1 ELASTIC LIMIT EARTHQUAKES Bend sitck but do not break it. What do you notice? No bend until it breaks. Describe the energy and forces at work. (Kinetic, potential etc) 8 TH GRADE FAULT FORCE AND PLATES Rocks have an elastic limit. Forces in Earth bend or stretch rocks. Rocks can bend and stretch up to a point. But once a rock s elastic limit is passed, the rock breaks. When rocks break in this way, they move along surfaces, or faults. A fault is the surface along which rocks move when they pass their elastic limit and break. A tremendous amount of force is required to overcome the strength of rocks and to cause movement along a fault. Rock on one side of a fault may move up, down, or sideways in relation to rock on the other side of the fault. The surface of Earth is in constant motion because of forces inside the planet. These forces cause sections of Earth s surface, called plates, to move. WHAT DO YOU NOTICE? The red dots are where earthquakes have been recorded. The movement of plates puts stress on rocks near the edges of the plates. Most earthquakes occur near plate boundaries. To relieve this stress, rocks bend, stretch, or compress 1
2 THINK OF THE STICK To relieve this stress, rocks bend, stretch, or compress. If the force is great enough, the rocks will break. An earthquake is the vibrations, or shaking, produced when rocks break along a fault. As rocks along a fault move past each other, the rough surfaces catch, or grind, to a temporary halt. However, the forces inside Earth are so strong, they do not let the rocks stop moving. The forces keep driving the rocks, and stress builds up along the fault. When the rocks are stressed beyond their elastic limit, they break, move along the fault, and then return to their original shapes. An earthquake results??? Earthquakes may be small vibrations that no one notices. Or they may be enormous vibrations that cause a great deal of damage. Why do earthquakes rarely occur at the middle of plates? Most stress is at boundaries where plates meet No matter what their strength, most earthquakes result from rocks moving over, under, or past each other along fault surfaces. A REVIEW OF FORCES Earthquakes may be small vibrations that no one notices. Describe three types of forces that can act on rocks? Or they may be enormous vibrations that cause a great deal of damage. No matter what their strength, most earthquakes result from rocks moving over, under, or past each other along fault surfaces. 2
3 FORCES ON ROCKS A FAULTY REVIEW ;) Three types of forces act on rocks tension, compression, and shear. Describe the three types of faults. Tension is the force that pulls rocks apart. Compression is the force that squeezes rocks together. Shear is the force that causes rocks on either side of a fault to slide past each other. TENSION = NORMAL NORMAL Forces of tension inside Earth cause rocks to be pulled apart. When rocks are stretched by these forces, a normal fault can form. Along a normal fault, rocks are pulled apart, and the rock above the fault moves downward in relation to rock below the fault. COMPRESSION = REVERSE REVERSE FAULT Some faults occur when forces of compression squeeze rocks together. In a reverse fault, rock breaks from forces of compression pushing on it from opposite directions. The force of compression along a reverse fault pushes the rock that is above the fault up and over the rock that is below the fault. 3
4 SLIDE BY STRIKE SLIP FAULT In a strike-slip fault, rocks move past each other without much movement upward or downward. The figure below shows that shear forces push rocks past each other on either side of the strike-slip fault surface. The San Andreas Fault in California is a strike-slip fault that extends for more than 1,100 km through the state. The San Andreas Fault is the boundary between two of Earth s plates that are moving sideways past each other. OUTLINE A. When rocks break they move along faults. 1. Applied forces cause rocks to undergo elastic deformation. 2. When elastic limits are passed, rocks break. 3. Rock on one side of a fault can move up, down, or sideways in relation to rock on the other side of the fault. B. Faults occur because forces inside the Earth cause Earth s plates to move placing stress on or near the plate edge. 1. Rocks will bend, compress, stretch, and possibly break. 2. Earthquake vibrations produced by breaking rock a. Rocks break, move along the fault, return to original shapes b. Rock on one side of a fault can move over, under, or past each other along fault lines. C. Three types of forces act on rocks tension, compression, and shear. 1. Tension forces; normal fault caused by rock above the fault moving downward in relation to the rock below the fault 2. Reverse fault compression forces squeeze rock above the fault up and over the rock below the fault. 3. Create by shear forces; strike-slip fault rocks on either side of the fault move past each other without much upward or downward motion. HOLD THE ROPE What three types of forces act on rocks to create faults? Watch the rope Tension, compression, and shear Which way is the force (motion) traveling? Which way is the rope moving in relation to the force? 4
5 SEISMIC WAVES ORIGIN/ FOCUS When a rope is shaken at one end, energy travels through the rope in the form of waves. Seismic waves are generated by earthquakes. Seismic waves travel through Earth just as waves travel through rope. When an earthquake occurs, the ground moves forward and backward, up and down, or side to side. Sometimes, earthquakes cause the surface of Earth to ripple like the waves on the ocean. Rocks move past each other along faults. Stress builds up along rock surfaces that catch on each other. The stress continues to build up until the rocks elastic limit is passed. Then the built up energy is released as seismic waves that travel outward from the earthquake focus. FOCUS! TYPES OF WAVES The focus (plural, foci) of an earthquake is the point where this energy is first released. The foci of most earthquakes are within 65 km of Earth s surface. A few earthquakes have occurred as much as 700 km beneath the surface. Earthquakes produce three different types of seismic waves primary, secondary, and surface waves. All three types of seismic waves are produced at the same time. But each type of wave behaves in a different way within Earth. SPRING LOADED SECONDARY WAVES Primary Waves Primary waves (P-waves) cause particles in rock to move back and forth in the same direction that the wave is traveling. Primary waves occur when particles in rocks are compressed and then stretch apart. Secondary waves (S-waves) move through Earth by causing particles in rock to move at right angles to the direction in which the wave is traveling. Rope!!!!! This motion sends primary waves traveling through the rock. Think of a stretched spring going back and forth (compress and stretch). 5
6 SURFACE WAVES Surface waves move particles in rock in a backward, rolling motion and also in a side-to-side, swaying motion. They are produced when earthquake energy reaches the surface. The arrows in the figure show the different directions of movement made by surface waves. EPICENTER Surface waves cause most of the damage from earthquakes. Many buildings are made with stiff materials that crack when surface waves shake the ground. The buildings fall apart or collapse when surface waves cause different parts of the building to move in different directions. Surface waves travel outward from the epicenter of an earthquake. An earthquake s epicenter is the point on Earth s surface directly above the earthquake focus. FIGURE IT OUT Different seismic waves travel through Earth at different speeds. Primary waves are the fastest; secondary waves are slower; surface waves are the slowest. They travel about half the speed of primary waves. Surface waves are the slowest seismic waves Scientists have learned to use the different speeds of seismic waves to figure out the distance to an earthquake s epicenter. When an earthquake s epicenter is far from a location, the primary wave has more time to get farther ahead of the secondary and surface waves. It reaches the monitoring center first, ahead of the other seismic waves 6
7 SEISMOGRAPH A seismograph is the instrument scientists use to measure seismic waves. A seismograph registers the waves and records the time that each wave arrived. A seismograph is made up of a rotating drum of paper and a hanging weight, or pendulum, with a pen attached to it. When seismic waves reach the seismograph, the drum vibrates, but the pendulum remains at rest. The unmoving pen traces a record of the vibrations on the moving drum of paper. The paper record of a seismic event is called a seismogram. STATIONS Seismographs differ according to whether they are intended to measure horizontal or vertical seismic motions. The figure shows two different seismographs recording two different ground movements horizontal and vertical. Scientists record and monitor earthquake activity. Each type of seismic wave reaches the seismograph station at a different time, depending on its speed. Primary waves reach the seismograph station first. Secondary waves reach the station second, and the slow surface waves reach the seismograph station last. Scientists use the time difference to figure out the distance between the seismograph station and the earthquake epicenter. For example, if a seismograph station is located 4,000 km from an earthquake epicenter, primary waves will reach the station about 6 minutes before secondary waves. 7
8 LOCATING EPICENTERS Seismic waves must be recorded at three or more stations to determine an earthquake s epicenter. To locate an epicenter, scientists draw a circle around each station s position on a map, as shown in the figure below. The size of each circle is based on how far each seismograph station is from the epicenter of the earthquake. The point at which the three circles meet is the location of the earthquake epicenter. LAYERS OF THE EARTH Scientists usually describe earthquakes based on their distance from the seismograph. Local earthquakes occur less than 100 km away. Regional events occur from 100 km to 1,400 km from the seismograph. The outermost layer of Earth is called the crust. The crust contains more silicon and aluminum, but less magnesium and iron, than the mantle. The crust and the part of the mantle just beneath it make up the lithosphere). Teleseismic events occur more than 1,400 km away. The lithosphere is broken up into a number of plates. The plates move over the asthenosphere that lies just below them. The thickness of Earth s crust varies. In some mountain regions, it is more than 60 km thick. Under some parts of the ocean, it is only 5 km thick. Earth s crust is generally less dense than the mantle beneath it. 8
9 FIGURE IT OUT The speeds and paths of seismic waves change as they travel through materials with different densities. By studying seismic waves, scientists have concluded that different layers of Earth are made of different materials with different densities. Studying how seismic waves travel through Earth has allowed scientists to map Earth s internal structure without being there. In general, the deeper inside Earth a layer is, the denser it is and more pressure it has. Scientists also discovered that seismic waves do not travel through some regions of Earth. Seismic waves are not detected in the region of Earth called the shadow zone ( ). The shadow zone occurs because secondary waves cannot travel through liquid, so they stop moving when they reach the liquid outer core. Primary waves are bent, but not stopped, by the liquid outer core. From these findings, scientists concluded that the liquid outer core and the mantle are made of different materials with different densities Seismic waves change speed when they travel through different layers of Earth. Seismic waves speed up when they pass through the bottom of the crust and enter the upper mantle. This boundary is called the Mohorovicic discontinuity or Moho. Seismic waves also change speed as they travel through different parts of the mantle. Seismic waves change speed at this boundary because the crust and the upper mantle have different densities. 9
10 For example, waves slow down when they reach the asthenosphere. They speed up again when they move through the more solid part of the mantle below the atmosphere. Earth s core is divided into two regions based on how seismic waves travel through it. Secondary waves cannot travel through the liquid outer core. Primary waves slow down when they reach the outer core, but speed up again when they reach the solid inner core OUTLINE A. Seismic waves waves generated by an earthquake, can move the ground forward and backward, up and down, and side to side. 1. Focus an earthquake s point of energy release 2. Primary waves (P-waves) cause particles in rocks to move back and forth in the same direction that the wave is traveling 3. Secondary waves (S-waves) cause particles in rock to move at right angles to the direction of wave travel 4. Surface waves move rock particles in a backward, rolling motion and a sideways swaying motion 5. The point on the Earth s surface directly above the earthquake focus is called the epicenter. B. The different speeds of seismic waves allow scientists to determine the epicenter. 1. Primary waves move fastest. 2. Secondary waves follow. 3. Surface waves move slowest and arrive at the seismograph station last. 4. Seismograph measures seismic waves a. Consists of a rotating drum of paper and a pendulum with an attached pen. b. The paper record of a seismic event is called a seismogram. C. Earth s structure consists of an inner, mostly iron, solid core surrounded by a mostly iron liquid outer core surrounded by the mantle. 1. The crust is Earth s outer layer, about 5 to 60 km thick. 10
11 ???? 2. A seismic wave s speed and direction change as the wave moves through different layers with densities. a. Density generally increase with depth as pressures increase. b. Shadow zones do not receive seismic waves because the waves are bent or stopped by materials of different density. 3. Changes in seismic wave speed allowed detection of boundaries between Earth s layers. Name the three seismic wave types in order of fastest to slowest. Primary waves, secondary waves, and surface waves EARTHQUAKE ACTIVITY SEIS IT UP Earthquakes are natural events. They provide scientists with information about Earth. Unfortunately, they also do a great deal of damage to property and to people. On average, 10,000 people are killed in earthquakes every year. It is important for scientists to learn as much as they can about earthquakes to help reduce their impact on society Scientists who study earthquakes and seismic waves are seismologists. As you have read, the instrument that is used to record primary, secondary, and surface waves is called a seismograph. Seismologists use records from seismographs to study earthquakes. There are seismograph stations all over the world that help determine where earthquake epicenters are located SEIS THE DAY This is a seismogram, created by a seismograph; which will be read by a seismologist! The height of the lines on a seismogram is a measure of energy the earthquake released. The magnitude of an earthquake is the measure of energy released. The taller the lines on the seismogram, the greater the magnitude of the earthquake 11
12 RICHTER SCALE Richter magnitude scale is used to describe the magnitude of earthquakes. For each increase of 1.0 on the Richter scale, the height of the line on a seismogram is ten times taller. The Richter scale has no upper limit. However, scientists think that a value of about 9.5 would be the maximum strength an earthquake could register. 1 0 For example, the line on a seismogram that shows a magnitude 7.0 earthquake is ten times taller than the line on a seismogram that shows a magnitude 6.0 earthquake 1 TIC-TIC- BOOM! 32 TIMES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! The difference in the energy released by earthquakes of different magnitudes is even greater. About 32 times as much energy is released for every increase of 1.0 on the Richter scale. An earthquake with a Richter scale magnitude of 8.5 releases about 32 times more energy than an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.5 FREQUENCY Thousands of earthquakes occur on Earth every day. Most are so small that no one is aware of them. Earthquakes with a magnitude of 3.0 or below are generally not noticed and cause no damage. Earthquakes with a magnitude between 3.0 and 4.9 can usually be felt by humans. There are about 55,000 earthquakes each year that are felt, but that cause little or no damage. 12
13 INTENSITY Most of the earthquakes you hear about are large ones that cause great damage. Destructive earthquakes have a magnitude of 5.0 or more on the Richter scale. The earthquakes that cause the most damage and take the most lives have a magnitude of 6.8 or higher. Earthquakes also can be described by the amount of damage they cause. The modified Mercalli intensity scale describes earthquake intensity based on the amount of damage an earthquake does to rock formations, buildings, and other structures at a specific location. The amount of damage an earthquake does depends on its strength, the kind of material at Earth s surface, how structures are designed, and how far a location is from the epicenter of the earthquake. On the Mercalli scale, an intensity-i earthquake would be felt by few people and do no damage. An intensity-iv earthquake would be felt by everyone indoors, and it might do some damage to buildings. Everyone would feel an intensity-ix earthquake, which would cause serious damage to buildings and open cracks in the ground. An intensity-xii earthquake would result in total destruction of structures The magnitude earthquake in Northridge, California, was listed at an intensity of IX because of the damage it caused. LIQUEFACTION TSUNAMIS The intense shaking from an earthquake can cause wet soil to act like a liquid. Liquefaction occurs when wet soil acts more like a liquid during an earthquake. When liquefaction occurs in soil under buildings, the buildings can sink into the soil and collapse Some earthquakes occur under the ocean. These earthquakes cause a sudden movement of the ocean floor, which pushes against the water. The powerful wave that results can travel thousands of kilometers across the ocean in all directions, and it may finally crash into a coast. 13
14 TSUNAMI Tsumamis are seismic sea waves caused by undersea earthquakes. On the open ocean, tsunamis may not be noticed but when they reach land, tsunamis may form a wall of water up to 30 m high. Most tsunamis occur around the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii monitors undersea earthquakes. People are warned if a tsunami is likely to occur so they have time to leave the danger area. SAFETY RUBBER MOORING Today buildings can be built to resist earthquake damage. In California, some new buildings are supported by flexible moorings made of rubber and steel. The rubber acts like a cushion to absorb the wave motion of an earthquake(up to 8.3 on the Richter scale). In older buildings, steel rods can be installed to make the walls stronger. There are some steps you can take before an earthquake to make your home safer. Move heavy objects from high shelves to lower shelves. Make sure water heaters and gas appliances are held securely in place. New sensors can now be installed on gas lines. These sensors automatically shut off the gas when earthquake vibrations are felt. Seek shelter in a doorway or under a study table or desk, move away from windows or objects that can fall on you 14
15 OUTLINE A. Although earthquakes are natural geologic events, they kill many people and cause a lot of damage. 1. Seismologists scientists who study earthquakes 2. Magnitude measure of energy released by an earthquake; determined by the Richter scale and based on the height of the lines on a seismogram a. The Richter scale has no upper limit. b. Most earthquakes have magnitudes too low to be felt by humans 3.0 to 4.9 on the Richter scale. 3. The modified Mercalli intensity scale describes earthquake intensity based on structural and geologic damage. 4. Liquefaction shaking from an earthquake can make wet soil act like a liquid. 5. Ocean waves caused by earthquakes are called tsunamis. a. Caused when a sudden movement of the ocean floor pushes against the water b. Can travel thousands of kilometers in all directions B. Earthquakes cannot be reliably predicted. 1. Knowing how and where to plan for earthquakes can help prevent death and damage. 2. Buildings can be constructed to withstand seismic vibrations. a. Flexible, circular moorings are being placed under buildings; made of alternating layers of rubber and steel. b. The rubber acts like a cushion to absorb earthquake waves. 3. Homes can be protected by careful placement of heavy objects and securing gas appliances. 4. During an earthquake, crawl under a sturdy table or desk; outdoors; stay away from buildings and power lines. 5. After an earthquake, check for water or gas line damage; leave immediately if a gas smell is present. DISCUSSION QUESTION: What two scales measure earthquake magnitude and intensity? Richter scale measures magnitude; modified Mercalli intensity scale measures intensity 15
Chapter 2- OUR DYNAMIC PLANET Lesson 3 Earthquakes Main Idea: Earthquakes are sudden motions in the crust along plate boundaries. These sudden motions can cause great damage and loss of life. How can something
Name Date Class Earthquakes Section Summary Forces in Earth s Crust Guide for Reading How does stress in the crust change Earth s surface? Where are faults usually found, and why do they form? What land
CH Earthquakes Section 19.1: Forces Within Earth Section 19.2: Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Section 19.3: Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Section 19.4: Earthquakes and Society Section 19.1 Forces
Section 19.1 - Forces Within Earth 8 th Grade Earth & Space Science - Class Notes Stress and Strain Stress - is the total force acting on crustal rocks per unit of area (cause) Strain deformation of materials
Chapter Outline Earthquakes CHAPTER 6 Lesson 1: Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries A. What is an earthquake? 1. A(n) is the rupture and sudden movement of rocks along a fault. A fault is a fracture surface
Lesson One Essential Question Where do earthquakes take place? What causes earthquakes? What are three different types of faults that occur at plate boundaries? How does energy from earthquakes travels
Slide 1 Earth Science Chapter 5 Earthquakes Slide 2 Forces in Earth's Crust A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume is stress 3 types of stress acting on rock layers Tension pulls on the
EARTHQUAKES Forces in the Earth s crust How does stress in the crust change Earth s surface? Where are faults usually found, and why do they form? What land features result from the forces of plate movement?
Chapter 20 EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES 20.1 Earthquakes In Chapter 19, you read about the San Andreas Fault, which lies along the California coast (Figure 20.1). This fault passes right through San Francisco
Section 1 (Forces in Earth s Crust) Chapter 6: Earthquakes 8 th Grade Stress a that acts on rock to change its shape or volume Under limited stress, rock layers can bend and stretch, but return to their
Chapter 15 EARTHQUAKES! BFRB Pages 215-226226 Earthquake causes An earthquake is the shaking of the Earth s crust caused by a release of energy The movement of the Earth s plates causes most earthquakes
INTRODUCTION TO EARTHQUAKES Seismology = Study of earthquakes Seismologists = Scientists who study earthquakes Earthquake = Trembling or shaking of the earth s surface, usually as a result of the movement
Earthquakes Chapter 6 Modern Earth Science Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics Section 6.1 Modern Earth Science Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics Earthquakes are the result of stresses in Earth s s lithosphere.
I. What are Earthquakes? A. There is more to earthquakes than just the shaking of the ground. An entire branch of Earth science, called seismology, is devoted to the study of earthquakes. B. Earthquakes
Chapter 19 - Earthquakes Objectives 1. Define stress vs. strain as they apply to rocks. 2. Define faults. 3. Contrast types of seismic waves-3 types according to their type of movement, speed, location
Earthquakes and Seismic Waves An earthquake is the shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface. The point beneath Earth s surface where rock under stress breaks
Earthquakes Ch. 12 Dangerous tsunami threat off U.S. West Coast Earthquakes What is an Earthquake? It s the shaking and trembling of the Earth s crust due to plate movement. The plates move, rocks along
CHAPTER 12 1 How and Where Earthquakes Happen SECTION Earthquakes KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is elastic rebound? What are the similarities and differences between
Earthquakes http://quake.usgs.gov/recenteqs/latestfault.htm An earthquake is a sudden motion or shaking of the Earth's crust, caused by the abrupt release of stored energy in the rocks beneath the surface.
The tsunami triggered by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake caused extensive damage to coastal areas in Southeast Asia. An earthquake is a movement of Earth s lithosphere that occurs when rocks in the lithosphere
Earthquakes Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left. 1. Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions is called a. shearing. b. tension.
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: How and Where Earthquakes Happen 1. Define earthquake. 2. When do earthquakes usually occur? 3. What is a fault? WHY EARTHQUAKES HAPPEN 4. Rocks along both sides
Earthquakes Earthquakes Photo credit: USGS Pancaked Building - 1985 Mexico City Earthquakes don t kill people - buildings do! An earthquake is the motion or trembling of the ground produced by sudden displacement
Earthquakes 1 Topic 4 Content: Earthquakes Presentation Notes Earthquakes are vibrations within the Earth produced by the rapid release of energy from rocks that break under extreme stress. Earthquakes
An Earthquake is a rapid vibration or shaking of the Earth s crust created by a release in energy from sudden movement of a part of a plate along a fault. Energy released radiates in all directions from
//4 Table of Contents Chapter: and Section : Section : Section :,, and Plate Tectonics What causes earthquakes? Elastic Rebound If enough force is applied, rocks become strained, which means they change
CHAPTER 7 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?
Plate Tectonics Earthquakes Modified Recall that the earth s crust is broken into large pieces called. These slowly moving plates each other, each other, or from each other. This causes much on the rocks.
UNIT - 7 EARTHQUAKES WHAT IS AN EARTHQUAKE An earthquake is a sudden motion or trembling of the Earth caused by the abrupt release of energy that is stored in rocks. Modern geologists know that most earthquakes
Exploration A Earthquake Investigation 1. Obtain a piece of plastic putty and knead it into a rectangular shape. 2. Push the ends of the putty toward the middle. Draw and describe what it looks like below.
Chapter 13 Earthquakes and Earth s Interior The crust of the Earth is made up of floating tectonic plates- huge continent-sized chunks of solid rock floating on molten rock. Rock masses along the boundaries
Read Earthquakes & Faults Read the provided article. Use the information in the reading to answer the questions on the task cards on your answer sheet. Make sure your answers are in the correct spot on
What causes an earthquake? Giant snakes, turtles, catfish, and spiders? What causes an earthquake? The movement of Earth s plates creates enormous forces that squeeze or pull the rock in the crust as if
21. Earthquakes I (p. 296-303; 306) How many people have been killed by earthquakes in the last 4,000 years? How many people have been killed by earthquakes in the past century? What two recent earthquakes
Earth Layers Dynamic Crust Unit Notes Continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust Continental Crust Thicker Less Dense Made of Granite Oceanic Crust Thinner More Dense Made of Basalt Moho (Mohorovicic
Earthquakes Earthquakes are natural hazards that result from movement of Earth s plates. SECTION 1 Forces Inside Earth Main Idea Most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries when rocks break and move along
Name: Once you have opened the website with the link provided choose a force: Earthquakes When do earthquakes happen? On the upper left menu, choose number 1. Read What is an Earthquake? Earthquakes happen
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 8 Earthquakes and Earth s Interior 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? Earthquakes An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy
Earthquakes Chapter 19 Does not contain complete lecture notes. What is an earthquake An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy released radiates in all directions
Types of Waves 1. Seismic Deformation Seismic Waves When an earthquake fault ruptures, it causes two types of deformation: static; and dynamic. Static deformation is the permanent displacement of the ground
Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 7 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors
Indiana Standards 7.2.4 Explain how convection currents in the mantle cause lithospheric plates to move causing fast changes like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and slow changes like creation of mountains
Earthquakes and Earthquake Hazards Earth - Chapter 11 Stan Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College What Is an Earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth, produced by the rapid release of energy.
Science Starter Describe in your own words what an Earthquake is and what causes it. Answer The MSL WHAT IS AN EARTHQUAKE AND HOW DO WE MEASURE THEM? Chapter 8, Section 8.1 & 8.2 Looking Back Deserts Wind-shaped
Chapter 7 Plate Tectonics Earthquakes Earthquake = vibration of the Earth produced by the rapid release of energy. Seismic Waves Focus = the place within the Earth where the rock breaks, producing an earthquake.
A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Lecture #2 Earthquakes Are Always Happening ~ 1,000,000 / yr Most are small o Detected only by instruments Large EQ ~ 20 / yr cause extensive damage ~ 1 catastrophic EQ / year
UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards Session 3 Understanding Earthquakes and Earthquake Hazards Lecturer: Dr. Patrick Asamoah Sakyi Department of Earth Science, UG Contact Information:
Forces Within Earth Objectives Define stress and strain as they apply to rocks. Distinguish among the three types of faults. Contrast three types of seismic waves. Vocabulary stress strain fault primary
Earthquake Notes Name: Date: Where Do Earthquakes Happen? Earthquakes occur all the time all over the world, both along plate edges and along faults. Most earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic
Earthquakes Earthquakes Caused by friction and movement between Earth s tectonic plates A release of force Often caused by a catch between two plates As plates slide by, they stick to each other When the
Earthquakes Building Earth s Surface, Part 2 Science 330 Summer 2005 What is an earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy released radiates in all
Notepack # 11 November 8, 201 AIM: What are the features of Earthquakes and where are they located? Do Now: What are some words that are associated with earthquakes? What are Earthquakes? The shaking or
1. The arrival time of the first earthquake P-wave at a seismograph station was 10:11:20 (hours:minutes:seconds). If the epicenter of the earthquake is 8000 km away, what was the approximate arrival time
Name Date Period Slinky Lab- Simulating the Motion of Earthquake Waves. Background: You will utilize a slinky to model earthquake waves, learn the speed, direction and behavior of different waves which
Earthquakes!! Be sure to fill in your notes sheet as you go through the power point! Plate Boundary Review Click on the link below to try some plate boundary movement simulations. The link will take you
Tutorial Problems 1. Where Do Earthquakes Happen? 2. Where do over 90% of earthquakes occur? 3. Why Do Earthquakes Happen? 4. What are the formulae for P and S velocity 5. What is an earthquake 6. Indicate
Name Class Date Assessment Geology Plate Tectonics MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided. 1. What is the outermost layer of the Earth called?. a. core b. lithosphere
Structure of the Earth Chapter 7 The Earth is divided into 3 Main Layers 1. Crust outermost layer 1% of the Earth s mass thickness varies: 5 100 km two types: oceanic denser continental Mohorovicic discontinuity
and Earth s Interior Earth Science, 13e Chapter 8 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College General features Vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Associated with movements
Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1 The Earth as a System The Earth is an integrated system that consists of rock, air, water, and living things that all interact with each other.
Chapter 8 Foundations of Geology Structure of the Earth The earth can be divided into three parts: Crust Mantle Core The Earth s Crust The crust is the part of the earth we are most familiar with It is
Forces in Earth s Crust This section explains how stresses in Earth s crust cause breaks, or faults, in the crust. The section also explains how faults and folds in Earth s crust form mountains. Use Target
EARTHQUAKES SEISMOLOGY - The study of earthquakes waves and how they move through the body and around the surface of the earth. Seismic Waves - vibrations generated in the earths interior that carry energy
Lecture #4 notes Geology 3950, Spring 2006; CR Stern Seismic waves, earthquake magnitudes and location, and internal earth structure (pages 28-95 in the 4 th edition and 28-32 and 50-106 in the 5 th edition)
Plate Tectonics Comic Book Pg s 9-13 Your Comic Book should include the following on each page: Your CHARACTER thoroughly explaining the concept for the page DRAWINGS for each of the topics A brief EXPLANATION
Earthquake Monitoring and Hazards Reading a Seismogram General guidelines: P-wave First disruption of trace = Second disruption of trace = surface waves Largest disruption of trace = Not the distance to
1. occurs when the oceanic crust slides under the continental crust. 2. What type of stress is shown? 3. Where two plates slide past one another is called a boundary. 4. What type of stress is shown? 5.
By: Tiffany Norton Ashleigh Ibos Introduction Earthquakes are a major nature hazard. People need to be more informed on why they happen, how they come about, and interesting facts about them. Project Overview
Boundaries, Stresses, and Faults OH MY! How do geologic events change and shape Earth s surface? Remember The Lithosphere is made of The CRUST + The Upper Rigid Mantle Plates may be called by different
What causes an earthquake? Plate movement causes pressure to build up along faults, or breaks, in the earth's crust. When the rocks cannot take any more pressure, the rock layers shift and an earthquake
Seismic Waves Earthquake Earthquake: Release of the built up stress in the once the is passed Release of this energy is called Most earthquakes occur along a Fault : crack in the Earth s crust where can
12.1 Earthquakes In a place where earthquakes are common, it is not unusual to feel the ground shake. You might notice tiny ripples in your juice glass at breakfast and then you might feel small vibrations
9.3 Earthquakes Preview the headings on these two pages. What can you say about where earthquakes occur? As the plates that make up Earth s crust move, the rough edges lock together. Over time, pressure
FORCES ON EARTH UNIT 3.2 An investigation into how Newton s Laws of Motion are applied to the tectonic activity on Earth. USE THESE NOTES: OUR HOME PLANET EARTH: What do you know about our planet? SO.HOW
Earthquake Machine Stick-slip: Elastic Rebound Theory Jerky motions on faults produce EQs Three Fs of earthquakes: forces, faults, and friction. Slow accumulation and rapid release of elastic energy. Three
Earthquakes How and Where Earthquakes Occur PPT Modified from Troy HS Is there such thing as earthquake weather? Absolutely NOT!!! Geologists believe that there is no connection between weather and earthquakes.
Kobe, Japan 1995 5000 deaths Earthquakes It is estimated that there are 500,000 detectable earthquakes in the world each year. 100,000 of those can be felt, and 100 of them cause damage. The world's deadliest