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1 At one time, there was one large island off the coast of Mississippi and now it is two separate islands. What caused the island to be split into two? water erosion The crust and the top part of the upper mantle are made up of solid rock and is part of the. Describe the process of erosion and deposition. Dissolving limestone is an example of. lithosphere Erosion is a destructive process in which it can destroy or take away soil and sediment from one area. Deposition is a constructive process in which it can construct or build up soil and sediment in another area. chemical weathering Erosion is a force and deposition is a force. destructive constructive Explain why a desert experiences most of its damage from wind erosion compared with erosion by water. Flood plains are caused when the speed of a river causing sediment to be deposited. Freshwater makes up about 3% of all the water on Earth. Where is most of Earth's freshwater located? Glaciers cause a valley. A desert experiences damage from wind because there is very little rain where water can erode sand away to a different location and in a desert there are no trees to slow down the speed at which wind blows. Therefore, winds are stronger and are able to carry sand away to another location. slows down In glaciers and icecaps U-shaped Hot, melted rock that is found beneath the upper mantle is called. magma

2 The idea that the lithosphere is made of huge plates of solid rock which cause the continents to move is called. plate tectonics A is a deep crack in Earth's surface. fault A is a landform that forms at or near the mouth of a river where the water has deposited sediment. A is a large mass of slowly flowing ice that erodes pieces of rock. delta glacier A is an area that is easily flooded when river waters rise. floodplain A is built up when sediment is deposited on land after a flood. floodplain is constantly being pushed up between plates which causes seafloor spreading. Magma A is when an area near a river quickly floods with little or no warning. Cities located near a river are highly susceptible to experience this dangerous event. flash flood is when materials that have been moved by erosion are then dropped off in another place. is when one plate sinks under another plate. Deposition Subduction

3 The layer of rock around Earth is called the. lithosphere The layer of water around Earth is called the. hydrosphere List the causes of erosion. List the layers of Earth beginning with the center. The makes up all the water on Earth such as rivers, lakes and oceans. Meanders in slow-flowing rivers are caused by and. Gravity Glaciers Moving water Waves Wind Inner core Outer core Lower mantle Upper mantle Crust hydrosphere erosion and deposition Nearly 97% of water on Earth is. salt water Of the many factors that cause the Earth to change landforms, which one can be considered the most important? An opening in Earth's crust is called a. water erosion volcano Particles of soil and rock is called. sediment

4 The point on Earth's surface directly above the focus is called the. epicenter The point underground where an earthquake begins is called the. focus The process by which rocks are broken down by chemicals in the air and water is called. The process through which weathered rock is moved away from one place is called. Pushing, pulling, rubbing, or temperature changes causes. chemical weathering erosion physical weathering Rivers cause a valley. V-shaped Rocks and other materials are broken down by. weathering Sandbars are created by the process of. How? Sand dunes are formed by which process of deposition? deposition Waves carry sand away from beaches and eventually deposit it in a location that builds up to form a sandbar. Wind Sudden movements of Earth's crust creates. earthquakes

5 The theory that all the continents are always moving is called the. Theory of Continental Drift A valley is the space between two mountains and it is formed by. water Valleys and beach erosion are formed by destructive forces known as. erosion Volcanic islands and sand dunes are formed by constructive forces known as. deposition What are the three reasons why Alfred Wegener believed that the continents are always moving? What can cause a mudslide? 1. The continents seem to fit together like a puzzle. 2. The same rock types on the coasts of South America and Africa. 3. The fossil of a freshwater reptile was found on two continents separated by thousands of miles of ocean. large amounts of rainfall What causes a sudden change in Earth's surface? Earthquakes and volcanoes What could happen to rocks when water freezes in the cracks or trees begin to grow out of the crack? What happens to the sediment of a fast flowing river? What happens to the sediment of a slow flowing river? Physical weathering can occur where the frozen water or tree roots push on the rocks and cause them to break off. A fast flowing river will have enough forces to carry more sediment further down river therefore, more erosion will occur. A slow flowing river will carry sediment but the rate of erosion is low because the sediment gets deposited near the area where it was taken from.

6 What is the inner core made up of? Solid metals What is the lower mantle made of? Solid rock What is the name of the process in which water falls into the cracks of rock and begins to freeze into ice causing part of the rock to break off? weathering What is the outer core made up of? Liquid metals What is the thickest layer of Earth? mantle What is the upper mantle made of? Solid and melted rock When earthquakes happen or volcanoes erupt under water, a can occur. When rocks and soil are loosened on a slope, gravity pulls the debris downward causing or. When the speed of water slows down and sediment is deposited, a is formed. When two plates collide, are formed. tsunami landslides or mudslides delta mountains

7 Where do most earthquakes and volcanoes occur? At plate boundaries Which layer of Earth has two parts called the oceanic and continental? crust Which layer of Earth is the thinnest? crust

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