Properties of Matter. I like cheese

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1 Properties of Matter I like cheese

2 Matter All the stuff in the universe that is not energy (and also, not Dark Matter or Dark Energy if you don t know what they are don t worry ). The stuff that makes stuff in the universe Mass & Volume How would you classify matter??

3 Physical or Chemical Physical Directly Observable w/out changing the substance Phase (state), texture/color, flexibility, etc. Chemical Not Directly Observable; describes ability to change into another substance Reactivity, flammability, etc.

4 All matter can be classified by (physical) State Solid Definite volume Definite shape Molecules are in fixed positions (but vibrate) and close together 2 kinds Crystalline Atoms have rigid, fixed positions; regular Amorphous Atoms don t have fixed positions

5 How do you change from state to state?? ltimedia/chapter1/lesson2#heating_and_c ooling

6 More Liquid Definite volume Indefinite shape Molecules can move and slide past each other Gas Indefinite volume Indefinite shape Molecules can escape the liquid and move far apart FYI: Both liquids and gasses are considered FLUIDS substances that flow

7 Ponder this. What is pressure and what causes it? How can you change pressure of a gas?

8 With your lab partners Watch, draw pictures and/or take notes on each demonstration. Discuss with your group members what is occurring in each demo and come up with an explanation. Be ready to share your response with the class Hint: gas, pressure, temperature & volume will have everything to do with it!!!

9 Gas as Matter The LooLoo Magdeburg Hemispheres Thing The Crazy Burping Bottle Thing The Wacko Non-Burping Bottle Thing The Insane Hand-Boiler Thing The Unreal Upside-down Thermometer Thing The Nutty unaspirator Thing The Silly Mass of Air in a Can Thing The Mad Fire Syringe Thing

10 Boyle s Law What happens to gasses when you apply pressure to them?? Pa1/V or pressure is inversely proportional to volume As P increases, V decreases As P decreases, V increases

11 Charles Law What happens to gases when you heat them up / cool them down?? VaT or volume is proportional to temperature As T increases so does V As T decreases so does V

12 The Ideal Gas Law Really PV=nrT but we don t care about n&r now (you AHS) So we can say that PVaT

13 How do you change from state to state?? ltimedia/chapter1/lesson2#heating_and_c ooling

14 Plasma Such high energy that the electrons that orbit the nucleus of an atom are ripped away from the nucleus More abundant than you think!!! More on plasmas later!!

15 Change of State solid freeze melt condensation deionization liquid gas vaporization ionization plasma

16 More.. solid deposition sublimation gas

17 ΔT How is a solid different from a liquid gas or plasma??? Just in temperature! Temperature is the measure of the molecular motion in a substance.

18 T vs E

19 Fahrenheit Fahrenheit scale, used primarily in the US Freezing point of water is 32 degrees and the boiling point is 212 degrees while measured at standard pressure. Zero degrees Fahrenheit was the coldest temperature that the German born scientist Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit could create with a mixture of ice and ordinary salt. He is credited with the invention of the mercury thermometer and introduced it and his scale in 1714 in Holland, where he lived most of his life.

20 Celsius Devised by Swedish Astronomer Andres Celsius ( ) 100 degrees between the freezing point of 0 degrees and boiling point of 100 degrees of pure water at sea level air pressure. Term Celsius was adopted in 1948 by an international conference on weights and measures. This is the most widely used scale in the world.

21 Absolute Temperature (Kelvin) Invented by William Thomson, also know as Lord Kelvin British scientist who made important discoveries about heat in the 1800's.

22 Scientists have determined that the coldest it can get, in theory, is minus degrees Celsius. This temperature has never actually been reached, though scientists have come close. The value, minus degrees Celsius, is called Absolute Zero. At this temperature scientists believe that molecular motion would stop.

23 The Kelvin scale uses this number as zero. To get other temperatures in the Kelvin scale, you add 273 degrees to the Celsius temperature.

24 How to measure temperature Kelvin the absolute temperature scale based on molecular motion 0 K = C Absolute zero (0K) all molecular motion ceases Centigrade (Celsius) based on H 2 O FP = 0 BP = C = 1K in size so.. 125K =?? C Fahrenheit = dumb based on slush and body temp F = C(9/5)+32

25 Back to pressure Air Pressure: force of the gasses in the atmosphere pushing on us (on other things..) Gas Pressure: force(s) of specific gasses pushing on the container that they are in.

26 Sooo What is the relationship b/t temperature of a gas and its volume? What is the relationship b/t volume of a gas and the pressure it exerts? What is the relationship b/t temperature of a gas and the pressure it exerts?

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