2 Matter Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass Can you think of anything that is not made of matter? Energy- which is a property of matter!!
3 Matter is made up of moving particles! Instead of using the word moving, we use the kinetic because it is a science word for movement!
4 We have 1 main Theory for this unit! And we call it : The Kinetic Theory of Matter! The theory states that All matter is made of tiny constantly moving particles. This is because all matter is made of moving particles. The motion of the particles controls what the matter looks like!
5 Matter looks like 4 different things, and we call them States of Matter
6 Here are the 4 States of Matter we will discuss this unit 1.Solid 2.Liquid 3.Gas 4.Plasma
7 Kinetic Theory of Matter Matter will become any or sometimes all of these States because they are controlled by temperature
8 Temperature A physical property of matter that determines how much heat energy an object can contain. An example of this energy is how hot or cold an object can become.
10 Lets begin with Solids Definite shape and volume Slow vibration of particles The bonded particles vibrate within the substance but lack enough energy to break free
11 There are 2 types of solids: 1. Crystalline 2. Amorphous
12 Solids Crystals: a solid whose particles are arranged in repeating geometric patterns
13 Solids Amorphous solids Particles do not have a repeating pattern
14 State of Matter: Liquids No definite shape: takes the shape of its container Definite volume Medium vibration of particles The particles have enough energy to break the bonds holding them together, not enough energy to escape from each other
15 Liquids The particles of a liquid can move pass one another in a process called flow or pour (flow can be any direction while pour is under the influence of gravity)
16 There is 1 main principal you need to remember about liquids: * Archimedes principle: The buoyancy force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object Buoyancy is the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it Bill Nye: Buoyancy
17 State of Matter: Gases No definite shape (takes the shape of its container) or volume (the particles can expand and contract to fill the space available) Fast vibration of particles The particles have enough energy to separate completely from one another
18 State of Matter: Plasma Is a super heated gas of positive & negative particles When the molecules are traveling so fast, they begin to break apart and electrons become stripped from their atoms. This is called ionization The fastest movement of particles & is the MOST common form in the universe!
20 Pressure: is a force that can influence all states of matter! Is caused by particles colliding with their environment or each other It is measured in units of Pascal (Pa): Equal to 1 newton per square meter (1 N = force needed to move 1 kg 1m/sec/sec)
21 Solid Liquid Gas
23 All matter changes into a new state, but there are names for each change and we call them a change Of phase.
24 Plasma Ionization deionization
25 The phase from. Liquid to Gas: Evaporation Takes place below the boiling point of the liquid
26 The phase from. Solid to Liquid: Melting Requires energy to break the physical bonds holding the particles together, this energy is called heat of fusion
27 The phase from. Liquid to Gas: Vaporization Taking in Energy Takes place above the boiling point of the liquid
28 In order for the phase from Liquid to Gas to occur energy is needed to make the particles separate, we call this heat of vaporization
29 The phase from. Gas to Liquid: Condensation Releases energy (heat of vaporization) The same amount of energy is required to change from a liquid to a gas
30 The phase from. Liquid to Solid: Solidification (freezing) Releases energy (heat of fusion), the same amount of energy required to change from a solid to a liquid (the heat of fusion in reverse)
31 The phase from. Solid to Gas or Gas to Solid: Sublimation A solid changes directly to a gas without going through the liquid state A gas changes directly to a solid without going through the liquid state
32 Heat of vaporization Energy to overcome attractive forces of cohesion and/or adhesion which holds the particles close together thus allowing them to completely separate from each other forming a gas
33 The behavior of attraction between molecules is determined by a change in temperature. Molecules are held together by: 1.Cohesion 2.Adhesion
34 Cohesion is the attraction between the same kind of particles Adhesion is the attraction between different kinds of particles
35 fun facts!! BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensate): State (phase) of matter obtained when atoms are super-cooled until they condense into super-atoms which then behave like waves Slowest vibration of particles (within a few billionths of a degree above absolute zero)