# Chapter 22 States of matter. Section 1 matter Section 2 Changes of State

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1 Chapter 22 States of matter Section 1 matter Section 2 Changes of State

2 States of Matter is a physical property ***Matter is made of atoms Atoms form chemical bonds to make matter **** Atoms vibrate constantly

3 What are four different states of Matter?

4 The plasma state occurs at very high temperatures and is found in lightning, in stars. The Sun is plasma Plasma is found in the universe, but is not common on Earth. Plasma is found in neon lights

5 **Definition of Plasma** * gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons. It is possible for a substance to turn into plasma typically at low pressures (as in the upper atmosphere) or at very high temperatures (as in stars and the sun).

6 Can water turn into the plasma state of matter? Plasma of water means that you will have free electrons, water vapor positive ions (H2O+), and also other positive ions like OH+, O+, and H+ To create such conditions you will have to heat the water to at least degrees C

7 **To understand the states of matter we need to review: Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of the molecules of an object basically how fast the molecules are moving Thermal energy is the total energy of the molecules in a substance. It is a type of kinetic energy because it depends on the movement of molecules. If the molecules move faster, they have more thermal energy. Heat the movement of thermal energy from one object to another. (in which direction does heat flow?)

8 1) How close are the molecules in the solid? 2) What will happen to the molecules if I add heat to the system? 3) What happens if I add even more heat?? 4) what is the conclusion we reach about the effect of heat on state of matter????

9 **** Heat and state of matter The addition of heat to a substance increases the speed of the atoms and molecules, which will eventually alter the substances state of matter. Removing heat from a substance decreases the speed of the atoms and molecules, which can also alter the state of matter.

10 **States of Matter Solids Liquids Gases Plasma Video Lesson and Example Education Portal MadsenScience What is plasma? UM News Service

11 Work due tom Read the textbook Chapter 22 section 1 Make a chart with the states of matter Include: a) definition of a solid, a liquid or a gas b) the properties of each state of matter what shape they can assume, how much the vibrate, if they have shape, they are rigid or not c) a drawing that compares all 3 states of matter

12 States of Matter Check your chart Movement of the atoms and molecules increase from left to right. The atoms and molecules of a gas will spread, occupy the volume of the whole container

13 States of Matter - Comparison What happens to the space in between the atoms?????? Why? The space increases from left to right.

14 Solids: can be crystalline solids or not Comparison of an amorphous(a) and a crystalline (b) structure Random arrangement Repeating pattern

15 Textbook page 656: Self check questions 1 thru 4.

16 Class Lab: Graphing the changes in the states of matter of distilled water Add def of melting point and boiling point.

17 NOTES Class Lab: Graphing the changes in the states of matter of distilled water Volunteers will help measure the temperature of crushed ice in a beaker, under a source of heat, which will melt into a liquid and will evaporate into a solid. Students will understand how heat affects state of matter All students will record the values and build a table and a graph. Students will observe that the graph has platforms, in which the state of matter id changing, but the temperature is constant. This means that the energy given to the system is being used in the change of state and not to increase the temperature of the substance

18 *The state of matter of a substance depends on: a) the temperature and the pressure being applied to the substance, which will determine the motion of its atoms and molecules b) the strength of the attraction between the atoms

19 **Effect of temperature

20 ** Def of Pressure Pressure is force exerted on a surface per unit area.

21 Effect of pressure

22 Effect of Pressure and Temperature You can change gas into a liquid or a solid using pressure or temperature. Sometimes you need both! oxygen will solidify at -218 Celsius at a normal atmospheric pressure. If you increase the atmospheric pressure, oxygen will solidify at a higher temperature.

23 Physical Properties Melting point and boiling point are physical properties What is melting point and boiling point?

24 Physical Properties *Melting point is the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid *Boiling point is the temperature at which a substance in the liquid state becomes a gas.

25 ****Each pure substance has a unique boiling point and melting point at a certain atmospheric pressure. *That is why the boiling and melting point can help to identify a substance. * If you know the boiling points and melting points of substances, you can classify the substances based on those properties. EX????

26 Examples What is the substance that boils at 100 degrees Celsius? WATER!!!!!

27 Change in Physical State Diagram. Complete the diagram below using the following terms: condensation, sublimation, freezing, melting, deposition, evaporation. Add arrows from one state of matter to another and write the name change in state

29 Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase. The reverse of deposition is sublimation and hence sometimes deposition is called desublimation.

30 Labs 1) The effect of solutes on the freezing point of water ( homework) 2) Graphing the changes in states of matter ( handout)

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