1 Table of Contents Chapter: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 1: Earthquakes Section 2: Volcanoes Section 3: Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics
2 1 Earthquakes What causes earthquakes? Elastic Rebound If enough force is applied, rocks become strained, which means they change shape. They may even break, and the ends of the broken pieces may snap back. This snapping back is called elastic rebound.
3 1 Earthquakes What causes earthquakes? Elastic Rebound Energy is released suddenly by the action of rocks breaking and moving. Such breaking, and the movement that follows, causes vibrations that move through rock or other earth materials. If they are large enough, these vibrations are felt as earthquakes.
4 1 Earthquakes Types of Faults The surface along which rocks move is called a fault. Several types of faults exist. The type that forms depends on how forces were applied to the rocks.
5 1 Earthquakes Types of Faults When rocks are compressed, a reverse fault may form. When rocks are sheared, a strike-slip fault may form.
6 1 Earthquakes Making Waves Earthquakes release waves. Earthquake waves are transmitted through materials in Earth and along Earth s surface. Earthquake waves are called seismic waves. Click image to view movie.
7 1 Earthquakes Earthquake Focus and Epicenter The point inside Earth where movement first occurs and energy is released is called the focus of an earthquake.
8 1 Earthquakes Earthquake Focus and Epicenter The point on Earth s surface located directly above the earthquake focus is called the epicenter of the earthquake.
9 1 Seismic Waves Earthquakes After they are produced at the focus, seismic waves travel away from the focus in all directions.
10 1 Earthquakes Seismic Waves Some seismic waves travel throughout Earth s interior, and others travel along Earth s surface.
11 1 Seismic Waves Earthquakes The surface waves cause the most damage during an earthquake event. Primary waves, also known as P-waves, travel the fastest through rock material by causing particles in the rock to move back and forth, or vibrate, in the same direction as the waves are moving.
12 1 Seismic Waves Earthquakes Secondary waves, known as S-waves, move through rock material by causing particles in the rock to vibrate at right angles to the direction in which the waves are moving. Surface waves are the slowest and largest of the seismic waves, and they cause most of the destruction during and earthquake.
13 1 Learning from Earthquakes Earthquake Measurements Seismologists are scientists who study earthquakes Earthquakes and seismic waves. The instrument they use to obtain a record of seismic waves from all over the world is called a seismograph.
14 1 Earthquakes Learning from Earthquakes Earthquake Measurements The height of the lines traced on the paper is a measure of the energy released by the earthquake, also known as its magnitude.
15 1 Earthquakes Epicenter Location The farther apart the arrival times for the different waves are, the farther away the earthquake epicenter is.
16 1 Earthquakes Epicenter Location Using this information, scientists draw a circle with a radius equal to the distance from the earthquake for each of at least three seismograph stations.
17 1 Earthquakes Epicenter Location The point where the three circles meet is the location of the earthquake epicenter.
18 1 How strong are earthquakes? Major earthquakes cause much loss of life. Sometimes earthquakes are felt and can cause destruction in areas hundreds of kilometers away from their epicenters. Earthquakes
19 1 Earthquakes The Richter Scale Richter (RIHK tur) magnitude is based on measurements of amplitudes, or heights, of seismic waves as recorded on seismographs. For each increase of 1.0 on the Richter scale, the amplitude of the highest recorded seismic wave increases by 10. However, about 32 times more energy is released for every increase of 1.0 on the scale.
20 1 Earthquakes Earthquake Damage The modified Mercalli intensity scale measures the intensity of an earthquake. Intensity is a measure of the amount of structural and geologic damage done by an earthquake in a specific location. The range of intensities spans Roman numerals I through XII.
21 1 Earthquakes Earthquake Damage An intensity-i earthquake would be felt only by a few people under ideal conditions. An intensity-vi earthquake would be felt by everyone. An intensity-xii earthquake would cause major destruction to human-built structures and Earth s surface.
22 1 Tsunamis Earthquakes When an earthquake occurs on the ocean floor, the sudden movement pushes against the water and powerful water waves are produced. When these seismic sea waves, or tsunamis, are far from shore, their energy is spread out over large distances and great water depths. When tsunamis approach land, the waves slow down and their wave heights increase as they encounter the bottom of the seafloor.
23 1 Earthquakes Earthquake Safety Is your home seismic safe? It s a good idea to move all heavy objects to lower shelves so they can t fall on you. Make sure your gas hot-water heater and appliances are well secured.
24 1 Earthquakes Earthquake Safety Is your home seismic safe? In the event of an earthquake, keep away from all windows and avoid anything that might fall on you. Watch for fallen power lines and possible fire hazards.
25 1 Earthquakes Seismic-Safe Structures If a building is considered seismic safe, it will be able to stand up against the vibrations caused by most earthquakes. Many high-rise office buildings now stand on huge steel-and-rubber supports that could enable them to ride out the vibrations of an earthquake.
26 1 Earthquakes Seismic-Safe Structures Underground water and gas pipes are replaced with pipes that will bend during an earthquake. Seismic-safe highways have cement pillars with spiral reinforcing rods placed within them.
27 1 Earthquakes Predicting Earthquakes Researchers try to predict earthquakes by notifying changes that precede them. That way, if such changes are observed again, an earthquake warning may be issued. Long-range forecasts predict whether an earthquake of a certain magnitude is likely to occur in a given area within 30 to 100 years. Forecasts of this nature are used to update building codes to make a given area more seismic safe.
28 2 Volcanoes How do volcanoes form? Rising magma eventually can lead to an eruption, where magma, solids, and gas are spewed out to form cone-shaped mountains called volcanoes. As magma flows onto Earth s surface through a vent, or opening, it is called lava. Lava and other volcanic materials can be expelled through a volcano s crater.
29 2 Volcanoes Where Plates Collide Some volcanoes form because of collision of large plates of Earth s crust and upper mantle. When one plate sinks under another plate, rock in and above the sinking plate melts, forming chambers of magma.
30 2 Where Plates Collide This magma is the source for volcanic eruptions that have formed the Caribbean Islands. Volcanoes
31 2 Volcanoes Eruptions on a Caribbean Island Soufrière (soo free UR) Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat was considered dormant until recently. However, in 1995, Soufrière Hills volcano surprised its inhabitants with explosive activity.
32 2 Volcanoes Eruptions on a Caribbean Island Plumes of ash soared to heights of more than 10,000 m. This ash settled over the entire island and was followed by mudflows brought on by heavy rains.
33 2 Volcanoes Eruptions on a Caribbean Island Pyroclastic flows are another hazard for inhabitants of Montserrat. Pyroclastic flows are massive avalanches of hot, glowing rock flowing on a cushion of intensely hot gases. Speeds at which these flows travel can reach 200 km/h.
34 2 Volcanic Risks Volcanoes A volcanic risk map for Montserrat was prepared to warn inhabitants and visitors about unsafe areas on the island.
35 2 Volcanoes Forms of Volcanoes Volcanoes add new rock to Earth s crust with each eruption. The way volcanoes add this new material to Earth s surface varies greatly. Different types of eruptions produce different types of volcanoes.
36 2 Volcanoes What determines how a volcano erupts? The composition of the magma plays a big part in determining the manner in which energy is released during a volcanic eruption. Lava that contains more silica tends to be thicker and is more resistant to flow.
37 2 Volcanoes What determines how a volcano erupts? Lava containing more iron and magnesium and less silica tends to flow easily. The amount of water vapor and other gases trapped in the lava also influences how lava erupts.
38 2 Volcanoes Shield Volcanoes Basaltic lava, which is high in iron and magnesium and low in silica, flows in broad, flat layers. The buildup of basaltic layers forms a broad volcano with gently sloping sides called a shield volcano.
39 2 Cinder Cone Volcanoes Moderate to violent eruptions throw volcanic ash, cinders, and lava high into the air. Volcanoes This tephra forms a relatively small cone of volcanic material called a cinder cone volcano.
40 2 Volcanoes Cinder Cone Volcanoes Because the eruption is powered by the high gas content, it usually doesn t last long.
41 2 Volcanoes Composite Volcanoes Steep-sided mountains composed of alternating layers of lava and tephra are composite volcanoes.
42 2 Volcanoes Composite Volcanoes They sometimes erupt violently, releasing large quantities of ash and gas. Composite volcanoes form where one plate sinks beneath another.
43 2 Volcanoes Fissure Eruptions Magma that is highly fluid can ooze from cracks or fissures in Earth s surface. This is the type of magma that usually is associated with fissure eruptions.
44 2 Volcanoes Fissure Eruptions Flood basalts that have been exposed to erosion for millions of years can become large, relatively flat landforms known as lava plateaus.
45 2 Volcanoes Fissure Eruptions The Columbia River Plateau in the northwestern United States was formed about 15 million years ago when several fissures erupted and the flows built up layer upon layer.
46 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Earth s Moving Plates Earth s lithosphere is broken into separate sections, or plates. When these plates move around, they collide, move apart, or slide past each other. The movement of these plates can cause vibrations known as earthquakes and can create conditions that cause volcanoes to form.
47 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Where Volcanoes Form A plot of the location of plate boundaries and volcanoes on Earth shows that most volcanoes form along plate boundaries.
48 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Divergent Plate Boundaries Tectonic plates move apart at divergent plate boundaries. As the plates separate, long cracks called rifts form between them. Rift zones account for most of the places where lava flows onto Earth s surface.
49 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Convergent Plate Boundaries A common location for volcanoes to form is along convergent plate boundaries. More dense oceanic plates sink beneath less dense plates that they collide with. This sets up conditions that form volcanoes.
50 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Hot Spots The Hawaiian Islands are volcanic islands that have not formed along a plate boundary. Large bodies of magma, called hot spots, are forced upward through Earth s mantle and crust.
51 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Hot Spots Scientists suggest that this is what is occurring at a hot spot that exists under the present location of Hawaii.
52 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Hot Spots Volcanoes on Earth usually form along rift zones, subduction zones (where one plate sinks beneath another), or over hot spots. At each of these locations lava breaks through and flows out, where it piles up into layers or forms a volcanic cone.
53 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Moving Plates Cause Earthquakes Forces generated by locked-up plates cause strain to build up. Plates begin to deform until the elastic limit is passed. The breaking and elastic rebound of the deformed material produces vibrations felt as earthquakes.
54 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Moving Plates Cause Earthquakes Earthquakes often occur where tectonic plates come together at a convergent boundary, where tectonic plates move apart at a divergent boundary, and where tectonic plates grind past each other, called a transform boundary.
55 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Earthquake Locations About 80 percent of all earthquakes occur in the Pacific Ring of Fire the same belt in which many of Earth s volcanoes occur.
56 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Earth s Plates and Interior Seismic wave speeds, and how they travel through different levels in the interior, have allowed scientists to map out the major layers of Earth.
57 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics What is driving Earth s plates? There are several hypotheses about where all the energy comes from to power the movement of Earth s plates.
58 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics What is driving Earth s plates? One hypothesis suggests that convection currents inside Earth provide the mechanism for plate motion, which then produces the conditions that cause volcanoes and earthquakes.
Chapter 11 Section 2 VOLCANOES TB 337 http://www.brainpop.com/science/earthsystem/volcanoes/ I. How do volcanoes form? Rising Magma leads to eruptions. Magma (solids and gases) are spewed out to form cone-shape
Magma Magic What is a volcano? A volcano is any place where gas, ash, or melted rock come out of the ground. Many volcanoes are dormant, meaning an eruption has not occurred in a long period of time. What
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up What causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each
CHAPTER 7 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?
ELASTIC LIMIT EARTHQUAKES Bend sitck but do not break it. What do you notice? No bend until it breaks. Describe the energy and forces at work. (Kinetic, potential etc) 8 TH GRADE FAULT FORCE AND PLATES
Standard 7.3.7: Give examples of some changes in Earth s surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.... Also covers: 7.3.4, 7.3.18 (Detailed standards begin on page IN8.) Earthquakes,
Earth's Crust is broken...but the pieces fit together like a puzzle! And they move- constantly!! What theory explains this process? Were there other theories before this one was determined to be the most
Earth Layers Dynamic Crust Unit Notes Continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust Continental Crust Thicker Less Dense Made of Granite Oceanic Crust Thinner More Dense Made of Basalt Moho (Mohorovicic
Magma Objectives Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary viscosity Magma Magma The ash that spews from some volcanoes can form
Earthquakes Chapter 6 Modern Earth Science Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics Section 6.1 Modern Earth Science Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics Earthquakes are the result of stresses in Earth s s lithosphere.
Ch. 13 Volcanoes Volcanoes Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb. Many of these eruptions are caused by the movement of tectonic plates. Volcanism Volcanism-any activity
Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers Weathering and Erosion 1. What is the difference between weathering and erosion? Weathering is the breakdown of earth materials and erosion is the movement of earth
Name Class Date Assessment Geology Plate Tectonics MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided. 1. What is the outermost layer of the Earth called?. a. core b. lithosphere
CH Earthquakes Section 19.1: Forces Within Earth Section 19.2: Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Section 19.3: Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Section 19.4: Earthquakes and Society Section 19.1 Forces
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics 1. Some volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than a(n) a. hand grenade. b. earthquake. c. geyser. d. atomic bomb. 2. The cause
Magma Objectives Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary viscosity Magma Magma The ash that spews from some volcanoes can form
161 CHAPTER 9 Basics Of geology: earthquakes & volcanoes CHAPTER s Objectives To introduce the theory of one supercontinent To discuss the clues and proofs that support the theory of one supercontinent
Chapter Outline Earthquakes CHAPTER 6 Lesson 1: Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries A. What is an earthquake? 1. A(n) is the rupture and sudden movement of rocks along a fault. A fault is a fracture surface
Ch. 22.6 Volcanoes The locations of volcanoes are mostly determined by plate tectonics. Review Vocabulary convergent: tending to move toward one point or to approach each other IntroVolcanoes348 I. Zones
Overview of Ch. 4 Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 I. Nature of Volcanic Eruptions II. Materials Extruded from a Volcano III.Types of Volcanoes IV.Volcanic Landforms V. Plutonic (intrusive)
INTRODUCTION TO EARTHQUAKES Seismology = Study of earthquakes Seismologists = Scientists who study earthquakes Earthquake = Trembling or shaking of the earth s surface, usually as a result of the movement
Earth s Layers p.3 Basic Inner Earth Characteristics Temperature increases with depth Pressure increases with depth Thickest layers to thinnest: mantle, outer core, inner core, crust Earth s Layers p.3
When Mount St. Helens erupted, trapped gases caused the north side of the mountain to explode. Volcanic ash was ejected high into the atmosphere. A volcano is a mountain that forms when magma reaches the
45 Understanding Plate Boundaries R EA D I N G The map below shows the locations of earthquakes and volcanoes on the earth s surface. Today, many of the world s most active volcanoes are located around
Tectonic plate (Noun) The pieces of the Earth s crust that float on the mantle, causing continental drift and earthquakes and creating volcanoes, trenches, and mountains. The Earth s crust is divided into
I. What are Earthquakes? A. There is more to earthquakes than just the shaking of the ground. An entire branch of Earth science, called seismology, is devoted to the study of earthquakes. B. Earthquakes
Volcanoes Table of Contents Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcanic Eruptions Volcanic Landforms What is a volcano? cone Conduit Or Pipe vent Side vent Central vent Crater A volcano is a vent or 'chimney'
Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1 The Earth as a System The Earth is an integrated system that consists of rock, air, water, and living things that all interact with each other.
Layers of the Earth SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics CRUST Composition: Thickness: State of Matter: : Mostly Basalt : Mostly Granite : Crust and Upper Mantle
GRADE 9 YORK CASTLE HIGH SCHOOL CHRISTMAS TERM EXAMINATIONS GEOGRAPHY Duration 1 1 /2 HRS. Name: 1. Label the internal structure of the earth provided below. WRITE on the space provide. Oceanic Crust/Upper
1. Earth s crust is thinner than its mantle. ANSWER: True 2. The concept of isostacy states that high-density rock will stand higher than low-density rock, which explains the formation of subduction zones.
Name: Answer Key Date: Period: Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide Ch 1: Mapping 1. On the global grid, the equator is at 0 degrees. Is the equator a line of longitude or latitude? Latitude 2. What type
TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 6 Plate Tectonics 1 6-1 What is continental drift? 2 6-2 Why is the seafloor spreading? 3 6-3 What evidence supports seafloor spreading?
Earthquakes Ch. 12 Dangerous tsunami threat off U.S. West Coast Earthquakes What is an Earthquake? It s the shaking and trembling of the Earth s crust due to plate movement. The plates move, rocks along
1. Volcanoes A volcano is a landform (usually a mountain) where molten rock erupts through the surface of the planet. In simple terms a volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock
Features of Tectonic Plates PowerPoint 12.2 The Earth s Layers Crust Brittle Continental crust composed mainly of granite Oceanic crust composed mainly of basalt Mantle Denser than the crust Upper is molten
Study guide chapter 9 1. What are the three ways solid mantle material can change phase to a liquid? Associate a boundary/hot spot to each way mantle material changes phase. 1. A decrease in pressure which
UNIT SIX: Earth s Structure Chapter 18 Earth s History and Rocks Chapter 19 Changing Earth Chapter 20 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Chapter Twenty: Earthquakes and Volcanoes 20.1 Earthquakes 20.2 Volcanoes
Goal 2.1 Forces in the Lithosphere Volcanic Activity Lesson 3 Volcanoes, Part 1 Think About It What happens when you shake a can of soda and then open it? Focus Question How does the composition of magma
Name Date Class Earthquakes Section Summary Forces in Earth s Crust Guide for Reading How does stress in the crust change Earth s surface? Where are faults usually found, and why do they form? What land
Unit 8: Internal dynamics of the Earth 1. The internal heat of the earth 2. Plate tectonics theory 3. Internal geological processes 3.1. Volcanoes 3.2. Earthquakes 3.3. Rock deformation 3.4. Mountain ranges
Errata for Earth Science: God s World, Our Home Page 1 Updated December 21, 2017 Chapter 1, Learning Check 1.5 2. The answer key on the Resource CD repeats question 1 but gives the correct answer for question
Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 7 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors
What is a Volcano? Volcano - A Volcano is an opening in the Earth s surface through which molten material or volcanic gases are erupted. A volcano can either be a classic volcanic cone.. Mt. St. Helens,
The Changing Earth Chapter Twelve: Earthquakes 12.1 Earthquakes 12.2 Volcanoes Investigation 12B Volcanoes How are volcanoes and plate boundaries related? 12.2 Looking inside a volcano A volcano is where
NC Earth Science Essential Standards EEn. 2.1 Explain how processes and forces affect the Lithosphere. EEn. 2.1.1 Explain how the rock cycle, plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes impact the Lithosphere.
Plate Boundaries & Resulting Landforms Divergent Plate Boundaries (plates being pulled apart) Type: oceanic plates Description: rising magma gently lifts the crust creating a ridge. The flow of convection
Section 3 Deforming Earth s Crust Key Concept Tectonic plate motions deform Earth s crust. Deformation causes rock layers to bend and break and causes mountains to form. What You Will Learn Stress is placed
Ch. 9 Review Pgs. 356-357 #1-31 Write Questions and Answers 356-357 #1-5 Answers 1. The layer of the upper mantle that can flow is the: A - Asthenosphere 2. Most scientists rejected Wegener s theory of
CHAPTER 18 Volcanism SECTION 18.1 Volcanoes In your textbook, read about the anatomy of a volcano and volcanic material. Completes each statement or answer the question. 25 points 180 points volcano. In
Plate Tectonics I. Tectonics A. Tectonic Forces are forces generated from within Earth causing rock to become. B. 1. The study of the origin and arrangement of Earth surface including mountain belts, continents,
Name Dynamic Crust Regents Review Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the table below, which lists the location of some earthquakes, their Richter magnitude, and their year of occurrence. Data
PART 7: PLATE TECTONICS, EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES 1. Theory of Plate Tectonics: a theory born in 1968 that there are massive rock plates under the surface of the Earth called tectonic plates that are in
Read Earthquakes & Faults Read the provided article. Use the information in the reading to answer the questions on the task cards on your answer sheet. Make sure your answers are in the correct spot on
12.2 Volcanoes Early explorers noticed that many volcanoes were located near coastlines, but they didn t know why. One volcano that is near a coastline is Mount St. Helens in Washington state. This famous
Chapter 19 - Earthquakes Objectives 1. Define stress vs. strain as they apply to rocks. 2. Define faults. 3. Contrast types of seismic waves-3 types according to their type of movement, speed, location
Name: KEY Date: Period: Study Guide for Test: Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes Copy of Class Notes at http://feldmannscience.weebly.com. Access website by computer or mobile device! Tutoring offered
At one time, there was one large island off the coast of Mississippi and now it is two separate islands. What caused the island to be split into two? water erosion The crust and the top part of the upper
CHAPTER 13 2 SECTION Volcanoes Volcanic Eruptions KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How does the composition of magma affect volcanic eruptions and lava flow? What are the
45 Understanding Plate Boundaries R E A D I N G The map below shows the locations of earthquakes and volcanoes on the earth s surface. Today, many of the world s most active volcanoes are located around
Dynamic Earth A B1 1. The edges of most lithospheric plates are characterized by (1) reversed magnetic orientation (2) unusually rapid radioactive decay (3) frequent volcanic activity (4) low P-wave and
Plates Moving Apart Types of Boundaries PLATE TECTONICS IS The theory that the Earth s crust is broken into slabs of rock that move around on top of the asthenosphere. How fast are plates moving? The Arctic
CH. 10.1 Be able to Explain the factors that determine the type of volcanic eruption. List the 3 types of volcanoes Describe the features of a volcano. What is a Volcano? Volcanoes are sites where molten
8 th Grade Science Plate Tectonics and Topography Review #1 Scientists believe that the land masses of Earth were once joined together as one supercontinent called. A: Australia B: Wegner C: Pangaea D:
PS 2.2a: Heat flow and movement of material within Earth cause sections of Earth s crust to move. This may result in earthquakes, volcanic eruption, and the creation of mountains and ocean basins. 2.2b:
Earthquakes Chapter 19 Does not contain complete lecture notes. What is an earthquake An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy released radiates in all directions
Unit 11: Plate Tectonics A. Alfred Wegner 1. Continental drift hypothesis a. single supercontinent called Pangaea b. 200 million years ago Pangaea (all land) began to break up and started drifting to their
Chapter 4 The Earth s Surface: Shaping the crust Learning outcomes In this chapter you will learn: That the earth is made up of layers Why the earth is shaped as it is What plates are and how they move
Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa Fires Within: Igneous Activity Foundations, 6e - Chapter 7 Stan Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College The nature of volcanic eruptions Characteristics
PLATE TECTONICS REVIEW GAME!!!! Name the four layers of the earth - crust - mantle - outer core - inner core Which part of Earth s structure contains tectonic plates? LITHOSPHERE Name one reason why the
How do Volcanoes change the Earth s surface? Volcanoes In the Earth s mantle, there are pockets of hot, liquid-like rocks and gases called magma. As heat and pressure builds up in these pockets (chambers)
geologist sonar crust geology seismic wave mantle constructive force basalt inner core destructive force granite outer core The solid, rocky, surface layer of the earth. an instrument that can find objects
What is plate tectonics? The Earth is made up of four layers: inner core, outer core, mantle and crust (the outermost layer where we are!). The Earth s crust is made up of oceanic crust and continental
1. Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The cross section represents the distance and age of ocean-floor bedrock found on both sides
CHAPTER 12 1 How and Where Earthquakes Happen SECTION Earthquakes KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is elastic rebound? What are the similarities and differences between
Volcanoes A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt. Also, the landform that develops around this opening. Kinds of Eruptions Geologists classify volcanic
Hon Environmental Science THE DYNAMIC EARTH NOTES. Scientists divide the Earth into 4 parts or spheres. What are these spheres? 1. geosphere 2. atmosphere 3. hydrosphere 4. biosphere Now, describe each
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY By Brett Lucas INTERNAL PROCESSES Internal Processes The Impact of Internal Processes on the Landscape From Rigid Earth to Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics Vulcanism Diastrophism Folding
Plate Tectonics Theory of Continental Drift Alfred Wegener suggested that continents had once been part of supercontinent named, that later broke up. The pieces moved apart over of years and formed the
The continents are in constant movement Earth Science Transitional Science 10 Note and Activity Package for Chapter 12 Note: If you lose this package it is your responsibility to print out a new copy from