# Nicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 10 Fluids

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1 Nicholas J. Giordano Chapter 10 Fluids

2 Fluids A fluid may be either a liquid or a gas Some characteristics of a fluid Flows from one place to another Shape varies according to its container To describe the behavior of fluids, new quantities are needed, but the analysis is still based on Newton s Laws of Motion Introduction

3 Pressure The pressure in a fluid is connected with the force that the fluid exerts on a particular surface The force is related to pressure by P = F A F is the magnitude of the force A is the area The force is perpendicular to the area Units: The SI unit of pressure is a Pa (Pascal) 1 Pa = 1 N / m² In the US Customary system, the unit is psi (lb/in²) Section 10.1

4 Pressure, cont. The pressure in the water exerts a force on the submarine The force is everywhere perpendicular to the surface of the submarine The force on the window is F = P A window Section 10.1

5 Pressure, final Pressure is a scalar quantity The box is filled with a fluid The fluid exerts an outward pressure on all the sides of the box The force associated with the pressure in a fluid is always perpendicular to the surface under consideration Section 10.1

6 Atmospheric Pressure The pressure of the Earth s atmosphere near sea level is P atm = 1.01 x 10 5 Pa The pressure of the atmosphere actually varies in response to changes in the weather and other factors In many cases, the atmosphere exerts a force on both sides of an object, so the net force is zero Section 10.1

7 Vacuum A region where the atmospheric pressure is zero is a vacuum At least approximately zero A vacuum was first demonstrated by Otto von Guericke about 400 years ago He used a device called a Magdeburg sphere Section 10.1

8 Magdeburg Sphere Constructed of two metal hemispheres One hemisphere contains a small tube connected to a valve through which air was removed by a pump Inside, a vacuum was created Section 10.1

9 Guericke s Experiment A simpler case is shown to aid in the analysis Consider one plate, the outside air exerts a force it F = P atm A A is the area of the plate Since the inside is a vacuum, F ~ 0 The forces act to hold the plates together Section 10.1

10 Gauge Pressure The pressure discussed so far is absolute pressure To measure pressure, gauge pressure is often used This device determines the pressure by measuring the force on a moveable plate Section 10.1

11 Gauge Pressure, cont. The total force on the plate inside the gauge is due to the pressures on both sides plus the force exerted by the spring If the gauge plate is in equilibrium, the ΣF = 0 The deflection of the gauge is proportional to the difference between the pressure one wants to measure (P abs ) and atmospheric pressure P abs = P gauge + P atm Section 10.1

12 Density Density is another quantity needed to describe fluids Density is defined as mass per unit volume The symbol for density is ρ ρ = M V This assumes the density is constant throughout the volume The density of a substance can vary with temperature and may also depend on pressure Section 10.1

13 Density, cont. For most liquids the density is approximately independent of the pressure These liquids are called incompressible The density of a gas depends strongly on the pressure Gases are compressible See table 10.1 for densities of various materials Note the temperature and pressure for the gases Units: SI unit is kg/m³ Section 10.1

14 Specific Gravity Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water Specific gravity is important for determining buoyancy of an object It is used to determine whether or not an object will float in water Section 10.1

15 Fluids and Gravity Pressure does vary from place to place in a fluid For a cubical box, each wall has an area h² and a height h The liquid is at rest, so equilibrium applies ΣF = 0 Section 10.2

16 Fluids and Gravity, 2 The forces along the horizontal directions are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, so they cancel The forces on the top and the bottom do not cancel The forces are in opposite directions, but the pressure at the bottom must support the pressure at the top plus the weight of the fluid in the box In general, the pressure always increases as one goes deeper into a fluid Section 10.2

17 Fluids and Gravity, 3 Since the fluid is in equilibrium: ΣF y = P bot A P top A m g = 0 The density gives an expression for the mass in terms of the volume: m = ρ V = ρ h 3 Substituting and rearranging, P bot P top = ρ g h This is often written as P = P o + ρ g h P o is the pressure at the reference point and P is the pressure at a height h relative to the reference point Note that the final result is not dependent on the shape of the box This is a general relation that tells how the pressure varies with depth in an incompressible fluid Cannot be applied to gases Section 10.2

18 Fluids and Gravity, final Often we consider fluids with a surface open to the atmosphere This is a convenient reference level P o = P atm The general equation applies only to incompressible liquids since we assumed a uniform density

19 Pressure in a U-Tube A U-tube contains a liquid in a U-shaped tube The pressure in the liquid depends only on the depth h below the reference level The U-tube can contain different liquids Section 10.2

20 Uses of U-Tubes U-tubes and other types of containers can be used in many different ways These include Measuring the density of a liquid Measuring pressure differences Section 10.2

21 Barometers A barometer measures the absolute pressure of the atmosphere One type consists of a straight tube, partially filled with liquid and closed at the top, with an open bottom inverted into an open dish P atm = ρ g h Section 10.2

22 Units of Pressure Many different units may be used for measuring pressures The units of inches or mm of mercury come from measuring the height in a barometer The values of atmospheric pressure can be used as conversion factors Section 10.2

23 Pumping, Surface Pump The soil is porous enough to assume the pressure at the underground surface is P atm A vacuum pump could be located at the top of the well Easier to fix if it breaks h = P atm / ρ g Limited to ~10 m Section 10.2

24 Pumping, Bottom of Well A high pressure pump could be placed at the bottom of the well There is no theoretical limit on the magnitude of P bot Section 10.2

25 Pressure in a Compressible Fluid Gases are compressible fluids and so the previous discussion and equations cannot be applied The density of the gas depends on pressure The pressure at a particular point in a fluid in a gravitational field must support the weight of the fluid above that point

26 Pressure in a Compressible Fluid, cont. Let y be the height above the surface in the fluid For a gas, as y increases and the pressure drops, the density becomes less For a gas, P = Pe o y y o For air at sea level, P o = P atm and y o = 1.0 x 10 4 m This equation assumes the temperature stays constant Section 10.2

27 Compressible and Incompressible Comparison An incompressible fluid follows the dotted line A compressible fluid follows the curved line The atmosphere would be compressible Section 10.2

28 Pressure in a Fluid, Summary The pressure in a fluid must vary with depth P must increase as one goes deeper into the fluid For a liquid, P = P o - ρ g y This is an incompressible fluid For a gas, P = P o e y/y o This is a compressible fluid In both cases, the pressure difference between the top and bottom surfaces of an arbitrary volume of fluid must support the weight of the fluid within the volume The pressure increases as the depth increases Section 10.2

29 Pascal s Principle If you change the pressure at a particular point in the fluid, the pressure everywhere in the fluid must change by the same amount This is Pascal s Principle If the pressure at one location in a closed container of fluid changes, this change is transmitted equally to all locations in the fluid Can apply to liquids or gases The gas must be held in a closed container and be in static equilibrium Section 10.3

30 Hydraulics Pascal s Principle is the basis of hydraulics A simple hydraulic lift is shown It is typically filled with oil and has pistons at both ends The pistons are moveable They are tight enough to avoid leaks Section 10.3

31 Hydraulic Lift Assume the car is in static equilibrium It could also be moving very slowly The car s weight is the force acting on the righthand piston F R = m g There is an increase in pressure on the right of ΔP = F R / A R According to Pascal s Principle, this same pressure will also act on the left-hand piston Section 10.3

32 Hydraulic Lift, cont. From Pascal s Principle: A FL = FR A Since the piston on the right is so much larger than the one on the left, a relatively small force on the left can lift a large object on the right The hydraulic lift is a device that amplifies forces L R Section 10.3

33 Work-Energy and Hydraulics Suppose the piston on the right moves upward through a small distance y R The work done by the right-hand piston is W R = F R y R The piston on the left moves downward a distance of y L and the force does work which is W L = F L y L Section 10.3

34 Work-Energy and Hydraulics, cont. We can expect the hydraulic lift to conserve mechanical energy The work done on the left-hand piston will equal the work done by the right-hand piston Since the fluid is incompressible, the volume of oil on the left equals the volume of oil on the right This leads to confirmation that W R = W L or F R y R = F L y L A hydraulic device can amplify forces, but it must de-amplify the displacement Section 10.3

35 Archimedes Principle Archimedes Principle applies to objects immersed in fluids Fully immersed or floating Archimedes Principle When an object is immersed in a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force on the object that is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object This upward force is called the buoyant force Section 10.4

36 Buoyant Force The buoyant force is due to the increase of pressure with depth in a fluid The pressure at the bottom is greater than the pressure at the top This leads to a greater upward force on the bottom surface The buoyant force is the difference between the force on the top and the force on the bottom of the object Section 10.4

37 Example: Archimedes Principle, Immersed Object The box is fully immersed in the fluid The buoyant force equals the weight of the displaced fluid Since the box is completely immersed, the volume of the displaced fluid equals the volume of the box F B = ρ L g V Section 10.4

38 Archimedes Principle, Review If the weight of the box is exactly equal to F B, the box will remain where it is If the box is heavier than F B, it will sink to the bottom If the weight of the box is smaller than the weight of the fluid it displaces, it will rise to the surface and float For example, if the box was empty The weight of the displaced fluid equals the weight of the box This would be the amount below the waterline Section 10.4

39 Example: Archimedes Principle, Apparent Weight The minimum force required to lift a submerged object is called the apparent weight The apparent weight of the box is smaller than its true weight by an amount equal to the buoyant force acting on it Section 10.4

40 Archimedes Principle: Final Notes Archimedes Principle Applies to all shapes Not just the boxes used in the examples Applies to object immersed in gases as well as liquids Compressible or incompressible fluids Section 10.4

41 Fluids in Motion The general theory of fluids in motion is very complex since the velocity of a fluid usually varies from place to place within the fluid Assumptions made to simplify: The fluid density is constant The fluid is incompressible The flow is steady The velocity is independent of time It can still vary from point to point in space There is no friction No viscosity There are no complex flow patterns Such as turbulence Section 10.5

42 Ideal Fluids A fluid that satisfies the four assumptions is called an ideal fluid An ideal fluid can be used to illustrate some key aspects of fluid dynamics Section 10.5

43 Principle of Continuity Consider the velocity through the pipe In the x-direction The fluid enters the pipe on the left with speed v L It exits on the right with speed v R The amount of fluid that flows through the pipe must be conserved Section 10.5

44 Principle of Continuity, cont. The mass of fluid flowing in from the left during a time interval Δt must equal the mass flowing out of the right during that time The Principle of Continuity The rate at which the fluid flows into the pipe must equal the rate at which the fluid flows out of the pipe This means that a small-diameter flow stream with a large speed can carry the same amount of fluid per unit time as a large diameter flow stream with small speed Section 10.5

45 Principle of Continuity, Equation For an incompressible fluid, the volume that flows into the pipe must equal the volume that flows out Since mass = density x volume and the density is constant To analyze: V in = (v L Δt) A L and V out = (v R Δt) A R Don t confuse V for volume with v for velocity According to the principle of continuity, V in = V out Simplifying: v L A L = v R A R This is called the equation of continuity Section 10.5

46 Flow Rate The flow rate is the product of the area and speed Flow rate = Q = v A The equation of continuity says the incoming flow rate equals the outgoing flow rate Units: SI unit for flow rate is m 3 / s Liters/second are also widely used USC generally uses gallons/minute Section 10.5

47 Bernoulli s Equation The flow of an ideal fluid through a pipe can be analyzed in terms of work and energy We will look at the pressure, speed, and height of the fluid at two different points The points are Δt apart, with the first point being at t = 0 We will apply the work-energy theorem to get a relationship among the pressure, speed, and height at the two times Section 10.5

48 Bernoulli s Equation, set up Section 10.5

49 Bernoulli s Equation, Derived Looking at the work: W 1 = F 1 Δx 1 = P 1 A 1 Δx 1 W 2 = -F 2 Δx 2 = -P 2 A 2 Δx 2 W total = W 1 + W 2 = P 1 A 1 Δx 1 - P 2 A 2 Δx 2 = ΔKE + ΔPE KE + PE = mv 2+m gh2- mv 1+mgh1 The volume is A Δx and the mass can be expressed in terms of the density Bernoulli s Equation is 2 2 P + 1 ρv + ρgh = P + 1 ρv + ρgh Section 10.5

50 Bernoulli s Equation, Interpreted The pressure terms represent energy associated with pressure in the fluid A higher value of P corresponds to higher energy because the fluid can exert a higher force P energy due to pressure ½ ρ v 2 kinetic energy ρ g h gravitational potential energy Bernoulli s equation says that the total mechanical energy of the fluid is conserved as it travels from place to place, but some of this energy can be converted from kinetic energy to potential energy or potential to kinetic Section 10.5

51 Bernoulli s Equation Application (Airplane Wing) There is a bulge at the top of the wing This causes the speed of the air to be slightly higher over the top of the wing compared to the bottom of the wing An increase in speed causes a decrease in pressure F total = (P bot P top ) A This produces the lift on the airplane wing Section 10.5

52 Airplane Wings, Details There are two pressure terms One is due to difference in air speeds The other is due to the difference in heights between the top and bottom of the wind The high air speeds and small difference in height indicates the pressure difference is due almost entirely to the speed terms in Bernoulli s equation Bernoulli s equation applied to the airplane wing assumed an incompressible fluid Air is compressible There is about a 15% difference due to differences in density This means this result for lift is accurate to within about 15% Section 10.5

53 Real Fluids Real fluids have frictional forces internal to the fluid and between the fluid and the walls of the container These are called viscous forces These forces depend on the speed of the fluid They are often negligible for small speeds In many cases, however, viscosity is important Section 10.6

54 Viscosity Consider the fluid flowing through a tube The fluid molecules near the wall of the tube experience strong forces from the molecules in the wall The molecules close to the wall move relatively slowly Section 10.6

55 Viscosity, cont. The motion of each layer in the fluid is strongly influenced by the adjacent layers Since the adjacent layers are moving at different speeds, each layer exerts a force on the layers next to it Thick fluids experience large forces and have a large viscosity Honey is an example Thin fluids have much smaller viscosities Water is an example Section 10.6

56 Poiseuille s Law For a viscous fluid to move through a tube, the pressure difference between the ends of the tube must overcome the viscous force The average fluid speed is given by Poiseuille s Law P1 P2 2 vavg = r 8η L Section 10.6

57 Poiseuille s Law, cont. The viscosity of the fluid is given the symbol η Values of viscosity are shown in the table This average velocity can be used to find the average flow rate of the fluid: Q = v avg A Section 10.6

58 Stoke s Law The drag force on a spherical object of radius r that moves slowly through a fluid with a viscosity η is Fdrag = 6πηr v This is the same viscosity as in Poiseuille s Law The negative sign indicates that the drag force is opposite to the velocity Section 10.6

59 Surface Tension Two things may happen at the free surface of a fluid Which happens depends on the intermolecular forces In most liquids, the molecules form the shape giving the smallest possible surface area That shape is a sphere The liquid may also spread out in a flat layer Section 10.6

60 Surface Tension, cont. The fluid has a surface tension, γ, that is a measure of the energy required to increase the surface area Surface tensions of some fluids are given in the table Surface tension is responsible for effects such as a bug walking on the water Section 10.6

61 Capillary Pressure The forces between the liquid s molecules and a wall can also affect the shape of a free liquid surface The surface of the liquid in a capillary tube is not flat The water molecules are attracted to the walls of the tube and this pulls the water up a small amount at the walls This is a concave meniscus Section 10.6

62 Capillary Pressure, 2 The mercury molecules are attracted more strongly to each other than to the walls This leads to a convex meniscus Section 10.6

63 Capillary Pressure, 3 The force that pulls the fluid along the walls is associated with a capillary pressure The magnitude of the capillary pressure is proportional to the surface tension The capillary pressure of a fluid in a tube of radius r: 2γ P cap = r This applies to water, other fluids such as mercury are more complicated Section 10.6

64 Turbulence When fluid velocities are large, the flow patterns can be very complex and fluctuate with time This behavior is called turbulence The picture shows vortices produced in the baseball s wake Section 10.7

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