Section 19.1: Forces Within Earth Section 19.2: Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Section 19.3: Measuring and Locating.

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2 CH Earthquakes Section 19.1: Forces Within Earth Section 19.2: Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Section 19.3: Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Section 19.4: Earthquakes and Society

3 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Objectives Define stress and strain as they apply to rocks. Distinguish among the three types of movement of faults. Contrast the three types of seismic waves.

4 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Faults form when the forces acting on rock exceed the rock s strength. Review Vocabulary fracture: the texture or general appearance of the freshly broken surface of a mineral

5 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth New Vocabulary stress strain elastic deformation plastic deformation fault seismic wave primary wave secondary wave focus epicenter

6 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Stress and Strain Along the boundaries between two tectonic plates, rocks in the crust often resist movement. Over time, stress builds up. Stress is the total force acting on crustal rocks per unit of area. There are three kinds of stress that act on Earth s rocks: compression, tension, and shear.

7 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Stress and Strain Compression causes a material to shorten. Tension causes a material to lengthen. Shear causes distortion of a material. The deformation of materials in response to stress is called strain.

8 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Stress and Strain Even though rocks can be twisted, squeezed, and stretched, they fracture when stress and strain reach a critical point. At these breaks, rocks can move, releasing the energy built up as a result of stress. Earthquakes are the result of this movement and release of energy.

9 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Stress and Strain Elastic deformation Elastic deformation is caused under conditions of low stress when a material is compressed, bent, or stretched. When the stress is removed, material returns to its original shape.

10 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Stress and Strain Plastic deformation When stress builds up past a certain point, called the elastic limit, rocks undergo plastic deformation. This type of strain produces permanent deformation.

11 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Stress and Strain Plastic deformation Most materials exhibit both elastic and plastic behavior. As pressure increases, rocks require greater stress to reach the elastic limit. At high enough temperatures, solid rock can also deform, causing it to flow in a fluidlike manner. This flow reduces stress.

12 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Faults Crustal rocks fail when stresses exceed the strength of the rocks. The resulting movement occurs along a weak region in the crustal rock called a fault, which is any fracture or system of fractures along which Earth moves.

13 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Please click the image above to view the video.

14 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Faults Reverse and normal faults Reverse faults form as a result of horizontal and vertical compression that squeezes rock and creates a shortening of the crust. This causes rock on one side of a reverse fault to be pushed up relative to the other side.

15 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Faults Reverse and normal faults Movement along a normal fault is partly horizontal and partly vertical. The horizontal movement pulls rock apart and stretches the crust. Vertical movement occurs as the stretching causes rock on one side of the fault to move down relative to the other side.

16 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Faults Strike-slip faults Strike-slip faults are caused by horizontal shear. The movement at a strike-slip fault is mainly horizontal and in opposite directions, similar to the way cars move in opposite directions on either side of a freeway.

17 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Please click the image above to view the interactive table.

18 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Earthquake Waves Irregular surfaces in rocks can snag and lock along faults when movement occurs. As stress continues to build in these rocks, they undergo elastic deformation. Beyond the elastic limit, they bend or stretch. Before that limit, an earthquake occurs when they slip or crumble.

19 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Earthquake Waves Types of seismic waves The vibrations of the ground produced during an earthquake are called seismic waves. Every earthquake generates three types of seismic waves: primary waves, secondary waves, and surface waves.

20 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Earthquake Waves Types of seismic waves Also referred to as P-waves, primary waves squeeze and push rocks in the direction along which the waves are traveling.

21 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Earthquake Waves Types of seismic waves Secondary waves, called S-waves, are named with respect to their arrival times. They are slower than P-waves, so they are the second set of waves to be felt. S-waves have a motion that causes rocks to move at right angles in relation to the direction of the waves.

22 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Earthquake Waves Types of seismic waves The third and slowest type of waves are surface waves, which travel only along Earth s surface. Surface waves can cause the ground to move sideways and up and down like ocean waves.

23 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Please click the image above to view the video.

24 Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Earthquake Waves Generation of seismic waves The focus of an earthquake is the point of initial fault rupture, which is usually several kilometers below Earth s surface. The point on Earth s surface directly above the focus is the epicenter.

25 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Objectives Describe how a seismometer works. Explain how seismic waves have been used to determine the structure and composition of Earth s interior. Review Vocabulary mantle: the part of Earth s interior beneath the lithosphere and above the central core

26 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Seismic waves can be used to make images of the internal structure of Earth. New Vocabulary seismometer seismogram

27 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Seismometers and Seismograms Most of the vibrations caused by seismic waves cannot be felt at great distances from an earthquake s epicenter, but they can be detected by sensitive instruments called seismometers, which measure horizontal or vertical motion during an earthquake.

28 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Seismometers and Seismograms The frame of a seismometer is anchored to the ground. When an earthquake occurs, the frame moves but the hanging mass and attached pen do not. The mass and pen record the relative movement as the recording device moves under them.

29 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Please click the image above to view the video.

30 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Seismometers and Seismograms The record produced by a seismometer that can provide individual tracking of each type of seismic wave is a seismogram.

31 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Seismometers and Seismograms Travel-time curves Travel-time curves provide the average time it takes for P- and S-waves to reach seismic stations located at different distances from an earthquake s epicenter.

32 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Seismometers and Seismograms Distance from the epicenter Waves recorded on seismograms from more distant facilities are farther apart than waves recorded on seismograms at stations closer to the epicenter.

33 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Seismometers and Seismograms Distance from the epicenter The separation of seismic waves on seismograms can be used to determine the distance from the epicenter of an earthquake to the seismic facility that recorded the seismogram.

34 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Please click the image above to view the video.

35 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Clues to Earth s Interior Earth s internal structure Seismic waves change speed and direction when at the boundaries between different materials. As P-waves and S-waves initially travel through the mantle, they follow fairly direct paths. When P-waves strike the core, they are refracted, which means they bend.

36 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Clues to Earth s Interior Earth s internal structure To find out what happens to S-waves generated by an earthquake, seismologists first determined that the back-and-forth motion of S-waves does not travel through liquid. They then noticed that S-waves do not travel through Earth s center.

37 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Clues to Earth s Interior Earth s internal structure The data collected for the paths and travel times of the waves inside Earth led to the current understanding that Earth has an outer core that is liquid and an inner core that is solid.

38 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Clues to Earth s Interior Earth s composition Seismic waves change their speed as they encounter boundaries between zones of different materials.

39 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Visualizing Seismic Waves The travel times and behavior of seismic waves provide a detailed picture of Earth s internal structure. These waves also provide clues about the composition of the various parts of Earth.

40 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Please click the image above to view the video.

41 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Clues to Earth s Interior Imaging Earth s interior Because the speed of seismic waves depends on temperature and composition, it is possible to use seismic waves to create images of structures such as slabs and plumes. In general, the speed of seismic waves decreases as temperature increases.

42 Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Clues to Earth s Interior Imaging Earth s interior Images like this one from Japan are generated by capturing the path of seismic waves through Earth s interior.

43 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Objectives Compare and Contrast earthquake magnitude and intensity and the scales used to measure each. Explain why data from at least three seismic stations are needed to locate an earthquake s epicenter. Describe Earth s seismic belts.

44 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Scientists measure the strength and chart the location of earthquakes using seismic waves. Review Vocabulary plot: to mark or note on a map or chart

45 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes New Vocabulary Richter scale magnitude amplitude moment magnitude scale modified Mercalli scale

46 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity Richter scale The Richter scale, devised by a geologist named Charles Richter, is a numerical rating system that measures magnitude of an earthquake. Magnitude is the measure of the energy released during an earthquake.

47 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity Richter scale The numbers in the Richter scale are determined by the height, called the amplitude, of the largest seismic wave.

48 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity Moment magnitude scale The moment magnitude scale is a rating scale of the energy released by an earthquake, taking into account the size of the fault rupture, the amount of movement along the fault, and the rocks stiffness.

49 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity Modified Mercalli scale The modified Mercalli scale is used to measure earthquake intensity on a scale from I to XII. The higher the number, the greater the damage the earthquake has caused.

50 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Please click the image above to view the interactive table.

51 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity Modified Mercalli scale The intensity of an earthquake depends primarily on the amplitude of the surface waves generated. Maximum intensity values are observed in the region near the epicenter; Mercalli values decrease to I at distances far from the epicenter.

52 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity Depth of focus Earthquakes are classified as shallow, intermediate, or deep, depending on the location of the focus. Shallow-focus earthquakes are the most damaging.

53 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Locating an Earthquake The location of an earthquake s epicenter and the time of the earthquake s occurrence are usually not known at first. However, the epicenter s location, as well as the time of occurrence, can be determined using seismograms and travel-time curves.

54 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Locating an Earthquake Distance to an earthquake Seismologists determine the distance to an earthquake s epicenter by measuring the separation on any seismogram and identifying that same separation time on the travel-time graph.

55 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Locating an Earthquake Distance to an earthquake To locate the epicenter of an earthquake, scientists identify the seismic stations on a map, and draw a circle with the radius of distance to the epicenter from each station. The point where all the circles intersect is the epicenter.

56 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Locating an Earthquake Time of an earthquake Seismologists can use a seismogram to gain information about the exact time that an earthquake occurred at the focus. The time can be determined by using a table similar to a travel-time graph.

57 Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Seismic Belts The majority of the world s earthquakes occur along narrow seismic belts that separate large regions with little or no seismic activity. The locations of most earthquakes correspond closely with tectonic plate boundaries.

58 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Objectives Discuss factors that affect the amount of damage caused by an earthquake. Explain some of the factors considered in earthquake-probability studies. Identify how different types of structures are affected by earthquakes.

59 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society The probability of an earthquake s occurrence is determined from the history of earthquakes and knowing where and how quickly strain accumulates. Review Vocabulary geology: study of materials that make up Earth and the processes that form and change these materials

60 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society New Vocabulary soil liquefaction tsunami seismic gap

61 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Hazards Earthquake hazards are factors that determine the severity of damage produced by an earthquake. Identifying earthquake hazards in an area can sometimes help to prevent some of the damage and loss of life.

62 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Hazards Structural failure One type of damage caused by earthquakes is called pancaking; shaking causes a building s supporting walls to collapse and the upper floors to fall one on top of the other like a stack of pancakes.

63 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Hazards Structural failure If the shaking caused by an earthquake has the same frequency of vibration as the natural sway of buildings of certain heights, those buildings will sway the most during the earthquake. Shorter and taller buildings, however, are less likely to be affected.

64 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Hazards Land and soil failure In sloping areas, earthquakes can trigger massive landslides. In areas with sand that is nearly saturated with water, seismic vibrations can cause the ground to behave like a liquid in a phenomenon called soil liquefaction.

65 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Hazards Land and soil failure Soil liquefaction can cause trees and houses to fall over or to sink into the ground and underground pipes and tanks to rise to the surface.

66 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Hazards Land and soil failure The type of ground material can affect the severity of an earthquake in an area. Ground motion is amplified in some soft materials, such as unconsolidated sediments. It is muted in more resistant materials, such as granite.

67 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Hazards Tsunami Another type of earthquake hazard is a tsunami a large ocean wave generated by vertical motions of the seafloor during an earthquake.

68 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Please click the image above to view the video.

69 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting There is currently no completely reliable way to forecast the exact time and location of the next earthquake. Instead, earthquake forecasting is based on calculating the probability of an earthquake.

70 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting The probability of an earthquake s occurrence is based on two factors: the history of earthquakes in an area and the rate at which strain builds up in the rocks.

71 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting Seismic risk The probability of earthquakes in seismic belts is much greater than elsewhere on Earth. The history of an area s seismic activity can be used to generate seismic-risk maps.

72 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting Recurrence rates Earthquake-recurrence rates along a fault can indicate whether the fault ruptures at regular intervals to generate similar earthquakes.

73 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting Seismic gaps Seismic gaps are sections located along faults that are known to be active, but which have not experienced significant earthquakes for a long period of time.

74 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting Seismic gaps Earthquakes in 1912 and 1999 happened on either side of Istanbul, Turkey. The earthquakes around the city leave a seismic gap that indicates that an earthquake is likely to occur in that area.

75 Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting Stress accumulation The stress accumulated in a particular part of a fault, together with the amount of stress released during the last earthquake in a particular part of the fault, can be used to develop a stress-accumulation map.

76 CH Earthquakes Chapter Resource Menu Study Guide Section Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice Earth Science Online Glencoe Earth Science Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animations Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.

77 CH Study Guide Key Concepts Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Faults form when the forces acting on rock exceed the rock s strength. Stress is force per unit of area that acts on a material and strain is the deformation of a material in response to stress.

78 CH Study Guide Key Concepts Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth Reverse, normal, and strike-slip are the major types of faults. The three types of seismic waves are P-waves, S-waves, and surface waves.

79 CH Study Guide Key Concepts Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Seismic waves can be used to make images of the internal structure of Earth. Seismometers are devices that record seismic wave activity on a seismogram. Travel times for P-waves and S-waves enable scientists to pinpoint the epicenters of earthquakes.

80 CH Study Guide Key Concepts Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior P-waves and S-waves change speed and direction when they encounter different materials. Analysis of seismic waves provides a detailed picture of the composition of Earth s interior.

81 CH Study Guide Key Concepts Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Scientists measure the strength and chart the location of earthquakes using seismic waves. Earthquake magnitude is a measure of the energy released during an earthquake and can be measured on the Richter scale.

82 CH Study Guide Key Concepts Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Intensity is a measure of the damage caused by an earthquake and is measured with the modified Mercalli scale. Data from at least three seismic stations are needed to locate an earthquake s epicenter. Most earthquakes occur in seismic belts, which are areas associated with plate boundaries.

83 CH Study Guide Key Concepts Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society The probability of an earthquake s occurrence is determined from the history of earthquakes and knowing where and how quickly strain accumulates. Earthquake forecasting is based on seismic history and measurements of accumulated strain.

84 CH Study Guide Key Concepts Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society Earthquakes cause damage by creating vibrations that can shake Earth. Earthquakes can cause structural collapse, landslides, soil liquefaction, and tsunamis. Seismic gaps are sections along an active fault that have not experienced significant earthquakes for a long period of time.

85 CH Earthquakes 19.1 Section Questions When a material undergoes elastic deformation, what happens to that material when stress is removed? a. It stays permanently deformed. b. It breaks and fails under stress. c. It returns to its original shape. d. It flows in a fluidlike manner.

86 CH Earthquakes 19.1 Section Questions What is a fault? Answer: A fault is a fracture or system of fractures along which Earth moves.

87 CH Earthquakes 19.1 Section Questions Describe Earth s movement along strikeslip faults. a. The sides slip up or down from each other. b. Opposite sides press against each other. c. Opposite sides pull apart from each other. d. Opposite sides slide past each other.

88 CH Earthquakes 19.2 Section Questions Explain how a seismograph works. Answer: A seismograph consists of a frame fixed firmly to the ground. A weight and pen are suspended from the frame. During an earthquake, the frame moves with the ground while the weight and pen stay at rest.

89 CH Earthquakes 19.2 Section Questions What type of waves appear first on a seismogram? a. body waves b. surface waves c. P-waves d. S-waves

90 CH Earthquakes 19.2 Section Questions Scientists use seismic waves to learn about Earth s interior structure. How were they able to use S-waves to determine that Earth s outer core is liquid? Answer: S-waves do not travel through liquid. They also will not travel through Earth s core. Therefore, Earth s core must be at least partly liquid.

91 CH Earthquakes 19.3 Section Questions Using the Richter scale, how much larger are seismic waves measuring 5 than waves measuring 4.5? a. 5 times larger b. 10 times larger c. 50 times larger d. 100 times larger

92 CH Earthquakes 19.3 Section Questions Which scale is used to describe an earthquake on the basis of the amount of damage it does? a. Richter scale b. moment magnitude scale c. seismic intensity scale d. modified Mercalli scale

93 CH Earthquakes 19.3 Section Questions Catastrophic earthquakes are almost always deep-focus earthquakes. a. true b. false

94 CH Earthquakes 19.4 Section Questions Many factors determine the severity of damage produced by an earthquake. What are those factors called? a. damage factors b. hazard factors c. damage hazards d. earthquake hazards

95 CH Earthquakes 19.4 Section Questions What is soil liquefaction? Answer: When soil or sand that is saturated with water is subjected to seismic vibration, it can behave like a liquid and no longer support the structures built on it. This response to vibration is called liquefaction.

96 CH Earthquakes 19.4 Section Questions Sometimes a section of a fault will stop having earthquakes for a long period of time. What are those sections called? a. earthquake gaps b. seismic holes c. rupture gaps d. seismic gaps

97 CH Earthquakes Chapter Assessment Questions Where do most earthquakes occur? Answer: Most earthquakes occur in areas near tectonic plate boundaries.

98 CH Earthquakes Chapter Assessment Questions Where are faults likely to occur? Answer: Faults form where forces acting on rock exceed the rock s strength. This is more likely to occur near plate boundaries.

99 CH Earthquakes Chapter Assessment Questions Which type of fault is shown? a. reverse b. normal c. strike-slip d. compression

100 CH Earthquakes Chapter Assessment Questions How do tsunamis form? Possible answer: A tsunami forms when an earthquake causes the seafloor to move vertically. This motion creates a large ocean wave that only has a height of 1 m in the open ocean but can form breakers as large as 30 m when it reaches shallow water.

101 CH Earthquakes Chapter Assessment Questions Which earthquake waves usually cause the most destruction? a. body waves b. surface waves c. P-waves d. S-waves

102 CH Earthquakes Standardized Test Practice What is the point where earthquake waves originate? a. epicenter b. fault line c. plate boundary d. focus

103 CH Earthquakes Standardized Test Practice P-waves and S-waves travel at different speeds and reach a seismic station at different times. What can this time difference reveal? a. distance from the epicenter b. composition of Earth s core c. magnitude of earthquake d. location of earthquake focus

104 CH Earthquakes Standardized Test Practice Seismic waves change their paths as they run into boundaries between different materials. How have scientists used this information? a. to predict strong earthquakes b. to understand Earth s interior c. to measure earthquake intensity d. to locate strike-slip fault lines

105 CH Earthquakes Standardized Test Practice What determines the numbers of an earthquake s Richter scale value? a. the length of the longest surface wave b. the length of the longest seismic wave c. the height of the largest surface wave d. the height of the largest seismic wave

106 CH Earthquakes Standardized Test Practice What is a body wave? Answer: A body wave is a seismic wave that passes through Earth s interior.

107 CH Earthquakes Glencoe Earth Science Transparencies

108 CH Earthquakes Image Bank

109 CH Earthquakes Section 19.1 Vocabulary stress strain elastic deformation plastic deformation fault seismic wave primary wave secondary wave focus epicenter

110 CH Earthquakes Section 19.2 Vocabulary seismometer seismogram

111 CH Earthquakes Section 19.3 Vocabulary Richter scale magnitude amplitude moment magnitude scale modified Mercalli scale

112 CH Earthquakes Section 19.4 Vocabulary soil liquefaction tsunami seismic gap

113 CH Animations Faults Types of Faults Seismic Waves Seismometers P-waves and S-waves Visualizing Seismic Waves Modified Mercalli Scale Tsunamis

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