Chapter Practice Test Grosser

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1 Class: Date: Chapter Practice Test Grosser Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of matter a. are in constant motion. c. have different colors. b. have different shapes. d. are always fluid. 2. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, gases condense into liquids because of a. gravity. c. forces between molecules. b. atmospheric pressure. d. elastic collisions. 3. Unlike in an ideal gas, in a real gas a. all particles move in the same direction. b. all particles have the same kinetic energy. c. the particles cannot diffuse. d. the particles exert attractive forces on each other. 4. Two gases have the same temperature but different pressures. The kinetic-molecular theory does not predict that a. molecules in both gases have the same average kinetic energies. b. molecules in the low-pressure gas travel farther before they collide with other molecules. c. both gases have the same densities. d. all collisions of the molecules are elastic. 5. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, which is the most significant difference between gases and liquids? a. the shapes of the particles b. the mass of each particle c. the distance between the particles d. the type of collision that occurs between particles 6. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of an ideal gas a. attract each other but do not collide. b. repel each other and collide. c. neither attract nor repel each other but collide. d. neither attract nor repel each other and do not collide. 7. What determines the average kinetic energy of the molecules of any gas? a. temperature c. container volume b. pressure d. molar mass 8. The density of a substance undergoes the greatest change when the substance changes from a a. liquid to a gas. c. solid to a liquid. b. liquid to a solid. d. a molecular solid to an ionic solid. 1

2 9. What happens to the volume of a gas during compression? a. The volume increases. b. The volume decreases. c. The volume remains constant. d. It is impossible to tell because all gases are different. 10. What is the process by which molecules of a gas randomly encounter and pass through a small opening in a container? a. diffusion c. distillation b. osmosis d. effusion 11. Which gases behave most like an ideal gas? a. gases composed of highly polar molecules b. gases composed of monatomic, nonpolar molecules c. gases composed of diatomic, polar molecules d. gases near their condensation temperatures 12. The particles in both gases and liquids a. consist only of atoms. b. can change positions with other particles. c. can only vibrate in fixed positions. d. are packed closely together. 13. The intermolecular forces between particles are a. weaker in solids than in liquids. b. stronger in gases than in solids. c. equal in strength in gases and in liquids. d. stronger in liquids than in gases. 14. The particles in a liquid are usually a. closer together and lower in energy than those in a solid. b. farther apart and higher in energy than those in a gas. c. closer together and lower in energy than those in a gas. d. farther apart and lower in energy than those in a solid. 15. Which of these best describes vaporization? a. the process by which a liquid changes to a gas b. the process by which a solid changes to a gas c. Both (a) and (b) d. Neither (a) nor (b) 16. Which of these can happen due to decreasing the average energy of a liquid's particles? a. vaporization c. a random arrangement b. evaporation d. freezing 17. Forces holding particles together are strongest in a a. solid. c. gas. b. liquid. d. vapor. 2

3 18. The energy of the particles in a solid is a. higher than the energy of the particles in a gas. b. high enough to allow the particles to interchange with other particles. c. higher than the energy of the particles in a liquid. d. lower than the energy of the particles in liquids and gases. 19. Solids have a definite volume because a. the particles do not have a tendency to change positions. b. the particles are far apart. c. they can be easily compressed. d. the energy of the particles is high. 20. Which of the following properties do solids share with liquids? a. fluidity c. definite volume b. definite shape d. slow rate of diffusion 21. Which of the following is a crystalline solid? a. a plastic milk container c. a glass bottle b. a quartz rock d. a three-dimensional glass cube 22. When energy as heat is applied to a liquid-vapor system at equilibrium, a new equilibrium state will have a. a higher percentage of liquid. c. equal amounts of liquid and vapor. b. a higher percentage of vapor. d. all liquid. 23. If the temperature of a liquid-vapor system at equilibrium is reduced, the a. concentration of the vapor will decrease. b. rate of evaporation will increase. c. equilibrium is unaffected. d. percentage of liquid in the system will decrease. 24. The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure conditions at which a. density is greatest. b. states of a substance coexist at equilibrium. c. equilibrium cannot occur. d. kinetic energy is at a minimum. 3

4 25. According to the figure below, what is the least volitile substance shown? a. benzene c. toluene b. water d. aniline 26. The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is a. the same for all liquids. b. measured only at 0 C. c. constant for a particular liquid at all temperatures. d. the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. 27. A volatile liquid a. has strong attractive forces between particles. b. evaporates readily. c. has no odor. d. is ionic. 28. The equilibrium vapor pressure of water is a. constant at all temperatures. b. specific for any given temperature. c. unrelated to temperature. d. inversely proportional to the temperature. 29. At pressures greater than 1 atm, water will boil at a. a temperature higher than 100 C. c. 100 C. b. a temperature lower than 100 C. d. 4 C. 30. Glycerol boils at a slightly higher temperature than water. This reveals that glycerol's attractive forces are a. nonexistent. c. the same as those of water. b. weaker than those of water. d. stronger than those of water. 4

5 31. Why doesn't water in lakes and ponds of temperate climates freeze solid during the winter and kill nearly all the living things it contains? a. Water is colorless. b. Ice floats. c. The molar enthalpy of fusion of ice is relatively low. d. Water contracts as it freezes. 32. The standard molar enthalpy of vaporization for water is kj/mol. What mass of steam is required to release 500. kj of energy upon condensation? (Molar mass of water is g/mol.) a. 221 g c g b. 325 g d g 33. Pressure is the force per unit a. volume. c. length. b. surface area. d. depth. 34. What does the constant bombardment of gas molecules against the inside walls of a container produce? a. temperature c. pressure b. density d. diffusion 35. If the height of mercury in a barometer at 0 C is less than 760 mm Hg, then a. the atmospheric pressure is less than standard atmospheric pressure. b. the atmospheric pressure is greater than standard atmospheric pressure. c. the atmospheric pressure is equal to standard atmospheric pressure. d. the atmospheric pressure cannot be determined. 36. Convert the pressure atm to mm Hg. a. 365 mm Hg c. 638 mm Hg b. 437 mm Hg d. 780 mm Hg 37. Convert the pressure 2.50 atm to kpa. a. 1 kpa c. 760 kpa b. 253 kpa d kpa 38. Standard pressure is the pressure exerted by a column of mercury exactly a. 273 mm high. c. 760 cm high. b. 760 mm high. d m high. 39. To correct for the partial pressure of water vapor in a gas collection bottle, the vapor pressure of H 2 O at the collecting temperature is generally a. subtracted from the partial pressure of the collected gas. b. added to the pressure of the collected gas. c. subtracted from the atmospheric pressure. d. added to the atmospheric pressure. 5

6 Use the table below to answer the following questions. Water Vapor Pressure Temperature ( C) Pressure (mm Hg) What is the partial pressure of water vapor in oxygen gas collected by water displacement at 10 C and 750 mm Hg? a. 9.2 mm Hg c. 6.5 mm Hg b mm Hg d mm Hg 41. A sample of oxygen occupies 560. ml when the pressure is mm Hg. At constant temperature, what volume does the gas occupy when the pressure decreases to mm Hg? a ml c ml b ml d ml 42. If the temperature of a fixed quantity of gas decreases and the pressure remains unchanged, a. its volume increases. c. its volume decreases. b. its volume is unchanged. d. its density decreases. 43. At 7.0 C, the volume of a gas is 49 ml. At the same pressure, its volume is 74 ml at what temperature? a. 3.0 C c. 120 C b. 423 C d. 150 C 44. If the temperature of a fixed quantity and volume of gas changes, what also changes? a. pressure c. mass b. density d. formula 45. On a cold winter morning when the temperature is 13 C, the air pressure in an automobile tire is 1.5 atm. If the volume does not change, what is the pressure after the tire has warmed to 15 C? a. 1.5 atm c. 3.0 atm b. 1.7 atm d atm 46. The pressure of a sample of gas at 10.0 C increases from 700. mm Hg to 900. mm Hg. What is the new temperature? a. 0 C c C b. 364 C d C 6

7 47. The volume of a gas collected when the temperature is 11.0 C and the pressure is 710 mm Hg measures 14.8 ml. What is the calculated volume of the gas at 20.0 C and 740 mm Hg? a. 7.8 ml c ml b ml d. 15 ml 48. If 0.5 L of O 2 (g) reacts with H 2 to produce 1 L of H 2 O(g), what is the volume of H 2 O(g) obtained from 1 L of O 2 (g)? a. 0.5 L c. 2 L b. 1.5 L d. 2.5 L 49. What is the number of moles of H 2 produced when 23 g of sodium react with water according to the equation 2Na(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g)? a mol c. 2.0 mol b. 1.0 mol d. 4.0 mol 50. According to Avogadro's law, 1 L of H 2 (g) and 1 L of O 2 (g) at the same temperature and pressure a. have the same mass. b. have unequal volumes. c. contain 1 mol of gas each. d. contain equal numbers of molecules. 51. The gas pressure inside a container decreases when a. the number of gas molecules is increased. b. the number of gas molecules is decreased. c. the temperature is increased. d. the number of molecules is increased and the temperature is increased. 52. The standard molar volume of a gas at STP is a L. c. g-mol wt/22.4 L. b. g/22.4 L. d. 1 L. 53. Chlorine is produced by the reaction 2HCl(g) H 2 (g) + Cl 2 (g). How many grams of HCl (36.5 g/mol) must be used to produce 10.0 L of chlorine at STP? a g c g b g d g 54. Calculate the approximate volume of a mol sample of gas at 15.0 C and a pressure of 1.10 atm. a L c L b L d. 139 L 55. What is the pressure exerted by 1.2 mol of a gas with a temperature of 20. C and a volume of 9.5 L? a atm c. 3.0 atm b. 1.0 atm d. 30. atm 56. A sample of gas at 25 C has a volume of 11 L and exerts a pressure of 660 mm Hg. How many moles of gas are in the sample? a mol c. 9.3 mol b. 3.9 mol d. 87 mol 7

8 57. A gas sample with a mass of 12.8 g exerts a pressure of 1.2 atm at 15 C and a volume of 3.94 L. What is the molar mass of the gas? a. 19 g/mol c. 64 g/mol b. 32 g/mol d. 128 g/mol 58. If a gas with an odor is released in a room, it can quickly be detected across the room because it a. diffuses. c. is compressed. b. is dense. d. condenses. 59. According to Graham's law, the rates of effusion of two gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to a. their volumes. c. their compressibilities. b. the square roots of their molar masses. d. their rates of vaporization. 60. What determines the average kinetic energy of the molecules of any gas? a. temperature c. temperature and pressure b. pressure d. molar mass 61. According to Graham's law, two gases at the same temperature and pressure will have different rates of effusion because they have different a. volumes. c. kinetic energies. b. molar masses. d. condensation points. Use the table below to answer the following questions. Element Atomic Mass Argon Bromine Carbon Chlorine Fluorine Helium Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen How many times greater is the rate of effusion of oxygen gas than that of carbon dioxide gas at the same temperature and pressure? a c b d A sample of helium diffuses 4.57 times faster than an unknown gas diffuses. What is the molar mass of the unknown gas? a. 12 g/mol c g/mol b g/mol d g/mol 64. Which of the following is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter? a. chemical kinetics c. reaction rate b. thermochemistry d. temperature 8

9 65. Which of the following best describes temperature? a. energy as heat absorbed or released in a chemical or physical change b. a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter c. energy in the form of heat d. energy of change 66. The greater the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, a. the higher the temperature is. b. the lower the temperature is. c. the more energy is absorbed by the sample in the form of heat. d. the less energy is released by the sample in the form of heat. 67. Energy is measured in units of a. grams. c. pounds. b. joules. d. kelvin. 68. What units are used to measure energy as heat? a. joules/mole or kilojoules/mole c. joules or kilojoules b. kelvins or degrees Celsius d. None of the above 69. What is the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 C or 1 K? a. specific heat c. heat capacity b. heat energy d. enthalpy of formation 70. What units are used to measure specific heat? a. J/(g C) c. cal/(g C) b. J/(g K) d. All of the above 71. The q in thermodynamic equations is a. temperature. c. specific heat. b. mass. d. energy lost or gained. 72. How much energy does a copper sample absorb as energy in the form of heat if its specific heat is J/(g C), its mass is 8.00 g, and it is heated from 10.0 C to 40.0 C? a J/(g C) c J b J d J/(g C) 73. Find the specific heat of a material if a 6.0 g sample absorbs 50. J when it is heated from 30 C to 50 C. a J c J b J/(g C) d J/(g C) 74. A 5.0 g sample of silver is heated from 0 C to 35 C and absorbs 42 J of energy as heat. What is the specific heat of silver? a J c J b J/(g C) d J(g C) 9

10 Short Answer Use the figure below to answer the following questions. 75. What do points E represent in the figure above? 76. What does point A represent in the figure above? 77. Explain what the curves AB, AC, and AD represent in the figure above. 78. Why do your ears "pop" in an airplane? 79. What are standard temperature and pressure? Why is a standard necessary? Problem 80. Given that benzoic acid has a molar mass of g/mol and a 52.9 g sample of benzoic acid absorbs 7.83 kj when it melts, a. calculate the number of moles in the sample. b. calculate the molar enthalpy of fusion of benzoic acid. 81. a. Calculate the number of moles in a liquid sample of sodium that has a molar enthalpy of fusion of 2.60 kj/mol, given that the sample releases 41.4 kj when it freezes. b. Calculate the molar mass of sodium if the mass of the sample is 363 g. 82. Iron has a molar enthalpy of fusion of kj/mol. Calculate the molar mass of the substance, given that a g sample of iron absorbs kj on melting. 83. Given that water has a molar enthalpy of vaporization of kj/mol, how many grams of water could be vaporized by 623 J? 10

11 Use the table below to answer the following questions. Element Atomic Mass Argon Bromine Carbon Chlorine Fluorine Helium Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen A gas sprayed from an aerosol can effuse 2.08 times slower than nitrogen diffuses. What is the molar mass of the unknown gas? 85. A steam vent releases an unknown gas along with steam. This gas travels 1.56 times as slowly as the steam. What is the molar mass of the unknown gas? 11

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