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1 How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson s presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

2 Chapter Presentation Bellringers Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Image and Math Focus Bank Visual Concepts

3 Earthquakes Table of Contents Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Section 3 Earthquakes and Society

4 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Bellringer What do you think an earthquake is? Do you think the way earthquakes are portrayed on television and in movies is accurate? Why or why not? Write your answers in your science journal.

5 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Objectives Explain where earthquakes take place. Explain what causes earthquakes. Identify three different types of faults that occur at plate boundaries. Describe how energy from earthquakes travels through the Earth.

6 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? What Are Earthquakes? There is more to earthquakes than just the shaking of the ground. An entire branch of Earth science, called seismology, is devoted to the study of earthquakes. Earthquakes are complex, and they present many questions for seismologists, the scientists who study earthquakes.

7 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Where Do Earthquakes Occur? Most earthquakes take place near the edges of tectonic plates. This figure shows the Earth s tectonic plates and the locations of recent major earthquakes.

8 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Where Do Earthquakes Occur?, continued Tectonic plates move in different directions and at different speeds. As a result, numerous features called faults exist in the Earth s crust. A fault is a break in the Earth s crust along which blocks of the crust slide relative to one another. Earthquakes occur along faults because of this sliding.

9 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? What Causes Earthquakes? As tectonic plates move, stress increases along faults near the plates edges. In response to this stress, rock in the plates deforms. Deformation is the change in the shape of rock in response to the stress of bending, tilting, and breaking of the Earth s crust.

10 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? What Causes Earthquakes?, continued Rock along a fault deforms in mainly two ways. Rock deforms in a plastic manner, like a piece of molded clay, or in an elastic manner, like a rubber band. Plastic deformation does not lead to earthquakes. Elastic deformation does. Like a rubber band, rock can be stretched only so far before it breaks.

11 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? What Causes Earthquakes?, continued Elastic rebound is the sudden return of elastically deformed rock to its undeformed shape. Elastic rebound occurs when more stress is applied to rock than the rock can withstand. During elastic rebound, energy is released. Some of this energy travels as seismic waves, which cause an earthquake.

12 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Elastic Deformation and Elastic Rebound Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key.

13 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Faults at Tectonic Plate Boundaries A specific type of plate motion takes place at different tectonic plate boundaries. Each type of motion creates a particular kind of fault that can produce earthquakes.

14 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Faults at Tectonic Plate Boundaries, continued Transform motion occurs where two plates slip past each other, creating strike-slip faults. Blocks of crust slide horizontally past each other.

15 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Faults at Tectonic Plate Boundaries, continued Convergent motion occurs where two plates push together, creating reverse faults. Blocks of crust that are pushed together slide along reverse faults.

16 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Faults at Tectonic Plate Boundaries, continued Divergent motion occurs where two plates pull away from each other, creating normal faults. Blocks of crust that are pulled away from each other slide along normal faults.

17 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Faults at Tectonic Plate Boundaries, continued Earthquake Zones Most earthquakes happen in the earthquake zones along tectonic plate boundaries. Earthquake zones are places where a large number of faults are located. Not all faults are located at tectonic plate boundaries. Sometimes, earthquakes happen along faults in the middle of tectonic plates.

18 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? How Do Earthquake Waves Travel? Waves of energy that travel through the Earth away from an earthquake are called seismic waves. Seismic waves that travel along the Earth s surface are called surface waves.

19 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Seismic Waves: Surface Waves Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key.

20 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? How Do Earthquake Waves Travel?, continued Seismic waves that travel through Earth s interior are called body waves. There are two types of body waves: P waves and S waves. P waves are seismic waves that cause particles of rock to move in a back-and-forth direction. S waves are seismic waves that cause particles of rock to move in a side-to-side direction.

21 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes?

22 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Bellringer Create a qualitative scale for gauging earthquake intensity. Describe the effects of very minor earthquakes and extreme earthquakes. What kind of damage would be done to buildings, water and power supplies, animals, forests, and people?

23 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Objectives Explain how earthquakes are detected. Describe how to locate an earthquake s epicenter. Explain how the strength of an earthquake is measured. Explain how the intensity of an earthquake is measured.

24 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Locating Earthquakes Scientists use seismographs to study earthquakes. A seismograph is an instrument that records vibrations in the ground and determines the location and strength of an earthquake. When earthquake waves reach a seismograph, it creates a seismogram, a tracing of the earthquake s motion.

25 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Locating Earthquakes, continued Determining Time and Location of Earthquakes Seismograms are used to find an earthquake s epicenter. An epicenter is the point on the Earth s surface directly above an earthquake s starting point.

26 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Locating Earthquakes, continued A focus is the point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins. An earthquake s epicenter is on the Earth s surface directly above the earthquake s focus.

27 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Locating Earthquakes, continued The S-P Time Method is perhaps the simplest method by which seismologists find an earthquake s epicenter. This method is explained in the following Visual Concepts presentation.

28 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement S and P Time Method: Finding an Epicenter Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key.

29 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Measuring Earthquake Strength and Intensity The Richter Magnitude Scale Throughout much of the 20th century, seismologists used a scale created by Charles Richter to measure the strength of earthquakes. Earthquake Ground Motion A measure of the strength of an earthquake is called magnitude. The Richter scale measures the ground motion from an earthquake and adjusts for distance to find its strength.

30 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Richter Scale Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key.

31 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Measuring Earthquake Strength, continued Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale A measure of the degree to which an earthquake is felt by people and the damage it caused is called intensity. Currently, seismologists use the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale to measure earthquake intensity. This is a numerical scale that uses Roman numerals from I to XII to describe earthquake intensity levels.

32 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Measuring Earthquake Strength, continued In the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, an intensity of I describes an earthquake that is not felt by most people. An intensity level of XII indicates total damage of an area. Because the effects of an earthquake vary based on location, any earthquake will have more than one intensity value. Intensity values usually are higher near the epicenter.

33 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Bellringer If you have ever experienced an earthquake, write a short paragraph describing how you felt and what you did to protect yourself during the quake. If you have not experienced an earthquake, write a paragraph describing what you think you would do during a moderate earthquake. Do you know what to do in an earthquake, fire, tornado, or serious storm?

34 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Objectives Explain how earthquake-hazard level is determined. Compare methods of earthquake forecasting. Describe five ways to safeguard buildings against earthquakes. Outline earthquake safety procedures.

35 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Hazard Earthquake hazard is a measurement of how likely an area is to have damaging earthquakes in the future. An area s earthquake-hazard level is determined by past and present seismic activity. The greater the seismic activity, the higher the earthquake-hazard level.

36 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake-Hazard Level Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key.

37 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting Forecasting when and where earthquakes will occur and their strength is difficult. By studying areas of seismic activity, seismologists have discovered some patterns in earthquakes that allow them to make some general predictions.

38 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting, continued Strength and Frequency Earthquakes vary in strength. The strength of earthquakes is related to how often they occur. This table shows more detail about the relationship.

39 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting, continued Another method of forecasting an earthquake s strength, location, and frequency is the gap hypothesis. The gap hypothesis is based on the idea that a major earthquake is more likely to occur along the part of an active fault where no earthquakes have occurred for a certain period of time.

40 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting, continued An area along a fault where relatively few earthquakes have occurred recently but where strong earthquakes have occurred in the past is called a seismic gap.

41 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Forecasting, continued Using the Gap Hypothesis Not all seismologists believe the gap hypothesis is an accurate method of forecasting earthquakes. But some seismologists think the gap hypothesis helped forecast the approximate location and strength of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in California.

42 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Gap Hypothesis and Seismic Gaps Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key.

43 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquakes and Buildings Earthquakes can easily topple buildings and destroy homes. Today, older structures in seismically active places, such as California, are being made more earthquake resistant. Retrofitting is the name given to the process of making older structure more earthquake resistant.

44 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquakes and Buildings, continued A common way of retrofitting an older home is to securely fasten it to its foundation. Steel is often used to strengthen buildings and homes made of brick.

45 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquakes and Buildings, continued Earthquake-Resistant Buildings A lot has been learned from building failure during earthquakes. With this knowledge, architects and engineers use new technology to design and construct buildings and bridges to better withstand earthquakes. The next slide shows some of the technology used to make earthquake-resistant buildings.

46 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquakes and Buildings, continued

47 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Are You Prepared for an Earthquake? Before the Shaking Starts The first thing should do safeguard your home against earthquakes. Place heavier objects on lower shelves so they do not fall during an earthquake. Find safe places within each room of your home and outside of your home. Make a plan with others to meet in a safe place after the earthquake is over.

48 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Preparations, continued When the Shaking Starts If you are indoors, crouch or lie face down under a table or desk. If you are outside, cover your head with your hands and lie face down away from buildings, power lines, or trees. If you are in a car on an open road, you should stop the car and remain inside.

49 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society Earthquake Preparations, continued After the Shaking Stops Try to calm down and get your bearings. Remove yourself from immediate danger, such as downed power lines, broken glass, and fire hazards. Do not enter any damaged buildings unless you are told it is safe by someone in authority. Beware that aftershocks may cause more damage.

50 Earthquakes Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. seismograph seismic waves earthquakes surface waves body waves S waves

51 Earthquakes

52 Earthquakes

53 End of Chapter F5 Show

54 Standardized Test Preparation Reading Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage.

55 Standardized Test Preparation Passage 1 At 5:04 p.m. on October 14, 1989, life in California s San Francisco Bay area seemed normal. While 62,000 fans filled Candlestick Park to watch the third game of the World Series, other people were rushing home from a day s work. By 5:05 p.m., the area had changed drastically. The area was rocked by the 6.9 magnitude Loma Prieta earthquake, which lasted 20 s and caused 68 deaths, 3,757 injuries, and the destruction of more than 1,000 homes. Considering that the earthquake was of such a high magnitude and that the earthquake happened during rush hour, it s amazing that more people did not die.

56 Standardized Test Preparation 1. In the passage, what does the word drastically mean? A continuously B severely C gradually D not at all

57 Standardized Test Preparation 1. In the passage, what does the word drastically mean? A continuously B severely C gradually D not at all

58 Standardized Test Preparation 2. Which of the following statements about the Loma Prieta earthquake is false? F The earthquake happened during rush hour. G The earthquake destroyed more than 1,000 homes. H The earthquake lasted for 1 min. I The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.9.

59 Standardized Test Preparation 2. Which of the following statements about the Loma Prieta earthquake is false? F The earthquake happened during rush hour. G The earthquake destroyed more than 1,000 homes. H The earthquake lasted for 1 min. I The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.9.

60 Standardized Test Preparation 3. Which of the following statements is a fact in the passage? A Thousands of people were killed in the Loma Prieta earthquake. B The Loma Prieta earthquake happened during the morning rush hour. C The Loma Prieta earthquake was a light to moderate earthquake. D The Loma Prieta earthquake occurred during the 1989 World Series.

61 Standardized Test Preparation 3. Which of the following statements is a fact in the passage? A Thousands of people were killed in the Loma Prieta earthquake. B The Loma Prieta earthquake happened during the morning rush hour. C The Loma Prieta earthquake was a light to moderate earthquake. D The Loma Prieta earthquake occurred during the 1989 World Series.

62 Standardized Test Preparation Passage 2 In the United States, seismologists use the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale to measure the intensity of earthquakes. Japanese seismologists, however, use the Shindo scale to measure earthquake intensity. Earthquakes are assigned a number between 1 and 7 on the scale. Shindo 1 indicates a slight earthquake. Such an earthquake is felt by few people, usually people who are sitting. Shindo 7 indicates a severe earthquake. An earthquake that causes great destruction, such as the earthquake that struck Kobe, Japan, in January 1995, would be classified as Shindo 7.

63 Standardized Test Preparation 1. In the passage, what does the word assigned mean? A named B voted C given D chosen

64 Standardized Test Preparation 1. In the passage, what does the word assigned mean? A named B voted C given D chosen

65 Standardized Test Preparation 2. Which of the following statements about the Shindo scale is true? F The Shindo scale is used to measure earthquake strength. G The Shindo scale, which ranges from 1 to 7, is used to rank earthquake intensity. H The Shindo scale is the same as the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. I Seismologists all over the world use the Shindo scale.

66 Standardized Test Preparation 2. Which of the following statements about the Shindo scale is true? F The Shindo scale is used to measure earthquake strength. G The Shindo scale, which ranges from 1 to 7, is used to rank earthquake intensity. H The Shindo scale is the same as the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. I Seismologists all over the world use the Shindo scale.

67 Standardized Test Preparation 3. Which of the following is a fact in the passage? A American seismologists use the Richter scale instead of the Shindo scale. B Japanese seismologists measure the intensity of large earthquakes only. C The Kobe earthquake was too destructive to be given a Shindo number. D Shindo 1 indicates a slight earthquake.

68 Standardized Test Preparation 3. Which of the following is a fact in the passage? A American seismologists use the Richter scale instead of the Shindo scale. B Japanese seismologists measure the intensity of large earthquakes only. C The Kobe earthquake was too destructive to be given a Shindo number. D Shindo 1 indicates a slight earthquake.

69 Standardized Test Preparation Interpreting Graphics The graph below shows the change in temperature during a chemical reaction. Use the graph below to answer the questions that follow.

70 Standardized Test Preparation 1. According to the seismogram, which waves travel the fastest? A P waves travel the fastest. B S waves travel the fastest. C P waves and S waves travel at the same speed. D The graph does not show how fast P waves and S waves travel.

71 Standardized Test Preparation 1. According to the seismogram, which waves travel the fastest? A P waves travel the fastest. B S waves travel the fastest. C P waves and S waves travel at the same speed. D The graph does not show how fast P waves and S waves travel.

72 Standardized Test Preparation 2. What is the approximate difference in minutes between the time the first P waves arrived at station B and the time the first S waves arrived at station B? F 22 1/2 min G 10 1/2 min H 8 min I 3 min

73 Standardized Test Preparation 2. What is the approximate difference in minutes between the time the first P waves arrived at station B and the time the first S waves arrived at station B? F 22 1/2 min G 10 1/2 min H 8 min I 3 min

74 Standardized Test Preparation 3. Station A is approximately how much closer to the epicenter than station B is? A 1,800 km B 4,000 km C 5,800 km D 8,600 km

75 Standardized Test Preparation 3. Station A is approximately how much closer to the epicenter than station B is? A 1,800 km B 4,000 km C 5,800 km D 8,600 km

76 Standardized Test Preparation Math Read each question, and choose the best answer.

77 Standardized Test Preparation 1. If a seismic wave travels at a rate of 12 km/s, how far will it travel away from the earthquake in 1 min? A 7,200 km B 720 km C 72 km D 7.2 km

78 Standardized Test Preparation 1. If a seismic wave travels at a rate of 12 km/s, how far will it travel away from the earthquake in 1 min? A 7,200 km B 720 km C 72 km D 7.2 km

79 Standardized Test Preparation 2. If a P wave travels a distance of 70 km in 10 s, what is its speed? F 700 km/s G 70 km/s H 7 km/s I 0.7 km/s

80 Standardized Test Preparation 2. If a P wave travels a distance of 70 km in 10 s, what is its speed? F 700 km/s G 70 km/s H 7 km/s I 0.7 km/s

81 Standardized Test Preparation 3. Each time the magnitude of an earthquake increases by 1 unit, the amount of energy released is 31.7 times greater. How much greater is the energy for a magnitude 7.0 earthquake than a magnitude 5.0 earthquake? A 31,855 times as strong B 63.4 times as strong C 634 times as strong D 1,005 times as strong

82 Standardized Test Preparation 3. Each time the magnitude of an earthquake increases by 1 unit, the amount of energy released is 31.7 times greater. How much greater is the energy for a magnitude 7.0 earthquake than a magnitude 5.0 earthquake? A 31,855 times as strong B 63.4 times as strong C 634 times as strong D 1,005 times as strong

83 Standardized Test Preparation 4. An approximate relationship between earthquake magnitude and frequency is that when magnitude increases by 1.0, 10 times fewer earthquakes occur. Thus, if 150 earthquakes of magnitude 2.0 happen in your area this year, about how many 4.0 magnitude earthquakes will happen in your area this year? F 50 G 10 H 2 I 0

84 Standardized Test Preparation 4. An approximate relationship between earthquake magnitude and frequency is that when magnitude increases by 1.0, 10 times fewer earthquakes occur. Thus, if 150 earthquakes of magnitude 2.0 happen in your area this year, about how many 4.0 magnitude earthquakes will happen in your area this year? F 50 G 10 H 2 I 0

85 Standardized Test Preparation 5. If an average of 421,140 earthquakes occur annually, what percentage of these earthquakes are minor earthquakes if 49,000 minor earthquakes occur annually? A approximately.01% B approximately.12% C approximately 8.6% D approximately 86%

86 Standardized Test Preparation 5. If an average of 421,140 earthquakes occur annually, what percentage of these earthquakes are minor earthquakes if 49,000 minor earthquakes occur annually? A approximately.01% B approximately.12% C approximately 8.6% D approximately 86%

87 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes?

88 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes?

89 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes?

90 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes?

91 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes?

92 Section 1 What Are Earthquakes?

93 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement

94 Section 2 Earthquake Measurement

95 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society

96 Section 3 Earthquakes and Society

97 Standardized Test Preparation