Thermodynamics and States of Matter

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Thermodynamics and States of Matter"

Transcription

1 Thermodynamics and States of Matter

2 There are three states (also called phases) ) of matter. The picture to the side represents the same chemical substance, just in different states.

3 There are three states (also called phases) ) of matter. Solid: : Matter that has both a definite shape and definite volume. Molecules or atoms are very close together and can only vibrate a little. They do not move past each other.

4 There are three states (also called phases) ) of matter. Liquid: : Matter that has a distinct volume but no specific shape. Molecules or atoms are close together but have the ability to slide across one another very easily.

5 There are three states (also called phases) ) of matter. Gas: : matter that has no fixed volume or shape. It conforms to the volume and shape of its container. Its molecules or atoms are very far apart from each other and move very fast.

6 Density Comparison If you consider the solid, liquid, and gas state of one particular substance, this rule holds true in most cases: Solid is more dense than liquid Liquid is more dense than gas

7 Water is Weird A notable exception is water! The solid state of H2O, ice, is less dense than liquid water. This is why ice floats. This is true because of the way hydrogen bonds form when liquid water freezes. The hexagonal pattern results in empty space between the molecules.

8

9 Liquids Fluidity liquids (and gases) have the ability to flow.

10 Liquids Viscosity the measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow. Cold pancake syrup is very resistant to flow it is viscous. Water flows easily it is less viscous.

11 Viscosity Viscosity decreases with temperature. Ex: heating up the syrup in the microwave makes it pour easier.

12 Phase change The temperature of a substance is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in the substance. Gas > Liquid > Solid Matter can change from one phase to another by adding or removing energy. There are six phase changes.

13 Phase Change terms Solid Liquid Melting Liquid Solid Freezing Liquid Gas Boiling / Vaporization Gas Liquid Condensation Solid Gas Sublimation Gas Solid Deposition

14 Phase Change Diagram

15 Phase Change Atmospheric pressure plays a role in phase change as well. At higher elevations (lower atmospheric pressure) the boiling point of a liquid is much lower. (ex. Water boils below 100 C) It is possible to boil water at room temperature. How?

16 Phase Diagram A phase diagram shows what phase a substance will be in at a certain temperature and pressure. Pressure is measured in atmospheres (atm( atm).

17 Phase Diagram Triple Point is the point on a phase diagram that shows the temperature and pressure combination at which three phases of a substance can coexist.

18 Heat Heat is a form of energy. What unit is energy measured in? (think back to kinetic and potential energy) Joules (J)

19 3 Ways to transfer heat: Conduction transfer of heat by contact. Ex) frying pan heating up a piece of meat Convection transfer of heat through fluids (liquid or gas). Ex) convection oven heating up a piece of meat Radiation transfer of heat by electromagnetic radiation. Ex) microwave or light bulb heating up a piece of meat

20 Specific Heat It takes time for water in a swimming pool to warm up during the early part of the year. Once it is warmed, it cools down slowly when the outside temperature drops. It takes time to heat up a pot of water to boiling, then after turning off the heat takes time to cool. This property of water that you have probably observed is called specific heat.

21 Specific Heat Specific heat - Measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 C. 1 Ex) Water has a specific heat of 4.18 J/g C. This means it takes 4.18 Joules of heat to raise 1 g of water by 1 C. 1 On the other hand, you must remove 4.18 Joules of heat to lower a 1 g sample of water by 1 C.

22 Specific Heats of Various Substances Which substance has the lowest heat capacity? Which has the highest heat capacity? What does that tell you about how the temperatures of these substances will fluctuate? How might your body being mostly water help you to survive?

23 Specific Heat The equation relating heat energy to specific heat capacity is: Q = m c Tc where Q is the heat energy put into or taken out of the substance, m is the mass of the substance, c is the specific heat capacity, and T is the change in temperature.

Gases and States of Matter: Unit 8

Gases and States of Matter: Unit 8 Gases and States of Matter: Unit 8 States of Matter There are three states (also called phases) of matter. The picture represents the same chemical substance, just in different states. There are three

More information

Liquids & Solids: Section 12.3

Liquids & Solids: Section 12.3 Liquids & Solids: Section 12.3 MAIN IDEA: The particles in and have a range of motion and are not easily. Why is it more difficult to pour syrup that is stored in the refrigerator than in the cabinet?

More information

Science 8 Chapter 7 Section 1

Science 8 Chapter 7 Section 1 Science 8 Chapter 7 Section 1 Describing Fluids (pp. 268-277) What is a fluid? Fluid: any thing that flows; a liquid or a gas While it would seem that some solids flow (sugar, salt, etc), they are not

More information

Section 16.3 Phase Changes

Section 16.3 Phase Changes Section 16.3 Phase Changes Solid Liquid Gas 3 Phases of Matter Density of Matter How packed matter is (The amount of matter in a given space) Solid: Liquid: Gas: High Density Medium Density Low Density

More information

Chapter 21: Temperature, Heat and Expansion

Chapter 21: Temperature, Heat and Expansion Chapter 21: Temperature, Heat and Expansion All matter solid, liquid and gas is made of atoms or molecules, which are continually jiggling. As this jiggling is a movement, all these particles must have

More information

q = m. C p. T q = heat (Joules) m = mass (g) C p = specific heat (J/g.o C) T = change in temp. ( o C) UNIT 11 - SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, & PHASE CHANGES

q = m. C p. T q = heat (Joules) m = mass (g) C p = specific heat (J/g.o C) T = change in temp. ( o C) UNIT 11 - SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, & PHASE CHANGES HEAT ENERGY NOTES UNIT 11 - SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, & PHASE CHANGES SECTION (A): same temp or change? SECTION (B): same temp or change? temp is called the energy difference at same temp = SECTION (C): same temp

More information

Duncan. Q = m. C p. T. Q = heat (Joules) m = mass (g) C p = specific heat capacity (J/g.o C) T = change in temp. ( o C)

Duncan. Q = m. C p. T. Q = heat (Joules) m = mass (g) C p = specific heat capacity (J/g.o C) T = change in temp. ( o C) HEAT ENERGY NOTES SECTION (A): phase(s) of matter = SECTION (B): phase(s) of matter = energy difference at same temp = temp is called the SECTION (C): phase(s) of matter = SECTION (D): phase(s) of matter

More information

Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page!1. Chemistry A States of Matter Packet

Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page!1. Chemistry A States of Matter Packet Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page!1 Chemistry A States of Matter Packet Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page!2 Worksheet #1: States of Matter In this packet we will

More information

Solid to liquid. Liquid to gas. Gas to solid. Liquid to solid. Gas to liquid. +energy. -energy

Solid to liquid. Liquid to gas. Gas to solid. Liquid to solid. Gas to liquid. +energy. -energy 33 PHASE CHANGES - To understand solids and liquids at the molecular level, it will help to examine PHASE CHANGES in a little more detail. A quick review of the phase changes... Phase change Description

More information

Thermochemistry. The study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state.

Thermochemistry. The study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state. Energy Thermochemistry The study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state. The Nature of Energy Energy - the ability to do work or produce heat Energy is stored in the

More information

What are the states of Matter?

What are the states of Matter? What are the states of Matter? Solid Lowest energy/heat Molecules barely moving Definite, uniform shape Example: ice States of Matter Liquid Medium energy/heat Molecules slowly moving Shape of container

More information

* Defining Temperature * Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. * Temperature * Internal energy

* Defining Temperature * Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. * Temperature * Internal energy * Defining Temperature * We associate temperature with how hot or cold an object feels. * Our sense of touch serves as a qualitative indicator of temperature. * Energy must be either added or removed from

More information

q = m x C x ΔT or, think of it as unit cancellation: = ( ) (

q = m x C x ΔT or, think of it as unit cancellation: = ( ) ( Chemistry Ms. Ye Name Date Block Heat, Kinetic Energy, and Changes in State of Matter *Kinetic Energy=the energy associated with *Temperature=measure of the of a sample. *Heat=is measured as the that is

More information

Preview. Heat Section 1. Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium. Section 2 Defining Heat. Section 3 Changes in Temperature and Phase

Preview. Heat Section 1. Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium. Section 2 Defining Heat. Section 3 Changes in Temperature and Phase Heat Section 1 Preview Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium Section 2 Defining Heat Section 3 Changes in Temperature and Phase Heat Section 1 TEKS The student is expected to: 6E describe how the

More information

Thermodynamics - Heat Transfer June 04, 2013

Thermodynamics - Heat Transfer June 04, 2013 THERMODYNAMICS - Heat and Heat Transfer: Heat (Q) is a form of Energy that is transferred between an object and another object or its surrounding environment due to a difference in Temperature. Heat is

More information

Solids (cont.) Describe the movement of particles in a solid and the forces between them.

Solids (cont.) Describe the movement of particles in a solid and the forces between them. Solids A solid is matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume. The attractive forces between the particles in a solid are strong and pull them close together. Solids (cont.) Describe the movement

More information

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change. Chapter 12: States of Matter

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change. Chapter 12: States of Matter CHEMISTRY Matter and Change Chapter 12: States of Matter CHAPTER 12 States of Matter Section 12.1 Section 12.2 Section 12.3 Section 12.4 Gases Forces of Attraction Liquids and Solids Phase Changes Click

More information

Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat Thermodynamics Starting a different area of physics called thermodynamics Thermodynamics focuses on energy rather than

More information

Chapter 8. Chapter 8. Preview. Bellringer. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter. Objectives. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter, continued

Chapter 8. Chapter 8. Preview. Bellringer. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter. Objectives. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter, continued States of Matter Preview Bellringer Section 2 Behavior of Gases In the kitchen, you might find three different forms of water. What are these three forms of water, and where exactly in the kitchen would

More information

Matter & Energy. Objectives: properties and structures of the different states of matter.

Matter & Energy. Objectives: properties and structures of the different states of matter. Matter & Energy Objectives: 1. Use the kinetic theory to describe the properties and structures of the different states of matter. 2. Describe energy transfers involved in changes of state. 3. Describe

More information

3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change

3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change A large iceberg contains enough fresh water to supply millions of people with water for a year. As it moves into warmer areas, the ice changes to liquid water and eventually disappears. What happens when

More information

relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure.

relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure. 1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the least common state of matter is the liquid state. a) Liquids can exist only within a relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure. 2) The kinetic-molecular

More information

Notes: Matter & Change (text Ch. 1 &10)

Notes: Matter & Change (text Ch. 1 &10) Name Per. Notes: Matter & Change (text Ch. 1 &10) NOTE: This set of class notes is not complete. We will be filling in information in class. If you are absent, it is your responsibility to get missing

More information

A).5 atm B) 1 atm C) 1.5 atm D) 2 atm E) it is impossible to tell

A).5 atm B) 1 atm C) 1.5 atm D) 2 atm E) it is impossible to tell 1. ne atmosphere is equivalent to A) 1.00 g ml 1 B) 22,400 ml ) 273 K D) 760. mmhg E) 298 K 2. A cylinder contains 2.50 L of air at a pressure of 5.00 atmospheres. At what volume, will the air exert a

More information

Chapter 11. Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 11. Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Chapter 11. Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids A Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids Physical properties of substances are understood in terms of kinetic-molecular theory: Gases

More information

Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page 1. Chemistry A States of Matter Packet

Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page 1. Chemistry A States of Matter Packet Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page 1 Chemistry A States of Matter Packet Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page 2 Worksheet #1: States of Matter In this packet we will

More information

Phase Change Diagram. Rank Solids, liquids and gases from weakest attractive forces to strongest:

Phase Change Diagram. Rank Solids, liquids and gases from weakest attractive forces to strongest: Unit 11 Kinetic molecular theory packet Page 1 of 13 Chemistry Unit 11 Kinetic Theory Unit Quiz: Test Objectives Be able to define pressure and memorize the basic pressure units. Be able to convert to/from:

More information

Chapter 3 Phases of Matter Physical Science

Chapter 3 Phases of Matter Physical Science Chapter 3 Phases of Matter Physical Science CH 3- States of Matter 1 What makes up matter? What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas? What kind of energy do all particles of matter have?

More information

PHASE CHANGES. * melting * boiling * sublimation. * freezing * condensation * deposition. vs.

PHASE CHANGES. * melting * boiling * sublimation. * freezing * condensation * deposition. vs. PHASE CHANGES endothermic * melting * boiling * sublimation vs. vs. exothermic * freezing * condensation * deposition H enthalpy: heat content of a system under constant pressure HEATING CURVE: Where is

More information

Phase Change: solid to liquid. Melting

Phase Change: solid to liquid. Melting Phase Change: solid to liquid Melting Most solids shrink in size when frozen. What substance is an exception and actually expands? water Use the phase diagram below to answer the following question. What

More information

Chapter Practice Test Grosser

Chapter Practice Test Grosser Class: Date: Chapter 10-11 Practice Test Grosser Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of

More information

Changes of State. Substances in equilibrium change back and forth between states at equal speeds. Main Idea

Changes of State. Substances in equilibrium change back and forth between states at equal speeds. Main Idea Section 4 s Substances in equilibrium change back and forth between states at equal speeds. A liquid boils when it has absorbed enough energy to evaporate. Freezing occurs when a substance loses enough

More information

Water SECTION The properties of water in all phases are determined by its structure.

Water SECTION The properties of water in all phases are determined by its structure. SECTION 10.5 Water Water commonly exists in all three physical states on Earth, where it is by far the most abundant liquid. It covers nearly three-quarters of Earth s surface. Water is an essential component

More information

PHASE CHANGE. Freezing Sublimation

PHASE CHANGE. Freezing Sublimation Melting Graphic Organizer Deposition PHASE CHANGE Freezing Sublimation Boiling Evaporation Condensation PHASE CHANGE Phase change happens as the temperature changes. All matter can move from one state

More information

Chapter 14: Liquids and Solids

Chapter 14: Liquids and Solids I. Phases of matter and phase changes a. Recall the three main phases of matter: Chapter 14: Liquids and Solids Energy is involved during the transition from one phase of matter to another. You should

More information

Chapter 13 States of Matter Forces of Attraction 13.3 Liquids and Solids 13.4 Phase Changes

Chapter 13 States of Matter Forces of Attraction 13.3 Liquids and Solids 13.4 Phase Changes Chapter 13 States of Matter 13.2 Forces of Attraction 13.3 Liquids and Solids 13.4 Phase Changes I. Forces of Attraction (13.2) Intramolecular forces? (forces within) Covalent Bonds, Ionic Bonds, and metallic

More information

THE PHASES OF MATTER. Solid: holds its shape and does not flow. The molecules in a solid vibrate in place, but on average, don t move very far.

THE PHASES OF MATTER. Solid: holds its shape and does not flow. The molecules in a solid vibrate in place, but on average, don t move very far. THE QUESTIONS What are the phases of matter? What makes these phases different from each other? What is the difference between melting, freezing, boiling and condensation? How do you interpret a Temperature

More information

Page 1 SPH3U. Heat. What is Heat? Thermal Physics. Waterloo Collegiate Institute. Some Definitions. Still More Heat

Page 1 SPH3U. Heat. What is Heat? Thermal Physics. Waterloo Collegiate Institute. Some Definitions. Still More Heat SPH3U Thermal Physics electrons and holes in semiconductors An Introductory ourse in Thermodynamics converting energy into work magnetism thin films and surface chemistry thermal radiation (global warming)

More information

Name Chemistry / / Understanding Phase Changes

Name Chemistry / / Understanding Phase Changes Name Chemistry / / Understanding Phase Changes As a piece of ice is exposed to a warmer environment, it begins to absorb heat. The heat causes the solid molecules to vibrate faster. Eventually, the ice

More information

1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the common state of matter is the liquid state.

1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the common state of matter is the liquid state. I. Properties of LIQUIDS: 1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the common state of matter is the liquid state. a) can exist only within a relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure. 2) The kinetic-molecular

More information

SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES

SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES 30 SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES * Gas molecules are small compared to the space between them. * Gas molecules move in straight lines

More information

Ch. 11 States of matter

Ch. 11 States of matter Ch. 11 States of matter States of Matter Solid Definite volume Definite shape Liquid Definite volume Indefinite shape (conforms to container) Gas Indefinite volume (fills any container) Indefinite shape

More information

CHM Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) Charles Taylor 1/9

CHM Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) Charles Taylor 1/9 CHM 111 - Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) - 2015 Charles Taylor 1/9 Introduction In CHM 110, we used kinetic theory to explain the behavior of gases. Now, we will discuss solids and liquids. While

More information

Ch10.4 Attractive Forces

Ch10.4 Attractive Forces Ch10.4 Attractive Forces Intermolecular Forces are the forces holding molecules to each other. Solids have strong forces Gases (vapor) have weak forces Intermolecular forces determine the phase of matter.

More information

Everything in the universe can be classified as either matter or energy. Kinetic Energy Theory: All particles of matter are in constant motion.

Everything in the universe can be classified as either matter or energy. Kinetic Energy Theory: All particles of matter are in constant motion. Physical Science Everything in the universe can be classified as either matter or energy. Kinetic Energy Theory: All particles of matter are in constant motion. State of Matter Bose- Einstein Condensate

More information

Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Temperature Scales 1/17/11

Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Temperature Scales 1/17/11 Energy, Temperature, & Heat Energy is the ability to do work (push, pull, lift) on some form of matter. Chapter 2 Potential energy is the potential for work (mass x gravity x height) Kinetic energy is

More information

PRACTICE TEST Topic 5: Heating, Cooling, and Phase Diagrams

PRACTICE TEST Topic 5: Heating, Cooling, and Phase Diagrams PRACTICE TEST Topic 5: Heating, Cooling, and Phase Diagrams Directions: Use the heating graph below to answer the following questions. Known Melting Point Data Name of Chemical Lauric Acid Naphthalene

More information

The Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Chapter 6 HEAT

The Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Chapter 6 HEAT The Kinetic Theory of Matter Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Chapter 6 HEAT Kinetic Theory of Matter: Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) that are always in

More information

We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much its temperature will change heat capacity.

We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much its temperature will change heat capacity. 3/3 Measuring Heat If all we do is add heat to a system its temperature will rise. How much the temperature rises depends on the system. We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much

More information

Notes: Matter and Change

Notes: Matter and Change Name Chemistry-PAP Notes: Matter and Change Period: I. What is Chemistry? is the study of composition, structure, and properties of matter and energy associated with the changes it undergoes. is defined

More information

Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy

Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy By now you know that substances are made of atoms and molecules. These atoms and molecules are always in motion and have attractions to each other. When

More information

The physical state of a substance can be changed by increasing or decreasing its temperature.

The physical state of a substance can be changed by increasing or decreasing its temperature. Chemistry Lecture #63: Changes of State The physical state of a substance can be changed by increasing or decreasing its temperature. For example, a solid substance can be converted into a liquid by heating

More information

Practice Packet: Energy. Regents Chemistry: Dr. Shanzer. Practice Packet. Chapter 4: Energy.

Practice Packet: Energy. Regents Chemistry: Dr. Shanzer. Practice Packet. Chapter 4: Energy. Regents Chemistry: Dr. Shanzer Practice Packet Chapter 4: Energy http:/drshanzerchemistry.weebly.com Energy Objectives Define energy. Demonstrate the difference between endothermic and exothermic reactions

More information

Chapter 7.1. States of Matter

Chapter 7.1. States of Matter Chapter 7.1 States of Matter In this chapter... we will learn about matter and different states of matter, many of which we are already familiar with! Learning about Kinetic Molecular Theory will help

More information

Chapter 3. Preview. Section 1 Three States of Matter. Section 2 Behavior of Gases. Section 3 Changes of State. States of Matter.

Chapter 3. Preview. Section 1 Three States of Matter. Section 2 Behavior of Gases. Section 3 Changes of State. States of Matter. States of Matter Preview Section 1 Three States of Matter Section 2 Behavior of Gases Section 3 Changes of State Concept Mapping Section 1 Three States of Matter Bellringer In the kitchen, you might find

More information

- As for the liquids, the properties of different solids often differ considerably. Compare a sample of candle wax to a sample of quartz.

- As for the liquids, the properties of different solids often differ considerably. Compare a sample of candle wax to a sample of quartz. 32 SOLIDS * Molecules are usually packed closer together in the solid phase than in the gas or liquid phases. * Molecules are not free to move around each other as in the liquid phase. Molecular/atomic

More information

Thermal Energy. Thermal Energy is the TRANSFER of kinetic energy between two objects that are at different temperatures.

Thermal Energy. Thermal Energy is the TRANSFER of kinetic energy between two objects that are at different temperatures. Thermal Energy Thermal Energy is the TRANSFER of kinetic energy between two objects that are at different temperatures. And remember: heat will always transfer from a warm object to a cold object. HEAT

More information

Soluble: A solute that dissolves in a specific solvent. Insoluble: A solute that will not dissolve in a specific solvent. "Like Dissolves Like"

Soluble: A solute that dissolves in a specific solvent. Insoluble: A solute that will not dissolve in a specific solvent. Like Dissolves Like Solutions Homogeneous Mixtures Solutions: Mixtures that contain two or more substances called the solute and the solvent where the solute dissolves in the solvent so the solute and solvent are not distinguishable

More information

Unit 14. States of Matter & Thermochemistry

Unit 14. States of Matter & Thermochemistry Unit 14 Flashback: States of Matter & Thermochemistry Characteristic Solids Liquids Gases Shape Volume Density Fluidity Compressibility Picture Phase Diagram Shows the relationship between solid, liquid,

More information

Solid water floats on liquid water High surface tension Universal solvent High specific heat High heat of vaporization

Solid water floats on liquid water High surface tension Universal solvent High specific heat High heat of vaporization Solid water floats on liquid water High surface tension Universal solvent High specific heat High heat of vaporization Two Hydrogen One Oxygen Share electrons covalent bonds Bent molecule Covalent bonds

More information

Chapter 14 Heat and Temperature Notes

Chapter 14 Heat and Temperature Notes Chapter 14 Heat and Temperature Notes Section 1: Temperature The degree of or of an object. Related to the of an object s atoms or molecules What makes something hot? o Particles that make up o They have

More information

Physical Science Chapter 5 Cont3. Temperature & Heat

Physical Science Chapter 5 Cont3. Temperature & Heat Physical Science Chapter 5 Cont3 Temperature & Heat What are we going to study? Heat Transfer Phases of Matter The Kinetic Theory of Gases Thermodynamics Specific Heat (Capacity) Specific Heat Latent Heat

More information

Matter and Energy I. Matter Matter is anything that has mass and volume Mass Amount of matter Measured in grams (g) Volume Space matter occupies

Matter and Energy I. Matter Matter is anything that has mass and volume Mass Amount of matter Measured in grams (g) Volume Space matter occupies Matter and Energy I. Matter Matter is anything that has mass and volume Mass Amount of matter Measured in grams (g) Volume Space matter occupies Measured in milliliters (ml), liters (L) or cubic centimeters

More information

Chemistry Joke. Once you ve seen 6.02 x You ve seen a mole!

Chemistry Joke. Once you ve seen 6.02 x You ve seen a mole! States of Matter Chemistry Joke Once you ve seen 6.02 x 10 23 atoms You ve seen a mole! Kinetic Theory Kinetic Theory explains the states of matter based on the concept that the particles in all forms

More information

The properties of water in all phases are determined by its structure.

The properties of water in all phases are determined by its structure. Section 5 Water Water is a familiar substance in all three physical states: solid, liquid, and gas. On Earth, water is by far the most abundant liquid. Oceans, rivers, and lakes cover about 75% of Earth

More information

SPH3U1 Lesson 03 Energy

SPH3U1 Lesson 03 Energy THERMAL ENERGY AND LATENT HEAT LEARNING GOALS Students will learn: Heat changes the amount of thermal energy in an object Temperature is a measure of the average thermal energy in an object Heat capacity

More information

Heat and Temperature

Heat and Temperature Heat and Temperature Temperature What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? Intro: Discussion A person from Seattle

More information

Liquids and Solids: The Molecular Kinetic Theory II. Unit 5

Liquids and Solids: The Molecular Kinetic Theory II. Unit 5 Liquids and Solids: The Molecular Kinetic Theory II Unit 5 Energy Definition Energy is the ability to do work. The ability to make something happen. Different Kinds of Energy: Heat (Thermal) Energy energy

More information

ENTROPY

ENTROPY ENTROPY 6.2.8 6.2.11 ENTHALPY VS. ENTROPY ENTROPY (S) the disorder of a system - solid liquid gas = entropy - gas liquid solid = entropy - mixing substances always = entropy SPONTANEOUS VS. NONSPONTANEOUS

More information

Lesson 9: States of Matter

Lesson 9: States of Matter Lesson 9: States of Matter Do Now 6O, 6S 11.8.18 Take out HW 6.14 to be checked. Copy info into CJ keep CJ out and open on desk throughout class. On Do Now Page #5, copy and answer: 1. If you use a magnet

More information

Name Date Class THE NATURE OF GASES

Name Date Class THE NATURE OF GASES 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES Section Review Objectives Describe the assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases Interpret gas pressure in terms of kinetic theory Define the relationship between

More information

SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES

SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES 30 SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES * Gas molecules are small compared to the space between them. * Gas molecules move in straight lines

More information

Changing States of Matter By Cindy Grigg

Changing States of Matter By Cindy Grigg By Cindy Grigg 1 On Earth, almost all matter exists in just three states. Matter is usually a solid, a liquid, or a gas. Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is rare on Earth. It sometimes can be found

More information

Chapter 3. States of Matter

Chapter 3. States of Matter Chapter 3 States of Matter 1. Solid 2. Liquid 3. Gas States of Matter Two More (discuss later) Plasma Bose-Einstein condensate States of Matter Solid (definite shape and volume) Particles are tightly packed

More information

Chapter 3: Matter and Energy

Chapter 3: Matter and Energy Chapter 3: Matter and Energy Convert between Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin temperature scales. Relate energy, temperature change, and heat capacity. The atoms and molecules that compose matter are in

More information

Ch Kinetic Theory. 1.All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles.

Ch Kinetic Theory. 1.All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles. Ch. 15.1 Kinetic Theory 1.All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles. Kinetic Theory 2.These tiny particles are always in motion. The higher the temperature, the faster the

More information

Term Info Picture. Anything that has mass and takes up space; everything is made of matter.

Term Info Picture. Anything that has mass and takes up space; everything is made of matter. Characteristics, Changes, and States of Matter S8P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the structure and properties of matter. B. Develop and use models to describe the movement of particles

More information

Chapter: Heat and States

Chapter: Heat and States Table of Contents Chapter: Heat and States of Matter Section 1: Temperature and Thermal Energy Section 2: States of Matter Section 3: Transferring Thermal Energy Section 4: Using Thermal Energy 1 Temperature

More information

What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold?

What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? Heat and Temperature Section 1: Temperature What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? 1 Intro: Discussion A person

More information

States of Matter Unit

States of Matter Unit Learning Target Notes Section 1: Matter and Energy What makes up matter? Matter is made of atoms and molecules that are in constant motion. Kinetic Theory of Matter A. Particles that make up matter are

More information

Thermal energy. Thermal energy is the internal energy of a substance. I.e. Thermal energy is the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules.

Thermal energy. Thermal energy is the internal energy of a substance. I.e. Thermal energy is the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. Thermal energy Thermal energy is the internal energy of a substance. I.e. Thermal energy is the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. Heat is the transfer of thermal energy between substances. Until the

More information

THE PARTICLE MODEL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. STATES CHANGES

THE PARTICLE MODEL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. STATES CHANGES THE PARTICLE MODEL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. STATES CHANGES The particle model of a gas A gas has no fixed shape or volume, but always spreads out to fill any container. There are

More information

Chapter 9. Preview. Objectives Defining Temperature. Thermal Equilibrium. Thermal Expansion Measuring Temperature. Section 1 Temperature and

Chapter 9. Preview. Objectives Defining Temperature. Thermal Equilibrium. Thermal Expansion Measuring Temperature. Section 1 Temperature and Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium Preview Objectives Defining Temperature Thermal Equilibrium Thermal Expansion Measuring Temperature Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium Objectives

More information

Unit 4: Gas Laws. Matter and Phase Changes

Unit 4: Gas Laws. Matter and Phase Changes Unit 4: Gas Laws Matter and Phase Changes ENERGY and matter What is 에너지 A fundamental property of the universe that cannot be easily defined. Energy No one knows what energy is, only what it does or has

More information

Chapter 10: States of Matter

Chapter 10: States of Matter CP Chemistry Mrs. Klingaman Chapter 10: States of Matter Name: Mods: Chapter 10: States of Matter Reading Guide 10.1 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter (pgs. 311-314) 1. The kinetic-molecular theory

More information

Unit 1 Lesson 6 Changes of State. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 1 Lesson 6 Changes of State. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company The Fact of the Matter What happens when matter changes state? The three most familiar states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A change of state is the change of a substance from one physical form

More information

Energy Transfer Subtitle

Energy Transfer Subtitle Energy Transfer Subtitle Objectives Review Earth System Review the Water cycle Go over heat transfer through conduction, convection, and radiation Review Greenhouse Effect 2 July 22, 2012 Footer text here

More information

Name: Regents Chemistry: Mr. Palermo. Notes: Unit 7 Heat.

Name: Regents Chemistry: Mr. Palermo. Notes: Unit 7 Heat. Name: Regents Chemistry: Mr. Palermo Notes: Unit 7 Heat 1 Name: KEY IDEAS Heat is a transfer of energy (usually thermal energy) from a body of higher temperature to a body of lower temperature. Thermal

More information

Most substances can be in three states: solid, liquid, and gas.

Most substances can be in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. States of Matter Most substances can be in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. Solid Particles Have Fixed Positions The particles in a solid are very close together and have an orderly, fixed arrangement.

More information

Thermal Energy. Practice Quiz Solutions

Thermal Energy. Practice Quiz Solutions Thermal Energy Practice Quiz Solutions What is thermal energy? What is thermal energy? Thermal energy is the energy that comes from heat. This heat is generated by the movement of tiny particles within

More information

There are four phases of matter: Phases of Matter

There are four phases of matter: Phases of Matter HEAT SCIENCE There are four phases of matter: Phases of Matter There are four phases of matter: Phases of Matter Animation States of Matter Solids Solids: Are rigid, crystalline Hold their shape Have little

More information

Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws

Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws Unit 3 - Stevens 1 Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws Vocabulary: Solid Term Definition Example Liquid Gas No definite shape, but definite volume; Particles close together, but can move around

More information

Chemistry Heat Review. Heat: Temperature: Enthalpy: Calorimetry: Activation energy:

Chemistry Heat Review. Heat: Temperature: Enthalpy: Calorimetry: Activation energy: Chemistry Heat Review Name Date Vocabulary Heat: Temperature: Enthalpy: Calorimetry: Activation energy: Formulas Heat of phase change Heat for temperature increase Heat of reaction Endothermic/Exothermic

More information

Matter and Energy Review Packet

Matter and Energy Review Packet Name Date Matter and Energy Review Packet 1. A compound differs from a mixture in that a compound always has a (1) homogeneous composition (2) maximum of two components (3) minimum of three components

More information

CHEMISTRY. Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces Liquids and Solids

CHEMISTRY. Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces Liquids and Solids CHEMISTRY The Central Science 8 th Edition Chapter 11 Liquids and Solids Kozet YAPSAKLI States of Matter difference between states of matter is the distance between particles. In the solid and liquid states

More information

Chapter 10. Lesson Starter. Why did you not smell the odor of the vapor immediately? Explain this event in terms of the motion of molecules.

Chapter 10. Lesson Starter. Why did you not smell the odor of the vapor immediately? Explain this event in terms of the motion of molecules. Preview Lesson Starter Objectives The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases The Kinetic-Molecular Theory and the Nature of Gases Deviations of Real Gases from Ideal Behavior Section 1 The Kinetic-Molecular

More information

CHAPTER 10. States of Matter

CHAPTER 10. States of Matter CHAPTER 10 States of Matter Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetikos - Moving Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion The motion has consequences Explains the behavior of Gases, Liquids,

More information

CHAPTER 10. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Five Assumptions of the KMT. Atmospheric Pressure

CHAPTER 10. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Five Assumptions of the KMT. Atmospheric Pressure Kinetic Molecular Theory CHAPTER 10 States of Matter Kinetikos - Moving Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion The motion has consequences Explains the behavior of Gases, Liquids,

More information

Bernoulli s Principle. Application: Lift. Bernoulli s Principle. Main Points 3/13/15. Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper

Bernoulli s Principle. Application: Lift. Bernoulli s Principle. Main Points 3/13/15. Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper Bernoulli s Principle Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper Where the speed of a fluid increases, internal pressure in the fluid decreases. Due to continuous flow of a fluid: what goes in must come out! Fluid

More information