Unit 2. Phases of Matter and Density

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1 Name Pd Unit 2 Phases of Matter and Density

2 Name Pd

3 Name Pd Homework for Unit 2 1. Vocab for Unit 2; due: 2. Pg 17 (1-5), pg 19 (1-5), pg21 (1-5) complete sentences; due: 3. Pg 23 (1-6), pg 27 (1-6) complete sentences; due: 4. Pg Matching and fill in (1-15) and Multiple Choice and True/false (1-15) NO SENTENCES; due: 5. Phase Change Diagram Homework; due: 6. Graphing a Phase Change Diagram Activity; due: 7. Pg 35 (1-5), pg 37 (1-5), pg 41 (1-5); due: 8. Practice to Calculate Density; due: 9. Practice for Finding M&V; due: 10. A Ton More Density Practice; due: 11. Water Lab; due: 12. Density Graph; due: 13. Review Packet (not in this packet); due:

4 Name Pd Vocabulary for Unit 1 Please define the following words. Homework #1 due: Buoyant Force Chemical Change Chemistry Condensation Density Displacement Evaporation Freezing Gas Liquid Mass Matter Melting Newton Physical change Physics Plasma Properties Solid Solid States (phases) of matter Sublimation Volume

5 Name Pd Phases of Matter Warm-up: - Define matter: Homework #2 due - Define Mass: - Define Volume: MATTER - Matter is anything that has and takes up. - Matter contains tiny particles called and. There are four states of matter (any of the physical forms of matter): 1) 2) 3) 4) SOLIDS -Solids have a definite and. In other words, once a solid if formed, the shape and volume of that solid does not change. - The particles are very. - These and move, but not fast enough to lose their shape. Basically they stand in place and vibrate. LIQUIDS - Liquids will take the shape of. - Liquids have a definite, but no definite. In other words, you can change the shape of a liquid, BUT you cannot change its volume. - The and move fast enough to move away from each other. This is why a liquid can change its shape so easily. GASES - Gases do NOT have a definite or (unless it is trapped in a container). This means that a gas can change in shape and in volume.

6 Name Pd - The and move fast enough to break away from each other. PLASMA - Plasma does NOT have a definite or. - The and in plasma are completely broken apart and become electrically charged. - Can be found in lighting, and auroras. Man-made plasma is found in some TV s. Label the pictures appropriately. 1. Accumulation - the process in which water pools in large bodies (like oceans, seas and lakes). 2. Condensation - the process in which water vapor (a gas) in the air turns into liquid water. Condensing water forms clouds in the sky. Water drops that form on the outside of a glass of icy water are condensed water. (This term appears twice in the diagram.) 3. Evaporation - the process in which liquid water becomes water vapor (a gas). Water vaporizes from the surfaces of oceans and lakes, from the surface of the land, and from melts in snowfields. 4. Precipitation - the process in which water (in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail) falls from clouds in the sky. 5. Subsurface Runoff - rain, snowmelt, or other water that flows in underground streams, drains, or sewers. 6. Surface Runoff - rain, snowmelt, or other water that flows in surface streams, rivers, or canals. 7. Transpiration - the process in which some water within plants evaporates into the atmosphere. Water is first absorbed by the plant's roots, and then later exits by evaporating through pores in the plant.

7 Name Pd Describing Matter 1) Homework #3 Due: 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20)

8 Name Pd What types of questions are we asking? A Physical Property is: A Physical Change is: Some examples include: Weathering: The breaking down of rock fragments into smaller A Chemical Property is: A Chemical Change is: Some examples include:

9 Name Pd Phase changes Warm-up: List and describe the 4 phases of matter: 1. Solid: 2. Liquid: Homework #4 due 3. Gas: 4. Plasma: A CHANGE OF STATE IS THE CONVERSION FROM ONE PHYSICAL FORM TO ANOTHER!!! - We can also call it a phase change of matter! - Since it s a type of physical change it is still the same substance, it just looks a little different! MELTING: The change of state from a to a Melting point: the temperature at which - The melting point of water is Heat must be for this change. Heat is a form of - REMEMBER: the atoms of a solid are and in place. When is added, the atoms move and apart. The atoms are now in the state. - An Endothermic reaction is a reaction that involves FREEZING: The change of state from a to a Freezing point: the temperature at which - The freezing point of water is Heat must be for this change. Heat is a form of

10 Name Pd - REMEMBER: the atoms of a liquid are and. When is removed, the atoms move and together. The atoms are now in the state. - This is an exothermic reaction Melting and freezing are opposite of each other, so they occur at the same temperature!! VAPORIZTION: The phase change from a to a - BOILING: that occurs throughout the whole liquid AT the boiling point. - EVAPORATION: that occurs at the surface of the liquid *****Below the boiling point****** - The vaporization (boiling) point is the temperature at which - This is an reaction - REMEMBER: the atoms of a liquid are and. When is added, the atoms move and apart. The atoms are now in the state. - The boiling point of water is CONDENSATION: The phase change from a to a - The condensation point is the temperature at which - REMEMBER: the atoms of a gas are and -. When is removed, the atoms move and together. The atoms are now in the state. - This is an reaction. - The condensing point of water is VAPORIZATION AND CONDENSATION ARE THE OPPOSITES OF EACH OTHER, SO THEY OCCUR AT THE SAME TEMPERATURE!!!! Every substance has its own freezing, melting, boiling and condensing point. It is based on the chemical make-up of that substance. SUBLIMATION: the phase change from a directly into a. Ex:

11 Name Pd Phase Change Diagrams Warm-up: Describe the following: 1. Freezing: Homework #5 Due: 2. Melting: 3. Vaporization: 4. Condensation: 5. Sublimation: A CHANGE OF STATE IS THE CONVERSION FROM ONE PHYSICAL FORM TO ANOTHER!!! Phase Change diagrams (graphs) also called heating curves or cooling curves illustrate the change of state from a solid, to a liquid, to a gas. Heating Curve a phase change diagram where is added.

12 Name Pd Cooling Curve a phase change diagram where is removed.

13 Name Pd Phase Change Diagram Homework (#5) Due Please graph the following data. Please answer questions with complete sentences unless a blank line is provided. Curve Time (min) Temperature ( C) Time (min) 1. The freezing point of this substance is and the boiling point is 2. The substance in this diagram is because, 3. What is happening to the temperature of the substance between 1 and 3 minutes? 4. Explain why for question #3. 5. What is happening to the temperature of the substance between 3 and 9 minutes? 6. Explain why for question #5. 7. Which variable is the independent variable: why?

14 Name Pd Phase Change Diagram Activity (#6) Due The data below represents a uniform substance that was heated steadily at a constant rate while the temperature of the substance was recorded. Please plot the following data on a piece of graph paper. The independent variable (the manipulated variable) is the, which is always place on the axis. The dependent variable (the responding variable) is the, which is always placed on the axis. Energy absorbed (calories) Temperature ( C)

15 Name Pd Questions: 1. Please label the following items, solid, liquid, gas, melting, freezing, boiling, condensing, melting point, freezing point, boiling point, condensing point. 2. What is happening to the temperature at the start of the graph? 3. What state of matter is present at the beginning of the graph? 4. What happens to the temperature when it reaches 60 C? 5. What is happening to the substance during this time period?

16 Name Pd 6. When the temperature begins to rise again, at what temperature does this increase stop? 7. What begins to happen at the temperature in question #6? 8. How can the changes in phase be identified on this graph? Please label the phase changes on the graph 9. What is the melting point of this substance? 10. What is the boiling point of this substance? 11. Is the substance water, why or why not? 12. What happens to the atoms of this solid as heat is added? 13. What are two phase changes on this graph that release energy? 14. Draw a sketch below of a cooling curve. Remember to label all of the phases of matter and phase changes of matter.

17 Density Warm-up: Draw and label a phase change diagram: Homework #7 Due: Mass: the amount of in an object. Volume: the amount of an object takes up. Density: You have a kilogram of feathers, or a kilogram of lead? Which has more mass? Which takes up more space? Which has a greater density? Density is the per given. Density = Formula: The more crammed into a given space the more the object is.

18 SOLIDS: LIQUIDS: GASES: The density of an object NEVER, no matter how much of that substance you have. We can use this information to help us to identify a substance. Each item has its own specific value for density. Earth is divided into three parts: - Hydrosphere: the part - Lithosphere: the part - Atmosphere: the part The is the most dense and solid, it is found on the bottom. The is less dense and liquid, so it floats on top of the lithosphere. The is the least dense and gas, so it floats on top of both the hydrosphere and lithosphere.

19 How to Calculate Density Warm-up: - Define Density: Homework #8 Due: - What is the formula for density? - What are the possible units for density? We need to know the and of a block of wood to calculate the density. Before we can calculate the density we need to measure the sides of the block to the nearest tenth. We need to list the measurements & do a threeline minimum. L= 1. V = LWH W = 2. V = ( )( )( ) H = 3. V = Next we list the measurements for density. V= M = THREE LINE MINIMUM Formula: Substitute: Solve: A ROCK: We need to know the and of this rock. How do we find the volume of an irregular object? V = M = THREE LINE MINIMUM Formula: Substitute: Solve:

20 Practice to Calculate Density (#8) Due: Be sure to list the important information, use a three-line minimum, include your units, and round to the nearest tenth. 1. A piece of wood has a mass of 6.0 grams and a volume of 11 cm 3. Find the density of the wood to the nearest tenth. 2. A piece of metal has a mass of grams and a volume of 42 cm 3. Find the density of the metal to the nearest tenth. 3. A rock has a mass of grams and a volume of 82 cm 3. Find the density of the rock to the nearest tenth. 4. A block has the following dimensions, 3.0cmX2.5cmX1.2cm. Calculate the volume first and then using a mass of 8.5 grams calculate the density. 5. The metal in question #2 is cut in half. It s volume when divided in half become, its mass when divided in half becomes. Write a new list and calculate its new density.

21 How to Calculate Mass & Volume Homework #9 Due: Warm-up: - An object has a mass of 25g and a volume of 5 cm 3. Calculate its density So you think solving for density is easy! Well, now for the hard stuff. Remember D = Solving for Volume V = Let s try. 1. Gold has the density of 19.3 g/cm 3. If you have 386 grams of gold, how much space does it take up (volume)? List: Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Always check your units to make sure you are right!!!!!! Solving for mass When solving for mass the best thing to remember is that in the end you will be multiplying the density and the volume to find mass. Mass and multiply both start with m s.

22 M = Let s try. 1. Lead has a density of 11.3 g/cm 3. If you have a 20-cm3 piece of lead, what is its mass? List: Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Check your units to make sure you are right!!!!!! 1. A rock has a density of 3.5 g/cm 3. How much space does 150 g take up? 2. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm 3. How many grams of gold are in a gold bar that has a volume of 16 cm 3?

23 Practice For Finding M &V (#9) Due: Remember to list the given information and use a 3-line minimum. 1. A mineral has a density of 2.5 g/cm 3. How much space does 250 g take up? 2. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm 3. How many grams of gold are in a gold bar that has a volume of 25 cm 3? 3. A piece of metal has a density of 2.7 gcm 3. It has dimensions of 3.0 cm x 3.0 cm x 3.0 cm. What is its mass? 4. A block of iron measures 6.0 cm x 9.0 cm x 10.0 cm and has a mass of grams. Find the density to the nearest tenth. 5. A cube of copper measures 4.0 cm x 10.0cm x 15.0 cm and has a mass of g. Find the density to the nearest tenth.

24 Mass Vs. Weight Warm-up: - Define Density: Homework #10 Due: - What is the formula for density? - What are the possible units for density? Mass Weight

25 A Ton More Density Practice (#10) Due: Remember to list the given information and use a 3-line minimum. 1. What is the density of a piece of wood that has a mass of 10 g and a volume of 20 cm 3? 2. Lead has a density of 11.3 g/cm 3. How many grams of lead are in a lead weight that has a volume of 21 cm 3? 3. Aluminum has a density of 2.7 g/cm 3. How much space does 15g of aluminum take up? 4. A piece of metal has a density of 7.8 g/cm 3. It has dimensions of 2.0 cm x 4.0cm x 3.0 cm. What is its mass? 5. A piece of marble in measures 100 cm x 100 cm x 100 cm. It has a mass of 3,600,000 grams. Find its density.

26 Water Lab (#11) Due: 1. Find the mass of the empty graduated cylinder to the nearest tenth: Write this answer in the first blank of column B. Since there is no water in the cylinder then the mass of the water is 0 grams. 2. Find the mass of the various amounts of water and the cylinder and enter those numbers into column B. B C D A Volume (ml) Mass of water and Cylinder (g) Mass of Water (g) Density of Water 3-line minimum and units!! 0 XXXXXXXXXXXX Once you have found the mass for column B you now need to find the mass of just the water (column C). In order to do this you must subtract the mass from column B minus the mass of the empty cylinder, which was:. 4. In column D you must calculate the density of water using your data from columns A and C NOT COLUMN B!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Please Show a Three-line minimum. 5. Using the graph paper: - Label the vertical axis: mass (g) - Label the horizontal axis: volume (ml) - Remember to write a title, number the scale properly and use a ruler. - Plot your data.

27 6. Using the graph predict (interpolate) the mass of 30 ml of water: 7. Using the graph predict (extrapolate) the mass of 275 ml of water: 8. What relationship is shown on the graph?

28

29 Density of Water Homework #12 Due: Warm-up: 1. An object has a mass of 45g and a density of 0.5 g/ml. How much space does the object take up? 2. An object has measures 3.0cmx1.0cmx2.0cm and has a density of 1.2 g/cm 3. What is its mass? In a past lab we found that the mass of 1mL of water to be 1 gram. So, at this time please find the density of 1ml of water. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: The density of 1 ml of water is Now find the density of 17 ml of water. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: The density of 17 ml of water is These two densities are because So why is this important? Lets recall the density of the rock and the block of wood from our past notes. Density of rock = Density of block of wood = Lets list the three densities in order from least to greatest:

30 In the following space please draw what you see when the rock and the block of wood are placed in the water. What conclusions can we draw between the densities of these materials and what occurs when they are placed in water? So, why does ice float? When heat is removed, most substances atoms move slower and together. BUT, for water it is different. At 4 degrees Celsius, the atoms of water rearrange and out. As a result the volume, so the density. Try it: Mass = 10 g Volume= 10ml mass = 10 g volume = 11.1 ml The density of ice is. How much is below the surface of the water?

31 What Does a Density Graph Show Homework #12 Due: Density Graphs are used to compare the mass (vertical axis) of a substance to the volume (horizontal axis). As you already know the density of a substance NEVER changes, no matter how big or small the material is. Which means if the volume increases the also increases. Volume (ml) Wood Mass (g) Rock Mass (g) Water Mass (g)

32 The line of a density graph will ALWAYS be a direct relationship (a completely straight diagonal line). If you are constructing a graph, and it does not follow this format, then your graph is incorrect. On a density graph the of the line indicates how dense the material is. More Steep = Less Steep = You can also use the graph to calculate the density of a substance. At this time please calculate the densities of all three substances and label them on the graph next to the appropriate line. Use the following space to show your work. Wood Rock Water 1. Which line is the most steep? 2. Which one is most dense? 3. Which line is the least steep? 4. Which one is least dense? 5. Which one will float in water? 6. What would the mass of 20cm 3 of wood be?

33 Density of Liquids and Gases Homework #13 Due: Warm-up: 1. How does the steepness of a line relate to an objects density? In a past lab we found that the mass of 1mL of water to be 1 Remember Every material has its own density no matter how much of that substance there is. Liquids and gases also have their own densities. In general liquids are less dense then solids, and gases are less dense than both liquids and solids. LIQUIDS: Water has a density of 1.0 g/ml. Objects that are less dense than water FLOAT in water. Objects that are more dense than water SINK in water. If we have many different liquids of varying densities, and we pour them all into one cup, the liquids will themselves according to their densities. Which liquid will be on the bottom?. Which liquid would be on the top?. Corn oil has a density of. Corn Syrup has a density of. In the container below draw the approximate location of these two liquids AND water, as they would appear if they were all placed in the container at once. 1. Suppose you have an object with the density of 1.2 g/ml, where would you find this object if we were to place it into this container? 2. Suppose you have an object with the density of 0.6 g/ml, where would you find this object if we were to place it into this container?

34 3. Suppose you have an object with the density of 2.0 g/ml, where would you find this object if we were to place it into this container? GASES: Air is a mixture of gases, including: Some of the gases are more dense or less dense than others. Helium is dense than air, as a result balloons filled with helium. Carbon dioxide is dense and therefore the balloon from our dry ice demos. Density of air: Carbon dioxide: Helium: HEAT TRANSFER IN GASES AND LIQUIDS: As heat is added to a liquid or a gas, the atoms spread out; this increases the, which in turn the density. As a result warmer less liquids and gases. While cooler, dense liquids and gases. This is why a hot air balloon rises.

35 Finding Density Practice Due: The purpose of this lab is to make sure that you can use many of the lab tools to find the density of two objects. BLOCK OF WOOD: 1. Using the triple beam balance please find the mass of the wooden block, don t forget your units. 2. Using a ruler and the formula V = l x w x h find the volume of the block of wood. Remember units and a three-line minimum. L= W= H= 1. V=LWH 2. V = ( )( )( ) 3. V= 3. Please calculate the density of the block of wood. You must use a three-line minimum. ROCK 1. Using the triple beam balance please find the mass of the rock, don t forget your units. 2. Using the graduated cylinder and the water displacement can please find the volume of the rock, don t forget your units. 3. Please calculate the density of rock. You must use a three-line minimum. A) Which item is the most dense? B) Does this answer make sense to you? Why or why not? (If the answer is NO, you might want to redo your measurements!!! HINT HINT!!!) please include the word water in your answer.

36 Density Graph (#12) Due: Directions: Construct a graph that includes the information of 4 individual graphs on ONE graph. Use a colorcoded key AFTER plotting and drawing the line in pencil, to identify the different materials. I suggest you draw one line at a time to cut down on confusion. The Independent variable is: and goes on the axis. The Dependent variable is: and goes on the axis. Gold Rock Mass Volume Mass Volume 0 g 0 ml 0 g 0 ml 19 g 1 ml 25 g 10 ml 76 g 4 ml 145 g 18 ml 95 g 5 ml 90 g 36 ml Wood Water Mass Volume Mass Volume 0 g 0 ml 0 g 0 ml 6 g 10 ml 10 g 10 ml 18 g 30 ml 25 g 25 ml 48 g 80 ml 50 g 50 ml 60 g 100 ml 75 g 75 ml

37 Please Answer the following questions. Use sentences when needed and show all work (lists and 3 line minimums) when needed. Be sure to include units when needed. 1. Calculate the density of gold? 2. Calculate the density of wood? 3. Calculate the density of water? 4. Calculate the density of rock? 5. Does the amount of material you have affect the density of the material? 6. What is the mass of 40 ml of wood? (Use the graph) 7. What is the volume of a 30-gram rock? (Use the graph) 8. What does the steepness of the lines tell you about the density of the substance? 9. Wood is the only substance that floats in water. How can you tell this from the graph?

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