) Why would thermal energy move from a cup of hot cocoa to your hands?

5 1) Explain the process of conduction and give examples: 2) Explain the process of convection and give examples: 3) Explain the process of radiation and give examples:

6 Matter Solid, Liquid, Gas On Earth, matter is either found as a solid, liquid, or gas. A particular solid, liquid, or gas is made up of individual atoms or molecules. Here is a simplified model of three different substances. One is a solid, another is a liquid and the other is a gas. In the picture, the little motion lines show that the particles (atoms or molecules) that make up the solid, liquid, and gas are moving. The spacing of the circles show the strength of attraction between the molecules. The closer the circles, the stronger the attraction between molecules. As you look at these pictures, think about these three big ideas which are always true when talking about matter: Matter (solid, liquid, and gas) is made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules. The atoms or molecules that make up matter are always in motion. The atoms or molecules that make up a solid, liquid or gas are attracted to one another. In a solid, the atoms are very attracted to one another. Because of this strong attraction, the atoms are held tightly together. The attractions are strong enough that the atoms can only move a little bit, or vibrate where they are. They cannot move past one another. This is why a solid keeps its shape. 1) What 3 things are true about the atoms or molecules that make up a solid, liquid, or gas? 2) Describe and draw a model (Be sure you label and explain your model) of the molecules and properties of solids:

7 In a liquid, the molecules are also in motion. The attractions between the molecules in liquids are strong enough to keep the molecules close to each other but not in fixed positions. Although the molecules stay very near one another, the attractions allow the molecules of a liquid to move past one another. This is why a liquid can easily change its shape. In a gas, the molecules are moving very fast. The molecules in a gas do have attractions, but the attractions between the molecules of a gas are too weak to bring the molecules together. This is why gas molecules barely interact with one another and are very far apart compared to the molecules of liquids and solids. A gas will spread out evenly to fill any container. 1) Describe and draw a model (Be sure you label and explain your model) of the molecules and properties of liquids: 2) Describe and draw a model (Be sure you label and explain your model) of the molecules and properties of gases:

8 Competition Between The Attraction And Motion Of Molecules When looking at the different states of matter, it s kind of like a competition between the attractions the molecules have for each other compared to the motion of their molecules. The attractions tend to keep the atoms or molecules together while the motion tends to make the atoms or molecules come apart. When molecules move faster they expand and move away from each other causing the attractions to become weaker. When molecules slow down they contract and move towards each other causing the attractions to become stronger. Speed Increases Speed Decreases Attractions Decrease Attractions Increase Changing State Changing the speed of the atoms or molecules in a substance can lead to a change of state. When we add heat to things, this causes atoms and molecules to move faster. As the molecules speed up, they spread further apart and compete with the attractions between molecules. If the molecules speed up enough, they can move far enough apart to change state. Removing heat causes atoms and molecules to slow down and the attractions between molecules increases. If the molecules slow down enough, they can move close enough together to change state. Pressure can also cause a change of state. Under high pressure, gases form liquids because the pressure pushes their atoms and molecules together. Low pressure causes atoms or molecules to move apart and liquids can become gases. 1) Explain the relationship between the attractions of atoms/molecules in matter and their motion: 2) What happens to the attractions between molecules when their motion increases? 3) What happens to the attractions between molecules when their motion decreases? 4) What causes matter to change its state?

9 Changing from a solid to a liquid Melting In solids, the atoms or molecules that make up the substance have strong attractions to each other and stay in fixed positions. These properties give solids their definite shape and volume. When a solid is heated, the motion of the particles (atoms or molecules) increases. The atoms or molecules are still attracted to each other but their extra movement begins to compete with their attractions. If enough energy is added, the motion of the particles begins to overcome the attraction and the particles move more freely. They begin to slide past each other as the substance begins to change state from a solid to a liquid. This process is called melting. The particles of the liquid are only slightly further apart than in the solid. (Water is the exception because the molecules in liquid water are actually closer together than they are in ice) The particles of the liquid are moving faster than in a solid but their attractions are still able to hold them together enough so that they retain their liquid state and do not become a gas. Different solids melt at different temperatures The temperature at which a substance begins to change from a solid to a liquid is called the melting point. It makes sense that different substances have different melting points. Since the atoms or molecules that substances are made of have a different amount of attraction for each other, a different amount of energy is required to make them change from a solid to a liquid. A good example is the melting point of salt and sugar. The melting point of sugar is 186 C. The melting point for regular table salt is 801 C. Metals like iron and lead also have different melting points. Lead melts at 327 C and iron melts at 1,538 C. Some solids, like glass do not have a precise melting point but begin to melt over a range of temperatures. This is because the molecules that make up glass are not arranged in as orderly a way as those in crystals like salt or sugar or metals like iron. Depending on the type of glass, the melting point is usually between 1,200 1,600 C. 1) Explain what happens to the molecules in a substance when melting occurs: 2) Why do different substance have different melting points? 3) Write a definition for Melting Point:

10 Changing from a liquid to a gas-evaporation You see evidence of evaporation all the time. Evaporation causes wet clothes to dry and the water in puddles to disappear. But the water doesn t actually disappear. It changes state from a liquid to a gas. The temperature at which a substance becomes a gas is called the boiling point. The boiling point of water is C (212 o F). For gold, it is C ( F). It takes a lot of heat to turn liquid gold into a gas, but it can be done. The molecules in a liquid evaporate when they have enough energy to overcome the attractions of the molecules around them. The molecules of a liquid are moving and bumping into each other all the time, transferring energy between one another. Some molecules will have more energy than others. If their motion is energetic enough, these molecules can completely overcome the attractions of the molecules around them. When this happens, the molecules go into the air as a gas. This process is called evaporation. Heating increases the rate of evaporation You ve probably noticed that higher temperatures seem to make evaporation happen faster. Wet clothes and puddles seem to dry more quickly when they are heated by the sun or in some other way. You can test whether heat affects the rate of evaporation by placing a drop of water on two paper towels. If one paper is heated and the other remains at room temperature, the water that is heated will evaporate faster. When a liquid is heated, the motion of its molecules increases. The number of molecules that are moving fast enough to overcome the attractions of other molecules increases. Therefore, when water is heated, more molecules are able to break away from the liquid and the rate of evaporation increases. 1) Write a definition for Boiling Point: 2) Explain what happens to the molecules in a substance during evaporation: 3) Why does hot water evaporate faster than cold water?

11 Changing from a gas to a liquid Condensation If you have seen water form on the outside of a cold cup, you have seen an example of condensation. Water molecules from the air contact the cold cup and transfer some of their energy to the cup. These molecules slow down enough that their attractions can overcome their motion and hold them together as a liquid. This process is called condensation. Cooling increases the rate of condensation. You can test to see if cooling water vapor increases the rate of condensation by making two similar samples of water vapor and cooling one more than the other. In the illustration, two samples of water vapor are trapped inside the cups. Ice is placed on one top cup but not the other. In a few minutes, there are water drops on the inside top of both cups but more water can be seen on the inside of the top cup with the ice. This shows that cooling water vapor increases the rate of condensation. When a gas is cooled, the motion of its molecules decreases. The number of molecules moving slow enough for their attractions to hold them together increases. More molecules join together to form a liquid and the rate of condensation increases. 1) Explain what happens to the molecules in a substance during condensation? 2) Why does cooling water vapor make it condense faster?

12 Changing from liquid to solid Freezing If a liquid is cooled enough, the molecules slow down to such an extent that their attractions begin to overcome their motion. The attractions between the molecules cause them to arrange themselves in more fixed and orderly positions to become a solid. This process is called freezing. Usually, when a liquid freezes, the molecules move closer together as the attractions between the molecules increases. However, the freezing of water is very unusual because water molecules move farther apart as they arrange themselves into the structure of ice as water freezes. The molecules of just about every other liquid move closer together when they freeze. This special property of water causes ice to be less dense than liquid water and allows ice to float. Different liquids have different freezing points. It makes sense that different liquids have different freezing points. Each liquid is made up of different molecules. The molecules of different liquids are attracted to each other by different amounts. These molecules have to slow down to different extents before their attractions can take hold and organize themselves into fixed positions as a solid. 1) Explain what happens to the molecules in a substance when freezing occurs: 2) Why do different liquids freeze at different temperatures? 3) Something interesting happens to water when it freezes that is different from other liquids that change state from a liquid to a solid. Compare ice and liquid water on a molecular level: Why is frozen (solid) water different from other liquids that change to a solid?

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