# STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Ma/er. Four States. Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

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1 STATES OF MATTER The Four States of Ma/er Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Four States

2 STATES OF MATTER Ø What makes a substance a par:cular state of ma<er? Ø Based upon par:cle arrangement Ø Based upon energy of par:cles Ø Based upon distance between par:cles

3 Kinetic Theory of Matter Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion. The more kinetic energy = the faster the particles move

4 STATES OF MATTER SOLIDS Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position. Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume.

5 STATES OF MATTER LIQUID Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another. Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume.

6 STATES OF MATTER Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely. GAS Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.

7 13.1 Kinetic Energy and Temperature Average Kinetic Energy The particles in any collection of atoms or molecules at a given temperature have a wide range of kinetic energies. Most of the particles have kinetic energies somewhere in the middle of this range.

8 13.1 Kinetic Energy and Temperature

9 13.1 Kinetic Energy and Temperature The temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substance. The higher the avg. kinetic energy = the higher the temperature

10 Celsius and Kelvin Scientists use either Celsius or Kelvin. K = C K is absolute zero No negative temps with Kelvin!

11 13.2 Evaporation Evaporation What is the relationship between evaporation and kinetic energy?

12 13.2 Evaporation The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor is called vaporization. Two types of vaporization : boiling and evaporation. When such a conversion occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling, the process is called evaporation.

13 13.2 Evaporation In an open container, molecules that evaporate can escape from the container.

14 13.2 Evaporation In a closed container, the molecules cannot escape. They collect as a vapor above the liquid. Some molecules condense back into a liquid.

15 13.2 Evaporation During evaporation, only those molecules with a certain minimum kinetic energy can escape from the surface of the liquid. This is why evaporation is a cooling process! What are some examples you can think of?

16 Gas Pressure What causes gas pressure? Gas pressure is caused by gas particles hitting the sides of their containers. More collisions = more pressure

17 13.2 Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure

18 13.2 Vapor Pressure Vapor pressure is a measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid.

19 13.2 Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure and Temperature Change An increase in the temperature of a contained liquid increases the vapor pressure. The particles in the warmed liquid have increased kinetic energy. As a result, more of the particles will have the minimum kinetic energy necessary to escape the surface of the liquid.

20 13.2 Vapor Pressure Substance with high vapor pressure evaporate more easily!

21 13.2 Boiling Point Boiling Point Under what conditions does boiling occur?

22 13.2 Boiling Point When a liquid is heated to a temperature at which particles throughout the liquid have enough kinetic energy to vaporize, the liquid begins to boil.

23 13.2 Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid is the boiling point (bp).

24 13.2 Boiling Point Boiling Point and Pressure Changes Because a liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the external pressure, liquids don t always boil at the same temperature. At a lower external pressure, the boiling point decreases. At a higher external pressure, the boiling point increases. What happens to boiling point of water at our altitude vs. sea level?

25 Sublimation When a substance changes from a solid to a gas without going through the liquid phase. Solids with a high vapor pressure can do this readily. (e.g. iodine, carbon dioxide)

26

27 STATES OF MATTER Recap SOLID LIQUID GAS PLASMA Tightly packed, in a regular pattern Vibrate, but do not move from place to place Close together with no regular arrangement. Vibrate, move about, and slide past each other Well separated with no regular arrangement. Vibrate and move freely at high speeds Has no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles

### Solids (cont.) Describe the movement of particles in a solid and the forces between them.

Solids A solid is matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume. The attractive forces between the particles in a solid are strong and pull them close together. Solids (cont.) Describe the movement

### Everything in the universe can be classified as either matter or energy. Kinetic Energy Theory: All particles of matter are in constant motion.

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