# COURSE CODE : 3072 COURSE CATEGORY : B PERIODS/ WEEK : 5 PERIODS/ SEMESTER : 75 CREDIT : 5 TIME SCHEDULE

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1 COURSE TITLE : FLUID MECHANICS COURSE CODE : 307 COURSE CATEGORY : B PERIODS/ WEEK : 5 PERIODS/ SEMESTER : 75 CREDIT : 5 TIME SCHEDULE MODULE TOPIC PERIOD 1 Properties of Fluids 0 Fluid Friction and Flow Measurement 15 3 Transportation of Liquids 0 4 Fluid Handling Equipments 0 TOTAL 75 COURSE OUTCOMES : SL.NO SUB STUDENT WILL BE ABLE TO 1 To understand the properties of fluid. 1 3 To understand the laws of fluid statics and the working of pressure measuring instruments. 3 To know the measurement of fluid flow and various fluid transportation machinery. 4 To understand the principles behind different flow meters. 1 To install the flow meters and estimate the flow rate of fluid with flow meters To understand different flow control devices and to gain the knowledge of using different valves. 3 To understand the principle working of equipments used for liquid transportation. 1 Able to calculate the energy requirement and efficiency of centrifugal pump. Understand the working and application of blowers, compressors, vacuum pumps, jet ejectors. SPECIFIC OUTCOMES MODULE I PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS Know the properties of Fluids Define density Compute specific gravity Define viscosity State Newton s law of viscosity Compute viscosity using Newton s law Classify fluids.

2 1.1.7 Compare Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Define viscosity index Determine viscosity using capillary tube method and Redwood viscometer solve simple problems using Newton s law Understand the laws of fluid statics and the working of pressure measuring instruments Define pressure. 1.. Explain the laws of Fluid statics and its applications List the pressure measuring instruments Explain liquid column manometers Draw the sketch of differential manometer Describe U tube manometer Draw the sketch of differential manometer Draw the sketch of an inclined tube manometer Derive an equation for measuring pressure difference for U tube manometer compute pressure difference using manometers solve simple problems using above derived equations Define total pressure, gauge pressure, absolute pressure Compute total pressure from gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure Apply the theories of fluid dynamics for computing energy of moving fluids List the types of flow Compare viscous and Turbulent flow Describe Reynold s experiment Define critical velocity Define Reynold s number State Transition range Solve simple problems using Reynold s number and predict types of flow Compute critical velocity Explain velocity distribution in pipes Explain the energies of fluid in motion Define fluid head State static head Describe impact head Define velocity head Define potential head Compute the total mechanical energy of a moving fluid Apply Bernoulli s theorem State Bernoulli s theorem Explain Bernoulli s theorem State equation of continuity of liquid flow Explain rate of discharge Define mass rate Define volume rate Compute mass rate from velocity Explain the head developed by a pump in Bernoulli s equation Estimate the efficiency of a pump Estimate friction losses in a pumping system using Bernoulli s equation Apply Bernoulli s equation for finding the velocity at the discharge end Solve simple problems using Bernoulli s equation.

3 MODULE- II FLUID FRICTION AND FLOW MEASUREMENT.1.0 Understand loss of head due to friction in fluids.1.1 Explain skin friction..1. Explain form friction..1.3 Designate friction of straight pipe..1.4 Determine friction losses in straight pipe in viscous flow using Hagen Poiseuille equation..1.5 Estimate friction losses in straight pipes using Fanning s equation..1.6 Define Fanning s friction factor..1.7 Estimate friction factor in rough pipe..1.8 Estimate friction factor in smooth pipe..1.9 Explain the effects of Reynold`s number and relative roughness on friction factor Compute friction losses in Bernoulli s equation Explain the friction losses in pipe fittings..1.1 State expansion losses Compute losses due to expansion in pipes Compute losses due to contraction in pipes Solve simple problems...0 Understand the working of flow measuring equipments...1 classify flow measuring equipments... list the equipments in hydrodynamic method...3 List the important mechanical flow measuring devices...4 Define flow meter...5 State the principle of flow meters...6 Draw the sketch of an orifice meter...7 Describe the working principle of an orifice meter...8 Derive an equation for finding the velocity through orifice...9 Draw the sketch of a venturi meter...10 Describe the working principle of venturi meter...11 Derive an equation for finding the velocity through the ventri meter...1 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of orifice and venturimeter...13 Estimate the volume rate through the pipe line using the equation for velocity through the orifice plate...14 Estimate the volume rate through the pipe line using the equation for velocity through the venturi throat...15 solve simple problems using above derived equations..3.0 Comprehend Pitot Tube & Weir.3.1 Draw the sketch of a pitot tube..3. State the working principle of Pitot tube..3.3 Plot the velocity profile using Pitot tube..3.4 Derive an equation for finding the velocity..3.5 Compute volume rate using equation for velocity through the pitot tube..3.6 List the uses of weir..3.7 Describe the rectangular Notch..3.8 Describe V-Notch.

4 .4.0 Understand Rotameter as Displacement meter.4.1 Explain the working principle of Rotameter..4. Draw the sketch of Rotameter..4.3 Describe the working of Rotameter..4.4 List the types of floats in Rotameter..4.5 Draw the sketch of a current meter..4.6 Explain the working of a current meter..4.7 Draw the sketch of a displacement meter..4.8 Explain the working of a displacement meter..4.9 Draw the figure of a wet gas meter Explain the working of a wet gas meter Describe an electromagnetic flow meter. MODULE III TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUIDS Understand the Piping systems & Valves Differentiate between pipes and tubes List the advantages of transportation of fluid by pipe Define schedule number List the commonly used international standard for pipe and fittings Classify commonly used piping matrials State the colour coding of pipes Explain the methods of joining pipes with figures List the advantages and disadvantages of screwed, flanged and welded joints Draw sketches of pipe fittings for screwed, flanged and welded pipe joints Explain the functions of gaskets and packing in pipe fittings List the gasket materials commonly used with their properties and uses Describe with sketch (1)stuffing box and () mechanical seal Comprehend valves and valve materials 3..1 Classify valves according their functions. 3.. List the common valve materials Describe with sketch Globe valve Draw the sketch of Plug cock valve Explain constructional details and working of Diaphragm valve Describe the working control valve Classify Gate valve Explain the constructional details and working of Gate valve with fig Describe the working of Ball valve with figure Explain the working of Butterfly valve Classify check valve. MODULE IV FLUID HANDLING EQUIPMENTS Understand the pumping devices for liquids Explain the basis of classification of pumps Explain the functions of various types of Pumps in a Chemical Industry.

5 4.1.3 List the characteristic features of positive displacement and dynamic pumps Differentiate between piston pumps and plunger pumps With sketches explain the working principles of (i) Piston pump Simplex, Duplex and Single acting and double acting (ii) Plunger pump simplex pumps List the field of application of piston and plunger pumps Differentiate between rotary and reciprocating positive displacement pumps Explain the different types of reciprocating pump Explain the working of reciprocating pump List the advantages of reciprocating pump Describe with sketches of internal and external gear pump Explain, why safety relief valves are provided in piston pumps Explain the working of following pumps. (i) Air lift (ii) Screw Pump (iii) Diaphragm pump (iv) Acid egg (v) Solenoid pump (vi) Lobe Pump (vii) Vane pump (viii) Electromagnetic pumps Explain the basic working principle of centrifugal pumps Classify centrifugal pump based on casing Explain different types of centrifugal pump impellers Explain the terms- Priming, Cavitations, NPSH Compute the head of Centrifugal pump Explain the Performances of Centrifugal pump Explain the characteristic curves of centrifugal pump Understand the Basics of Fans, Blowers and Compressors 4..1 Explain the basics of classification of fans blowers and compressors. 4.. Explain with sketches of radial flow and axial flow fans Describe with a sketch of a reciprocating compressor Explain the axial turbo compressor Explain the advantages of multi stage compressors Explain the effects of inter cooling in the efficiency of compressor Understand the Vacuum Producing Equipments used in Industry Explain with a sketch of a Nash Hytor List the applications and advantages of Nash Hytor List the advantages of using steam jet ejectors for producing vacuum Explain with sketches of the following (i) Single stage ejector. (ii) Two stage ejector without condenser. (iii) Multistage ejector with inter condensers Explain the use of condensers along with ejectors.

6 COURSE CONTENT MODULE I PROPERTIES OF FLUID Properties of fluids compressible - incompressible fluids viscosity definition-units - determination of viscosity. Viscosity of gases and liquids and their variation with temperature and pressure.-viscosity index Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids. Laws of fluid statics and its application fluid pressure units and its measurements concept of fluid heads and its calculations, gauge pressure manometers piezometer tubes, single column manometers, inclined manometers, simple U-tube manometer, two liquid manometer construction, working and calculation of pressure difference based on reading of the above manometers, industrial type manometers. Fluid dynamics: - Types of fluid flow in pipes, viscous and turbulent flow, Reynold s experiment, critical velocity, problems, types of fluid heads static head, kinetic head, impact head, potential head, definitions and expressions. Bernoulli s Theorem: - Application to simple problems, head developed by a pump H.P of a pump and efficiency. Velocity distribution in pipes relation between maximum and average velocity. Expressing flow rates as velocity, volume rate and mass rate. Equation for continuity.simple problems. MODULE II FLUID FRICTION AND FLOW MEASUREMENT Causes of fluid friction in pipe systems skin friction and form frictions boundary layer separation and wake formation. (Description only) Friction in straight pipe Hagen Poiseuille equation for viscous flow (no derivation) and problems. Friction in turbulent flow Fanning s equation (derivation not required) friction factor chart- Effect of Reynold s number and relative roughness on friction factor- Empirical equation for friction factor- Calculation of friction losses in straight pipes and accounting for the loss in Bernoulli s equation. Friction losses in pipe fittings equivalent length, expansion and contraction losses. Problems in fluid flow involving friction loss in pipe fittings. Economic pipe diameter. Flow measurement: - Flow metering- classification of flow measuring equipments. Hydrodynamics method- mechanical method and special methods. Orifice meter- venturi meter - pitot tube and weirs. Basic working principle, derivation of mathematical expressions simple problems. Rotameter working principles, materials of construction and applications. Mechanical flow measurements Displacement meters, wet gas meter, rotating disc meter and piston meters, Current meters cup current meters, propeller meters. Special Methods: - Dilution methods, simple problems Electro magnetic flow meter. MODULE III TRANSPORTATION AND CONTROL OF FLUIDS Pipes and pipe fittings: Pipes and tubes pipe and tube standards, Pipe fittings fittings for screwed, welded and flanged joints. Gaskets and packing: - Rubber, plastic, cork, rubber cork, asbestos, compressed asbestos fiber, metallic gaskets. Sealing of rotating shafts stuffing boxes and mechanical seals. Fundamentals of flow control mechanism and valve classifications-valve materials-gate valve and its variations like sluice valve and slide valve- Plug valve (cocks) way and 3 way and non-lubricating plug valves- Constructional details of Ball valves Globe valve- Butterfly valve Diaphragm valve.

7 MODULE IV FLUID HANDLING EQUIPMENTS Pump classifications Positive displacement and Centrifugal. Positive displacement pumps reciprocating and rotary reciprocating type piston plunger pumps simplex and duplex single acting and double acting. Diaphragm pumps Rotary gear pump, screw pumps, lobe pumps. Fluid displacement pumps Airlift, Acid egg, Jet pumps, Electromagnetic pumps Centrifugal pumps: - Basic working principles, types of impellers for different fluids, single suction and double suction type. Split case and multistage pumps. Priming of centrifugal pumps and self-priming pumps. Turbine pumps, NPSH, cavitations, selection of pumps based on liquid characteristic, head, capacity etc: - Fans, Blowers, compressors Positive displacement blowers, turbo blowers, turbo compressors, positive displacement compressors, vacuum pumps and ejectors. Nash Hytor. Installation, start up and shut down procedures of above machineries. REFERENCE Walter.L.Badger&Julius.T.Banchero - Introduction to chemical Engg Warren.L.McCabe&Julian.C.Smith - Unit Operations K.A.Gavhane - Unit Operations I

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