1 Chapter 1, Section World Geography Chapter 1 Exploring Geography Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
2 Chapter 1, Section World Geography Chapter 1: Exploring Geography Section 1: The Study of Geography Section 2: Changes Within the Earth Section 3: Changes on the Earth's Surface Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
3 Chapter 1, Section 1 The Study of Geography How do geographers use tools to understand the world? What are the five themes of geography? How do geographers identify location, place, and region? Why do geographers study movement and human-environment interaction?
4 Chapter 1, Section 1 Geographic Tools
5 Chapter 1, Section 1 Geographic Tools Geography means writing about or describing the earth. Geographers use technological tools such as sonar, satellites, and the global positioning system (GPS) to study locations on the earth s surface. Growing in importance are graphic information systems (GIS), which use computer technology to analyze and display data about the earth s surface to solve geographic problems. Geographic concepts help organize the way people think about geography.
6 Chapter 1, Section 1 Geography s Five Themes Five questions can help organize information about places: What is the location of a place? What is the character of a place? How are places similar to and different from other places? How do people, goods, and ideas move between places? How do people interact with the natural environment of a place?
7 Chapter 1, Section 1 Location, Place, and Region Absolute location describes the position of a place on the globe using the grid of longitude and latitude lines. Relative location describes the location of a place compared to other places. The character of a place consists of the place s physical and human characteristics. A region is a group of places with at least one common physical or human characteristic, and may be determined by people s perceptions, or viewpoints influenced by one s own culture and experiences. Formal regions are areas in which a certain characteristic is found throughout them. Functional regions consist of a central place and the surrounding places affected by it. Perceptual regions are defined by people s attitudes and feelings about areas.
8 Chapter 1, Section 1 Movement and Human-Environment Interaction People, goods, and ideas move between places. Human beings have made enormous changes in their environment, both intentional and accidental. Changes to the environment can be favorable, making some places more habitable. Changes can also be destructive, altering an area s ecosystem and straining local resources.
9 Chapter 1, Section 1 Section 1 Review How do geographers use geographic information systems (GIS)? a) They use it to map the bottoms of the oceans. b) They use it to collect, analyze, and display geographic information. c) They use it to provide accurate information about location. d) They use it to record images of the earth s surface. How is absolute location described? a) It is described by its relation to other places. b) It is described as a group of places sharing a common characteristic. c) It is described by its physical and human characteristics. d) It is described by the grid formed by longitude and latitude lines. Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
10 Chapter 1, Section 1 Section 1 Review How do geographers use geographic information systems (GIS)? a) They use it to map the bottoms of the oceans. b) They use it to collect, analyze, and display geographic information. c) They use it to provide accurate information about location. d) They use it to record images of the earth s surface. How is absolute location described? a) It is described by its relation to other places. b) It is described as a group of places sharing a common characteristic. c) It is described by its physical and human characteristics. d) It is described by the grid formed by longitude and latitude lines. Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
11 Chapter 1, Section 2 Changes Within the Earth How do scientists classify the earth s major physical characteristics? What physical processes affect the earth s crust? What theories help scientists understand the earth s past?
12 Chapter 1, Section 2 Physical Characteristics Geologists envision three layers to the earth: the core, or center, the mantle, or a thick layer of rock around the core, and the crust, the thin rocky layer on the surface. Landforms and other surface features make up the lithosphere. The atmosphere is the layer of air, water, and other substances above the surface. The water in lakes, rivers, and oceans, and water beneath the surface is the hydrosphere. The large landmasses in the oceans are the continents. Landforms are categorized by their differences in relief, or the differences in elevation from the highest to the lowest points.
13 Chapter 1, Section 2 Physical Processes Landforms are shaped first by forces that originate in the earth s interior. Volcanoes Volcanoes form when magma breaks through the earth s crust. When lava flows evenly, it forms a plateau-like shield volcano. An ash and cinder eruption can produce small cinder cone volcanoes. Alternating explosive eruptions and smooth lava flows produce distinctive cone-shaped volcanoes. Movements in the Crust Stresses between layers of rock can create folds and faults. The hardness of the rock and the strength of the movement determine whether a fold or fault is formed. Slow movements of rock layers along a fault produce almost unnoticeable changes. Large, sudden movements send out shockwaves, causing an earthquake.
14 Chapter 1, Section 2 Understanding the Past According to the theory of plate tectonics, the lithosphere is broken up into a number of moving plates, on which continents and oceans ride. The theories of continental drift and seafloor spreading support the theory of plate tectonics, and it is thought that the force of convection drives the movement of tectonic plates.
15 Chapter 1, Section 2 Understanding the Past The movement of plates can create rift valleys, mountain ranges, volcanoes, faults, and earthquakes, depending the how the plates are moving. The Ring of Fire is a group of volcanoes and volcanic islands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.
16 Chapter 1, Section 2 Section 2 Review What term is used to describe the water on and below the surface? a) lithosphere b) atmosphere c) hydrosphere d) biosphere Which process is used to describe the movements of tectonic plates? a) subduction b) convergence c) faulting d) convection Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
17 Chapter 1, Section 2 Section 2 Review What term is used to describe the water on and below the surface? a) lithosphere b) atmosphere c) hydrosphere d) biosphere Which process is used to describe the movements of tectonic plates? a) subduction b) convergence c) faulting d) convection Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
18 Chapter 1, Section 3 Changes on the Earth s Surface What are the lasting effects of the two kinds of weathering mechanical and chemical on the physical landscape of a place? How do the three most common causes of erosion water, wind, and glaciers alter the physical landscape of a place?
19 Chapter 1, Section 3 Weathering Weathering is the breakdown of rock at or near the earth s surface into smaller and smaller pieces. Mechanical Weathering Mechanical weathering occurs when the rock is physically weakened or broken. The most common mechanical weathering occurs when water freezes in cracks in rock. Chemical Weathering Chemical weathering alters the chemical makeup of rock. Water and carbon dioxide are the most important factors. Acid rain is a type of chemical weathering caused by air pollution and water. Observing Weathering The wearing effects of weather can be seen in any old stone structure. Weathering changes natural landforms over millions of years.
20 Chapter 1, Section 3 Erosion Erosion is the movement of weathered material such as gravel, soil, and sand. Moving water is the single greatest cause of erosion, especially when carrying sediment. Wind, the second major cause of erosion, can strip away exposed soil, but windblown deposits of loess, mineral-rich dust and silt, can also benefit farmers. Glaciers, huge, slow-moving sheets of ice, are also major agents of erosion, as they pick up and drag along dirt, rocks, and boulders. During the Ice Ages, glaciers covered up to a third of the earth s surface. In places where glaciers have melted and receded, they have left behind ridgelike piles of rocks and debris called moraines.
21 Chapter 1, Section 3 Section 3 Review Acid rain is a) a type of sediment. b) a type of mechanical weathering. c) wind-blown dust and silt. d) a type of chemical weathering. How can wind be a force of erosion? a) It can deposit silt on an alluvial plain or delta. b) It can quickly carve out valleys and canyons from solid rock. c) It can carry away dry soil and sand. d) It can act as a form of chemical weathering. Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
22 Chapter 1, Section 3 Section 3 Review Acid rain is a) a type of sediment. b) a type of mechanical weathering. c) wind-blown dust and silt. d) a type of chemical weathering. How can wind be a force of erosion? a) It can deposit silt on an alluvial plain or delta. b) It can quickly carve out valleys and canyons from solid rock. c) It can carry away dry soil and sand. d) It can act as a form of chemical weathering. Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
QUIT Main Ideas What you will learn in this chapter Summary Summary of the chapter Test your geographic knowledge by playing the. Main Ideas Section 1: The Earth Inside and Out The earth is the only habitable
At one time, there was one large island off the coast of Mississippi and now it is two separate islands. What caused the island to be split into two? water erosion The crust and the top part of the upper
Earth s Landforms Vocabulary Words theory continental drift fault magma lava weathering glacier erosion deposition delta Theory: A possible explanation. Continental drift: The continuing movement of the
Constructive and Destructive Forces Processes That Act Upon Earth s Surface Features What are Constructive and Destructive Forces? Constructive Force A constructive force is a process that raises or builds
Chapter 2, Section 1 Planet Earth (Pages 33 36) Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: Where is Earth located in our solar system? How is Earth shaped? What is Earth s structure?
Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1 The Earth as a System The Earth is an integrated system that consists of rock, air, water, and living things that all interact with each other.
TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 6 Plate Tectonics 1 6-1 What is continental drift? 2 6-2 Why is the seafloor spreading? 3 6-3 What evidence supports seafloor spreading?
core the center of the Earth mantle the middle layer of the Earth made up of molten (melted) rock crust the surface layer of the Earth that includes the continents and oceans 1 continental drift the theory
8 th Grade Science Plate Tectonics and Topography Review #1 Scientists believe that the land masses of Earth were once joined together as one supercontinent called. A: Australia B: Wegner C: Pangaea D:
Do Not Write On Test - You Will Fail 1. The picture below shows a model of the rock cycle. 3. Shale is a sedimentary rock that can be metamorphosed into slate by A. cementation. B. chemical weathering.
Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers Weathering and Erosion 1. What is the difference between weathering and erosion? Weathering is the breakdown of earth materials and erosion is the movement of earth
UNIT 1 - Major Land and Water Forms Chapter 1 - Landform Patterns and Processes Topography the natural and human features of the Earth s surface. ie. Surface features elevation - the height of a particular
Earth's Crust is broken...but the pieces fit together like a puzzle! And they move- constantly!! What theory explains this process? Were there other theories before this one was determined to be the most
Magma Magic What is a volcano? A volcano is any place where gas, ash, or melted rock come out of the ground. Many volcanoes are dormant, meaning an eruption has not occurred in a long period of time. What
geologist sonar crust geology seismic wave mantle constructive force basalt inner core destructive force granite outer core The solid, rocky, surface layer of the earth. an instrument that can find objects
CHAPTER 7 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up What causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each
Ch. 9 Review Pgs. 356-357 #1-31 Write Questions and Answers 356-357 #1-5 Answers 1. The layer of the upper mantle that can flow is the: A - Asthenosphere 2. Most scientists rejected Wegener s theory of
Overview of Ch. 4 Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 I. Nature of Volcanic Eruptions II. Materials Extruded from a Volcano III.Types of Volcanoes IV.Volcanic Landforms V. Plutonic (intrusive)
Hon Environmental Science THE DYNAMIC EARTH NOTES. Scientists divide the Earth into 4 parts or spheres. What are these spheres? 1. geosphere 2. atmosphere 3. hydrosphere 4. biosphere Now, describe each
Name: Date: 1. A lake is surrounded by hills covered with trees and shrubs. Which statement correctly describes how a change to the plants in this area will affect this environment? A. Adding plants to
Name: Answer Key Date: Period: Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide Ch 1: Mapping 1. On the global grid, the equator is at 0 degrees. Is the equator a line of longitude or latitude? Latitude 2. What type
4 th Grade Science Unit C: Earth Sciences Chapter 6: Minerals and Rocks Lesson 1: What are minerals? mineral A mineral is a natural, nonliving, solid crystal that makes up rocks. All over the world, each
reflect All the landforms on Earth have changed over time and continue to change. Many of the changes were caused by wind, moving water, and moving ice. Mountains have grown and shrunk. Rivers have cut
NAME: PER: MCAS QUESTIONS: THE EARTH S INTERIOR, CONTINENTAL DRIFT, PLATE TECTONICS 1. Which of the following statements best explains why the lower mantle of Earth is much more rigid and dense than the
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Continental Drift 1. Who obtained new information about the continents and their coastlines 400 years ago? 2. What did people notice when they studied new world
A Correlation of Tarbuck Lutgens - Tasa To the Oklahoma Academic Standards for Earth & Space Science A Correlation of, EARTH & SPACE SCIENCE HS-ESS1 Earth s Place in the Universe HS-ESS1-1 Students who
Science Name: Mr. G/Mrs. Kelly KEY Date: Study Guide - Lessons 5 and 6 Test Define the following terms: 1. minerals - A naturally occurring substance that takes a solid Crystal form and is made of only
GRADE 9 YORK CASTLE HIGH SCHOOL CHRISTMAS TERM EXAMINATIONS GEOGRAPHY Duration 1 1 /2 HRS. Name: 1. Label the internal structure of the earth provided below. WRITE on the space provide. Oceanic Crust/Upper
Layers of the Earth SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics CRUST Composition: Thickness: State of Matter: : Mostly Basalt : Mostly Granite : Crust and Upper Mantle
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Chapter Wrap-Up Forces That Shape Earth Landforms at Plate Boundaries Mountain Building Continent Building How is Earth s surface shaped by plate
HOW ARE LANDFORMS CREATED AND CHANGED? Landforms are created by different natural forces. Some are within Earth, and some are on the surface of Earth. Landforms can also be changed by humans. These changes
UNIT 11 PLATE TECTONICS A. ALFRED WEGENER 1. Continental drift hypothesis Single supercontinent called Pangaea 200 million years ago Pangaea (all land) began to break up and started drifting to their present
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics 1. Some volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than a(n) a. hand grenade. b. earthquake. c. geyser. d. atomic bomb. 2. The cause
Geosphere Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 1 Intro to Earth Systems 1. Name and describe Earth s 4 major spheres Geosphere-- nonliving, mostly solid rock divided into crust, mantle, and core Atmosphere a
Topic 6: Weathering, Erosion and Erosional-Deposition Systems (workbook p. 95-125) Workbook Chapter 4, 5 THE BIG PICTURE: Weathering, erosion and deposition are processes that cause changes to rock material
Grade 7 Earth/Space Posttest Select the best answer to each question. 1. The three compositional layers of Earth are the core, the mantle, and the crust. Which phrase best describes the crust? A. the innermost
Unit 11: Plate Tectonics A. Alfred Wegner 1. Continental drift hypothesis a. single supercontinent called Pangaea b. 200 million years ago Pangaea (all land) began to break up and started drifting to their
LANDFORMS Extra Credit Name Date 1. Label the drawing above using the words below that match the landforms. canyon meander plateau delta mountain valley 2. The bending of rock at plate boundaries is A.
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 9 Plate Tectonics 9.1 Continental Drift An Idea Before Its Time Wegener s continental drift hypothesis stated that the continents had once been joined
PLATE TECTONICS REVIEW GAME!!!! Name the four layers of the earth - crust - mantle - outer core - inner core Which part of Earth s structure contains tectonic plates? LITHOSPHERE Name one reason why the
Plate Tectonic Review, Types of Plates Review from last week: 1. Alfred Wegener: thought that sections of the Earth s crust moved, but people were confused, and thought that continents drifted over water
Chapter 9 Planetary Geology: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 9.1 Connecting Planetary Interiors and Surfaces Our goals for learning What are terrestrial planets like on the inside? What causes geological
Ch 9.1 Notes Objective: Be able to explain the theory of plate tectonics and be able to explain evidence that supports it. Pangaea Alfred Wegener proposed that land on Earth formed a single, huge landmass.
Advanced Placement ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Geologic Processes & Soil Student 2014 Geologic Processes and Soil Geologic Processes The age of Earth is best measured by the geologic time scale. The idea that
Contents: I- Relief 1- Structure of the Earth and relief formation 2- Shaping of relief 3- Types of relief II- Water 1- Water on Earth 2- Oceans and seas / continental waters 3- Uses, risks and problems
Name 1. In the cross section of the hill shown below, which rock units are probably most resistant to weathering? 4. The diagram below shows a soil profile formed in an area of granite bedrock. Four different
Chapter 19: History of Life on Earth Section 1: How Did Life Begin? I. The Basic Chemicals of Life A. 1920s B. Earth s early oceans contained large amounts of organic molecules C. Molecules formed spontaneously
1. What is the role of a geologist? Geology 1 st Semester Exam YSBAT 2016-2017 2. Earth is subdivided into three main layers based on what? 3. What features do you find at divergent boundaries? 4. Rock
Name: APES: Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Earth Composition and Structure Webquest Date: I. Earth Structure http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/plate1.htm Click on the button press here to see
Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science 1.1 What is Earth Science Earth science is the name for the group of sciences that deals with Earth and its neighbors in space. Includes: Geology Oceanography Meteorology
World Geography 3202 Unit 1 Ch. 1: Landform Patterns and Processes - Planet Earth is dynamic - behaves as if it s a living organism - some changes are rapid enough for us to see and record - exs. Tidal
Chapter 9 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Planetary Geology: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Planetary Geology: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 9.1 Connecting Planetary Interiors
The Effect of Weather, Erosion, and Deposition in Texas Ecoregions 7.8B: I can analyze the effects of weathering, erosion, and deposition on the environment in ecoregions of Texas Weathering The breakdown
45 Understanding Plate Boundaries R EA D I N G The map below shows the locations of earthquakes and volcanoes on the earth s surface. Today, many of the world s most active volcanoes are located around
Section 2 Igneous Rocks and the Geologic History of Your Community What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Goals Text Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Identify and classify
Name Date Class Changing Earth s Surface What processes wear down and build up Earth s surface? What causes the different types of mass movement? Erosion is the process by which natural forces move weathered
Erosion and Deposition The Erosion-Deposition Process What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with
Volcanoes A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt. Also, the landform that develops around this opening. Kinds of Eruptions Geologists classify volcanic
Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics: From Hypothesis to Theory 1 Key Understandings Internal structure of the earth/structure of the crust. Difference between continental drift & plate tectonics. Evidence
Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor Matching. Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase. You may use each answer once, more than once or not at all. 1. hydrothermal vents A. convergent
Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, and Landscape Development I. Weathering - the breakdown of rocks into smaller particles, also called sediments, by natural processes. Weathering is further divided into
Chapter 1 Landform Patterns and Processes Highlighted script will not be assessed Topography the natural and human features of the Earth s surface. ie. Surface features need to understand difference between
Chapter 10 Section 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions This section discusses volcanic eruptions, types of volcanoes, and other volcanic landforms. Reading Strategy Previewing Before you read the section,
161 CHAPTER 9 Basics Of geology: earthquakes & volcanoes CHAPTER s Objectives To introduce the theory of one supercontinent To discuss the clues and proofs that support the theory of one supercontinent
Unit 3 Study Guide -- Greenberg science, 6C Name Pd. Date / / 2018 + +5 extra credit points on the test if submitted complete and correct ON THE TEST DATE. + A copy can be found on my website mgreenberg.weebly.com
Chapter 4: Plate Tectonics K2 in the Himalaya, inset round submersible (beneath the submarine) that went to the Marianas Trench in 1960 http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/james-cameron-presents-record-setting-deep-sea-expedition-article-1.1215139
Page #: Igneous Rock Notes Magma and lava form very different types of igneous rocks. Igneous rocks form from molten rock, but where does molten rock come from? The temperature inside Earth with depth.
CHAPTER 3 LESSON 2 Erosion and Deposition Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind Key Concepts What are the stages of stream development? How do water erosion and deposition change Earth s surface? How do wind
Indiana Standards 7.2.4 Explain how convection currents in the mantle cause lithospheric plates to move causing fast changes like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and slow changes like creation of mountains
Rocks and the Rock Cycle Banded Iron Formation Rocks Big rocks into pebbles, Pebbles into sand. I really hold a million, million Rocks here in my hand. Florence Parry Heide How do rocks change? How are
Why Does Oceanic Crust Sink Beneath Continental Crust At Convergent Boundaries What is the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean Why does oceanic crust sink beneath continental crust
Chapter 2 Lecture Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology Eleventh Edition Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Revolution Unfolds Tarbuck and Lutgens From Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics Prior to the
Lesson 1 (Mass Movement) 7 th Grade Earth s Surface Chapter 3: Erosion and Deposition Weathering the chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth s surface Mechanical weathering when rock
CHAPTER 13 2 SECTION Volcanoes Volcanic Eruptions KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How does the composition of magma affect volcanic eruptions and lava flow? What are the
Chapter 1 The Earth System Sylvia Marquez 9 th Grade Introduction Science is like a jigsaw puzzle, you must put the pieces together to solve it. In Science you ask questions to gather answers that will
The continents are in constant movement Earth Science Transitional Science 10 Note and Activity Package for Chapter 12 Note: If you lose this package it is your responsibility to print out a new copy from