Unit 2: Ecology. Big Idea...

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1 Name: Block: Unit 2: Ecology Big Idea... The natural world is defined by organisms and life processes which conform to principles regarding conservation and transformation of matter and energy. Knowledge about life processes can be applied to improving human health and well being. Questions... How is matter transformed in living systems? How is energy transferred and transformed in living systems? How can change in one part of an ecosystem affect other parts of the ecosystem? How do humans impact the diversity and stability of ecosystems? Topics... Ecology is the study of interactions among living and nonliving things in an ecosystem. There are various types of interactions and scientists study them in many ways. The Earth is divided into biomes. Humans impact ecosystems within these biomes. Chapters Chapter 13: Principles of Ecology (p.370) Chapter 14: Interactions in Ecosystems (p.400) Chapter 15: The Biosphere (p.426) Chapter 16: Human Impact on Ecosystems (p.452) Standards 5.3/12 A3,B1,B3,B6,C1,C2,C3; RST/9 10 1,4,5,10; CTE9.1/11 A3,F6; CTE9.4/12 1,7,52; 12/N Q 1; 12/A REI 10; 12/S ID 1 7; 12/S IC 1 6 (Source: BHPS Biology Curriculum Guide) Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 1 / 62

2 Date Do Now Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 2 / 62

3 Chapter 13: Principles of Ecology Vocabulary Key Points Ecology is the study of relationships among organisms and their environment. Every ecosystem contains both living and nonliving factors. Life in an ecosystem requires a source of energy. Food chains and food webs model the flow of energy in an ecosystem. Matter cycles in and out of an ecosystem. Pyramids model the distribution of energy and matter in an ecosystem. What you should know and be able to do 1. Define ecology. 2. Differentiate between abiotic and biotic factors. 3. Sequence the levels of biological organization. 4. Trace the flow of energy through living systems, identifying energy roles in ecosystems and feeding relationships. 5. Evaluate the efficiency of energy transfer among organisms through the various trophic levels and ecological pyramids. 6. Describe how abiotic and biotic factors work together in an ecosystem. 7. Interpret food chains, food webs, and pyramid models. 8. Describe how nutrients move through the biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem. 9. Compare and model biogeochemical cycles (water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus). Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 3 / 62

4 Chapter 13 Questions Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 4 / 62

5 Chapter 13: What do you already know? Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 5 / 62

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20 Chapter 14: Interactions in Ecosystems Vocabulary Key Points Every organism has a habitat and a niche. Organisms interact as individuals and as populations. Each population has a density, a dispersion, and a reproductive strategy. Populations grow in predictable patterns. Ecological succession is a process of change in the species that make up a community. What you should know and be able to do Differentiate between an organism s habitat and niche. 2. Identify community interactions: niche, competition, predation, symbiosis. 3. List, describe, and provide examples of three different kinds of symbiosis. 4. Describe characteristics of populations. 5. Explain and apply the concepts of carrying capacity and limiting factors. 6. Model ecological succession in a biome. 7. Identify factors that affect population size. 8. Infer how limiting factors can affect a population s growth rate. 9. Draw and interpret population curves. 10. Analyze why population growth rates differ throughout the world. 11. Predict the consequences of unchecked population growth. Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 20 / 62

21 Chapter 14 Questions Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 21 / 62

22 Chapter 14: What do you already know? Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 22 / 62

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34 Chapter 15: The Biosphere Vocabulary Key Points... The biosphere is one of Earth s four interconnected systems. Climate is a key abiotic factor that affects the biosphere. Biomes are land based, global communities of organisms. Marine ecosystems are global. Freshwater ecosystems include estuaries as well as flowing and standing water. What you should know and be able to do Identify the biomes on the planet. 2. Create a model of a biome, including biotic and abiotic factors. Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 34 / 62

35 Chapter 15 Questions Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 35 / 62

36 Chapter 15: What do you already know? Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 36 / 62

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48 Chapter 16: Human Impact on Ecosystems Vocabulary Key Points As the human population grows, the demand for Earth s resources increases. Fossil fuel emissions affect the biosphere. Pollution of Earth s freshwater supply threatens habitat and health. The impact of a growing human population threatens biodiversity. Conservation methods can help protect and restore ecosystems. What you should know and be able to do 1. Explain the importance of biodiversity. 2. List and describe several threats to biodiversity. 3. Describe how a single species can affect an entire ecosystem. 4. Evaluate the methods used to conserve biodiversity. 5. Identify renewable and nonrenewable resources and predict how the loss of each might affect the biome. 6. Research how human activities affect the biosphere, identifying environmental and human costs and benefits: deforestation, climate change, pollution, land use, etc. 7. Investigate how humans may be impacted if global climate changes were to occur. 8. Develop ways humans can change their impact on global climate changes and other environmental effects on the planet. Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 48 / 62

49 Chapter 16 Questions Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 49 / 62

50 Chapter 16: What do you already know? Biology / Mendenhall UNIT 2: Ecology 50 / 62

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