1 Chapter 1, Section World Geography Chapter 1 Exploring Geography Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
2 Chapter 1, Section World Geography Chapter 1: Exploring Geography Section 1: The Study of Geography Section 2: Changes Within the Earth Section 3: Changes on the Earth's Surface Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
3 Chapter 1, Section 1 The Study of Geography How do geographers use tools to understand the world? What are the five themes of geography? How do geographers identify location, place, and region? Why do geographers study movement and human-environment interaction?
4 Chapter 1, Section 1 Geographic Tools
5 Chapter 1, Section 1 Geographic Tools Geography means writing about or describing the earth. Geographers use technological tools such as sonar, satellites, and the global positioning system (GPS) to study locations on the earth s surface. Growing in importance are graphic information systems (GIS), which use computer technology to analyze and display data about the earth s surface to solve geographic problems. Geographic concepts help organize the way people think about geography.
6 Chapter 1, Section 1 Geography s Five Themes Five questions can help organize information about places: What is the location of a place? What is the character of a place? How are places similar to and different from other places? How do people, goods, and ideas move between places? How do people interact with the natural environment of a place?
7 Chapter 1, Section 1 Location, Place, and Region Absolute location describes the position of a place on the globe using the grid of longitude and latitude lines. Relative location describes the location of a place compared to other places. The character of a place consists of the place s physical and human characteristics. A region is a group of places with at least one common physical or human characteristic, and may be determined by people s perceptions, or viewpoints influenced by one s own culture and experiences. Formal regions are areas in which a certain characteristic is found throughout them. Functional regions consist of a central place and the surrounding places affected by it. Perceptual regions are defined by people s attitudes and feelings about areas.
8 Chapter 1, Section 1 Movement and Human-Environment Interaction People, goods, and ideas move between places. Human beings have made enormous changes in their environment, both intentional and accidental. Changes to the environment can be favorable, making some places more habitable. Changes can also be destructive, altering an area s ecosystem and straining local resources.
9 Chapter 1, Section 1 Section 1 Review How do geographers use geographic information systems (GIS)? a) They use it to map the bottoms of the oceans. b) They use it to collect, analyze, and display geographic information. c) They use it to provide accurate information about location. d) They use it to record images of the earth s surface. How is absolute location described? a) It is described by its relation to other places. b) It is described as a group of places sharing a common characteristic. c) It is described by its physical and human characteristics. d) It is described by the grid formed by longitude and latitude lines. Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
10 Chapter 1, Section 1 Section 1 Review How do geographers use geographic information systems (GIS)? a) They use it to map the bottoms of the oceans. b) They use it to collect, analyze, and display geographic information. c) They use it to provide accurate information about location. d) They use it to record images of the earth s surface. How is absolute location described? a) It is described by its relation to other places. b) It is described as a group of places sharing a common characteristic. c) It is described by its physical and human characteristics. d) It is described by the grid formed by longitude and latitude lines. Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
11 Chapter 1, Section 2 Changes Within the Earth How do scientists classify the earth s major physical characteristics? What physical processes affect the earth s crust? What theories help scientists understand the earth s past?
12 Chapter 1, Section 2 Physical Characteristics Geologists envision three layers to the earth: the core, or center, the mantle, or a thick layer of rock around the core, and the crust, the thin rocky layer on the surface. Landforms and other surface features make up the lithosphere. The atmosphere is the layer of air, water, and other substances above the surface. The water in lakes, rivers, and oceans, and water beneath the surface is the hydrosphere. The large landmasses in the oceans are the continents. Landforms are categorized by their differences in relief, or the differences in elevation from the highest to the lowest points.
13 Chapter 1, Section 2 Physical Processes Landforms are shaped first by forces that originate in the earth s interior. Volcanoes Volcanoes form when magma breaks through the earth s crust. When lava flows evenly, it forms a plateau-like shield volcano. An ash and cinder eruption can produce small cinder cone volcanoes. Alternating explosive eruptions and smooth lava flows produce distinctive cone-shaped volcanoes. Movements in the Crust Stresses between layers of rock can create folds and faults. The hardness of the rock and the strength of the movement determine whether a fold or fault is formed. Slow movements of rock layers along a fault produce almost unnoticeable changes. Large, sudden movements send out shockwaves, causing an earthquake.
14 Chapter 1, Section 2 Understanding the Past According to the theory of plate tectonics, the lithosphere is broken up into a number of moving plates, on which continents and oceans ride. The theories of continental drift and seafloor spreading support the theory of plate tectonics, and it is thought that the force of convection drives the movement of tectonic plates.
15 Chapter 1, Section 2 Understanding the Past The movement of plates can create rift valleys, mountain ranges, volcanoes, faults, and earthquakes, depending the how the plates are moving. The Ring of Fire is a group of volcanoes and volcanic islands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.
16 Chapter 1, Section 2 Section 2 Review What term is used to describe the water on and below the surface? a) lithosphere b) atmosphere c) hydrosphere d) biosphere Which process is used to describe the movements of tectonic plates? a) subduction b) convergence c) faulting d) convection Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
17 Chapter 1, Section 2 Section 2 Review What term is used to describe the water on and below the surface? a) lithosphere b) atmosphere c) hydrosphere d) biosphere Which process is used to describe the movements of tectonic plates? a) subduction b) convergence c) faulting d) convection Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
18 Chapter 1, Section 3 Changes on the Earth s Surface What are the lasting effects of the two kinds of weathering mechanical and chemical on the physical landscape of a place? How do the three most common causes of erosion water, wind, and glaciers alter the physical landscape of a place?
19 Chapter 1, Section 3 Weathering Weathering is the breakdown of rock at or near the earth s surface into smaller and smaller pieces. Mechanical Weathering Mechanical weathering occurs when the rock is physically weakened or broken. The most common mechanical weathering occurs when water freezes in cracks in rock. Chemical Weathering Chemical weathering alters the chemical makeup of rock. Water and carbon dioxide are the most important factors. Acid rain is a type of chemical weathering caused by air pollution and water. Observing Weathering The wearing effects of weather can be seen in any old stone structure. Weathering changes natural landforms over millions of years.
20 Chapter 1, Section 3 Erosion Erosion is the movement of weathered material such as gravel, soil, and sand. Moving water is the single greatest cause of erosion, especially when carrying sediment. Wind, the second major cause of erosion, can strip away exposed soil, but windblown deposits of loess, mineral-rich dust and silt, can also benefit farmers. Glaciers, huge, slow-moving sheets of ice, are also major agents of erosion, as they pick up and drag along dirt, rocks, and boulders. During the Ice Ages, glaciers covered up to a third of the earth s surface. In places where glaciers have melted and receded, they have left behind ridgelike piles of rocks and debris called moraines.
21 Chapter 1, Section 3 Section 3 Review Acid rain is a) a type of sediment. b) a type of mechanical weathering. c) wind-blown dust and silt. d) a type of chemical weathering. How can wind be a force of erosion? a) It can deposit silt on an alluvial plain or delta. b) It can quickly carve out valleys and canyons from solid rock. c) It can carry away dry soil and sand. d) It can act as a form of chemical weathering. Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
22 Chapter 1, Section 3 Section 3 Review Acid rain is a) a type of sediment. b) a type of mechanical weathering. c) wind-blown dust and silt. d) a type of chemical weathering. How can wind be a force of erosion? a) It can deposit silt on an alluvial plain or delta. b) It can quickly carve out valleys and canyons from solid rock. c) It can carry away dry soil and sand. d) It can act as a form of chemical weathering. Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
QUIT Main Ideas What you will learn in this chapter Summary Summary of the chapter Test your geographic knowledge by playing the. Main Ideas Section 1: The Earth Inside and Out The earth is the only habitable
At one time, there was one large island off the coast of Mississippi and now it is two separate islands. What caused the island to be split into two? water erosion The crust and the top part of the upper
Physical Geography A Living Planet The geography and structure of the earth are continually being changed by internal forces, like plate tectonics, and external forces, like the weather. Iguaçu Falls at
Earth s Landforms Vocabulary Words theory continental drift fault magma lava weathering glacier erosion deposition delta Theory: A possible explanation. Continental drift: The continuing movement of the
Chapter 2: Physical Geography Pg. 39-68 Learning Goals for Chp2: q q q q q Explain how the Earth moves in space and why seasons change. Outline the factors that influence climate and recognize different
Constructive and Destructive Forces Processes That Act Upon Earth s Surface Features What are Constructive and Destructive Forces? Constructive Force A constructive force is a process that raises or builds
Earth s Landforms A physical feature of the Earth s surface A physical feature of the Earth s surface LANDFORM Highest of Earth s physical features Highest of Earth s physical features MOUNTAIN Low area
UNIT 3 GEOLOGY VOCABULARY FLASHCARDS THESE KEY VOCABULARY WORDS AND PHRASES APPEAR ON THE UNIT 3 CBA A map that shows Earth s Topographic Map surface topography, which is Earth s shape and features Contour
Chapter 2, Section 1 Planet Earth (Pages 33 36) Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: Where is Earth located in our solar system? How is Earth shaped? What is Earth s structure?
Tuesday, September 05, 2017 Planet Earth Objective: Describe the solar system and Earth s location in it. Identify Earth s shape. Discuss Earth s structure. List Earth s landforms Do Now: What is a compass
Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1 The Earth as a System The Earth is an integrated system that consists of rock, air, water, and living things that all interact with each other.
Social Studies Chapter 2 Canada s Physical Landscape Introduction Canada s geography its landforms and climate - has a great impact on Canadians sense of identity. Planet Earth The earth is divided into
Read Across America Listen as I read for facts about Volcanoes. In the Shadow of the Volcano Constructive & Destructive Processes Earth s surface is always changing. Blowing wind and flowing water causes
Chapter 2 Planet Earth Section Notes Earth and the Sun s Energy Water on Earth The Land Close-up The Water Cycle World Almanac Major Eruptions in the Ring of Fire Quick Facts Chapter 2 Visual Summary Video
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core the center of the Earth mantle the middle layer of the Earth made up of molten (melted) rock crust the surface layer of the Earth that includes the continents and oceans 1 continental drift the theory
TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 6 Plate Tectonics 1 6-1 What is continental drift? 2 6-2 Why is the seafloor spreading? 3 6-3 What evidence supports seafloor spreading?
Lesson Plan: Glaciers Grade 3 Standards 3-5 Benchmark C. Describe Earth s resources including rocks, soil, water, air, animals and plants and the ways in which they can be conserved. Earth Systems / Y2003.CSC.S01.G03-05.BC.L03.I03
Very large collapsed volcanic crater, often containing a lake eg. Lake Taupo The process which provides the force to move the tectonic plates Innermost part of the Earth, made of a liquid outer core and
Earth s Dynamic Surface Key Concepts What is the difference between physical and chemical weathering? How do water, ice, and wind change Earth s surface? Changing Earth s Surface What do you think? Read
What type of map is this? This? What type of map is this? This? How about this? And this? INTERNAL FORCES THAT SHAPE THE EARTH Chp. 2 Section 3 Learning goal: Explain plate tectonics and the effects they
Do Not Write On Test - You Will Fail 1. The picture below shows a model of the rock cycle. 3. Shale is a sedimentary rock that can be metamorphosed into slate by A. cementation. B. chemical weathering.
UNIT 1 - Major Land and Water Forms Chapter 1 - Landform Patterns and Processes Topography the natural and human features of the Earth s surface. ie. Surface features elevation - the height of a particular
8 th Grade Science Plate Tectonics and Topography Review #1 Scientists believe that the land masses of Earth were once joined together as one supercontinent called. A: Australia B: Wegner C: Pangaea D:
Name: Geology Study Guide Date: Vocabulary You must know the following terms and definitions: 1. bedrock- a solid rock mass that is undisturbed by environmental conditions on the Earth s crust 2. Continental
The structure of the Earth and how its motion creates the seasons. The landforms of the earth and the forces that shape the land. The role of wind and water in creating climate. The different climate and
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Magma Magic What is a volcano? A volcano is any place where gas, ash, or melted rock come out of the ground. Many volcanoes are dormant, meaning an eruption has not occurred in a long period of time. What
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Name: Period: Plate Tectonic Vocabulary Chapter 10 Pages 239-260 Vocabulary Word What is this? What are some examples? What does it look like? (draw a picture or diagram) Continental drift Mid-ocean ridge
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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY General Information By understanding the environment we can understand why one place is different or the same as another. See handout Geomorphology Geo --Land morph --Change ology --Study
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Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up What causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each
Earth's Crust is broken...but the pieces fit together like a puzzle! And they move- constantly!! What theory explains this process? Were there other theories before this one was determined to be the most
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1 Name Date Changes over Time: Destructive Processes Earth s surface is always changing. Blowing wind and flowing water causes some changes. Moving rock deep inside Earth causes other changes. These processes
geologist sonar crust geology seismic wave mantle constructive force basalt inner core destructive force granite outer core The solid, rocky, surface layer of the earth. an instrument that can find objects
CHAPTER 7 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?
Hon Environmental Science THE DYNAMIC EARTH NOTES. Scientists divide the Earth into 4 parts or spheres. What are these spheres? 1. geosphere 2. atmosphere 3. hydrosphere 4. biosphere Now, describe each
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Chapter 2, Section 1 For use with textbook pages 33 36. Planet Earth Terms to Know hydrosphere The part of the earth made up of oceans, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water (page 35) lithosphere The
Plate Tectonics and fun Earth Stuff Set Up - 1 large graham cracker - 2 3-in squares of fruit roll up - 1 cup of water - Frosting/cool whip - Wax paper or plate - Plastic spoon http://learningplatetectonics.weebly.com/activity.html
Earth Systems, Structures and Processes Date: 6.E.2 Understand the structure of the earth and how interactions of constructive and destructive forces have resulted in changes in the surface of the Earth
Name Earth s Interior HW Packet HW #1 Plate Tectonics (pages 676 683) 1. Is the following sentence true or false? According to the theory of plate tectonics, Earth s plates move about quickly on top of
Chapter 8-1 Plate Tectonics 1. Brainstorm the type of evidence that would indicate a climate change and how this evidence supports the theory of continental drift. Tropical fossils in cold regions Evidence
Ch. 9 Review Pgs. 356-357 #1-31 Write Questions and Answers 356-357 #1-5 Answers 1. The layer of the upper mantle that can flow is the: A - Asthenosphere 2. Most scientists rejected Wegener s theory of
Name: Date: 1. A lake is surrounded by hills covered with trees and shrubs. Which statement correctly describes how a change to the plants in this area will affect this environment? A. Adding plants to
Forces That Shape Earth How do continents move? What forces can change rocks? How does plate motion affect the rock cycle? Plate Motion Mountain ranges are produced by plate tectonics. The theory of plate
1. occurs when the oceanic crust slides under the continental crust. 2. What type of stress is shown? 3. Where two plates slide past one another is called a boundary. 4. What type of stress is shown? 5.
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TEST NAME:Geology part 1 TEST ID:1542715 GRADE:06 - Sixth Grade SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom Geology part 1 Page 1 of 6 Student: Class: Date: 1. The picture below shows
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reflect All the landforms on Earth have changed over time and continue to change. Many of the changes were caused by wind, moving water, and moving ice. Mountains have grown and shrunk. Rivers have cut
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TOPOGRAPHIC RELIEF MAP of NYS PALEOGEOGRAPHY of NYS Prof. Anthony Grande AFG 2012 Definitions GEOLOGIC PROCESSES Geography: study of people living on the surface of the earth. Geology: the scientific study