# Chapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW

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1 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Chapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW 4-1 Types of Energy 4- Euler s Equation 4-3 Bernoulli s Equation 4-4 Total Energy Line (TEL) and Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) 4-5 Applications of Bernoulli's Equation (Venturi meter Orifice meter Pitot Tube) 8 For the dynamics of fluid flow, or hydrodynamics, the fluid motion is studied including the force and energy considerations. 4-1 Types of Energy: I- Potential Energy: It is the energy possessed by a fluid particle due to its position with respect to an arbitrary datum. II- Pressure Energy: It is the energy possessed by a fluid particle due to its pressure. III- Kinetic Energy: It is the energy possessed by a fluid particle due to its motion or velocity. 4- Euler s Equation: Assumptions and Limitations: 1- The fluid is ideal (non-viscous or no friction losses). - The fluid is incompressible ( is constant). 3- The flow is steady. 4- The velocity of flow is uniform over the section. 5- Only the gravity and pressure forces are considered. The Equation: For a steady flow of an ideal fluid, consider an element AB of the fluid, as shown in the figure. Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

2 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil ds, da: length and cross sectional area of the fluid element. dw : Weight of the fluid element. p : Pressure of the fluid element at A. p + dp: Pressure of the fluid element at B. Applying Newton s second law of motion in the direction of flow: F = M a F = P da - (P + dp) da - dw cos dw = M g = V g = da ds g Thus, F = - dp da - da ds g cos... (1) M a = V a = da ds a And, a = dv = dv x ds = dv v dt ds dt ds a ds = v dv Then, M a = da v dv... () (1) = (), - dp da - da ds g cos = da v dv da, - dp - g ds cos = v dv But, ds cos = dz Thus, - dp - g dz = v dv g dz + dp + v dv = 0 ( = g ), we get, dz + dp + v dv = 0 g Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

4 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Notes: 1- Bernoulli s Equation for a Real Fluid Flow: The real fluid has viscosity that resists the flow. So; a part of the total energy of flow is lost due to the friction. This head loss is denoted by h L. 31 Z 1 + (P/ ) 1 + (v /g) 1 = Z + (P/ ) + (v /g) + h L - Direction of the Flow: The fluid flows from the point of high total energy to that of low total energy. Example 1: As shown in the figure, the diameter of a pipe changes from 0 cm at a section 3 m above datum, to 5 cm at another section 5 m above the datum. At the second section, the pressure of water is 1. kg/cm and the velocity of flow is 16 m/sec. Determine the pressure at the first section? Solution A 1 = π d / 4 = π (0) / 4 = cm Z 1 = 3 m = 300 cm A = π d / 4 = π (5) / 4 = cm Z = 5 m = 500 cm P = 100 g/cm V = 16 m/sec = 1600 cm/sec A 1 v 1 = A v V 1 = (19.63x1600)/ ~ 100 cm/sec w = 1 gm/cm3 Bernoulli's equation: Z 1 + (P/ ) 1 + (v /g) 1 = Z + (P/ ) + (v /g) (P 1 /1) + [(100) / ( x 981)] = (100/1) + [(1600) / ( x 981)] P 1 = gm/cm Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

5 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Applications of Bernoulli's Equation: There are many practical applications of Bernoulli s equation. We shall consider only three applications for flow measurements in pipes, using the three hydraulic devices: venturi meter, orifice meter, and pitot tube. 3 I- Venturi meter: It is a device for measuring the discharge of a liquid flowing in a pipe. As shown in figure, it consists of three parts: convergent cone or inlet, throat, and divergent cone or outlet. The inlet is a short pipe that converges from the pipe diameter d 1 to a smaller diameter d. This convergent pipe converts pressure head into velocity head. The throat is a small circular pipe with constant diameter d. The outlet is a longer pipe that diverges from the throat diameter d to the pipe diameter d 1. This divergent pipe converts velocity head into pressure head. For ideal fluid, applying Bernoulli s equation between sections (1) and () representing the inlet and throat respectively, as shown in the figure: Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

6 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Z 1 + (P 1 / ) + (v 1 /g) = Z + (P / ) + (v /g) [Z 1 + (P 1 / )] - [Z + (P / )] = (v v 1 ) /g Let, [Z 1 + (P 1 / )] - [Z + (P / )] = H Where H is the change in piezometric head. Then, H = (v - v 1 ) / g A manometer can be used to measure the change in piezometric head H. 33 At the centre line of the pipe, P(1) = P() Then, at a datum x - x, P 1 + Z 1 = P + (Z h m ) + h m m ( ) Z 1 + (P 1 / ) = Z + (P / ) h m + ( m / ) h m [Z 1 + (P 1 / )] - [ Z + (P / )] = h m [( m / ) - 1] H = h m [( m / ) - 1] Thus, H = h m [( m / ) - 1] = (v v 1 ) / g (v - v 1 ) = g H But, Q = A 1 v 1 = A v So, v 1 = A v / A 1 v - [(A v ) /A 1 ] = g H v [1 - (A /A 1 )] = g H v [(A 1 - A ) / A 1 ] = g H v = [A 1 / (A 1 - A )] g H v = [A 1 / (A 1 - A ) 1/] ( g H) 1/ Thus, Q = A v Q = [A 1 A / (A 1 - A ) 1/] ( g H) 1/ Or Q A A 1 (A 1 gh A ) This is the equation of venturi meter for measuring the discharge of ideal fluid flowing in a pipe. Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

7 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Example : A venturi meter of 15 cm inlet diameter and 10 cm throat is laid horizontally in a pipe to measure the flow of oil of 0.9 specific gravity. The reading of a mercury manometer is 0 cm. Calculate the discharge in lit/min? 34 Solution For inlet, A 1 = (π d 1 )/4 = (π x 15 )/4 = cm For throat, A = (π d )/4 = (π x 10 )/4 = cm H = h m [( m / ) - 1] = 0 [(13.6 / 0.9) - 1] = 8. cm of oil Q A A 1 (A 1 gh A ) Q (176.7 x78.54) x981x 8. (176.7) (78.54) Q = cm3/sec (x 60/1000) Thus, Q = lit/min Example 3: A 30 cm x 15 cm venturi meter is provided to vertical pipe line carrying oil with 0.9 specific gravity. The flow direction is upwards. The difference in elevation between inlet and throat is 30 cm. The reading of a mercury manometer is 5 cm. 1- Calculate the discharge? - Determine the pressure head between inlet and throat? Solution (1) For inlet, A 1 = (π d 1 )/4 = (π x 30 )/4 = cm Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

8 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil For throat, A = (π d )/4 = (π x 15 )/4 = cm H = h m [( m / ) - 1] = 5 [(13.6 / 0.9) - 1] = 35.8 cm of oil Q A A 1 (A 1 gh A ) 35 Q (706.86x176.71) x981x35.8 (706.86) (176.71) Q = cm3/sec () [Z 1 + (P 1 / )] - [ Z + (P / )] = H (P 1 / ) - (P / ) + (Z 1 Z ) = 35.8 Z 1 Z = 0-30 = - 30 (P 1 / ) - (P / ) = = 38.8 cm of oil Exercises: (1) Resolve example (3) if the flow is downwards? () Resolve examples () and (3) applying only Bernoulli s equation and without using equation of venturi meter? Important Notes: 1- The reading of the manometer attached to a venturi meter is constant. It does not depend on the position of the venturi meter. [Z 1 + (P 1 / )] - [Z + (P / )] = H = (v v 1 ) / g H = Constant, as the velocities v 1 & v are constant for continuous flow. Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

9 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil * For horizontal venturi meter: The reading of manometer h m is employed to get H, as discussed before. H = Potential Head + Pressure Head 36 * For inclined venturi meter: When the venturi meter is inclined, the potential head changes. Consequently, pressure head changes also in a manner such that H is still constant. That is to say, if potential head decreases, then pressure head increases such that their sum H is still constant. * For vertical venturi meter: When the venturi meter is fixed vertically, potential head changes according to direction of flow (upwards or downwards). Consequently, pressure head changes such that their sum H is still constant. - Venturi meter for a real fluid flow. For the case of a real fluid, there is energy loss between any sections decreasing the values of velocity. Thus, a coefficient of venturi meter (or coefficient of discharge) C d is employed. Q R = C d Q I C d = (It is designed to minimize energy losses.) It may be noted that, C d = Q R / Q I = (v R A) / (v I A) = (v R / v I ) V R = C d v I Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

10 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Negative pressure at the throat of a venturi meter. At the throat of a venturi meter, the velocity is maximum because it has minimum cross sectional area and consequently the pressure is minimum. Thus, the pressure may be zero or even negative. When this negative pressure reaches the value of vapor pressure of the liquid flowing in the pipe, the liquid evaporates. So, the flow becomes discontinuous due to the existed vapor. Cavitation takes place as the liquid evaporates and the vapor condenses to a liquid and so on. 37 To avoid cavitation, the pressure at the throat of a venturi meter has not to reach the value of vapor pressure of the flowing liquid. II- Orifice Meter: It is a device for measuring the discharge of a liquid flowing in a pipe. As shown in figure, it consists of a plate having a sharp edged circular orifice (hole). For ideal fluid, applying Bernoulli s equation between sections (1) and () representing the pipe and orifice respectively, Z 1 + (P 1 / ) + (v 1 /g) = Z + (P / ) + (v /g) [Z 1 + (P 1 / )] - [Z + (P / )] = H = (v v 1 ) /g Where, H is the change in piezometric head. Then, (v - v 1 ) = g H (Q / A ) - (Q /A 1 ) = g H Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

11 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Q [(1/A ) - (1/A 1 )] = g H Q = [(A 1 A ) / (A 1 - A )] ( g H) Q A A 1 (A 1 gh A ) 38 This is the equation of orifice for measuring discharge of ideal fluid flowing in a pipe. For the case of a real fluid, there is energy loss between any sections decreasing the values of velocity. Thus, a coefficient of discharge C d is employed, that accounts for both velocity and contraction. Q R = C d Q I C d = 0.6 (It is simple and cheap with high energy losses.) In fact, there is a vena contraction downstream the orifice at a distance = (1/) diameter of orifice, say at section (3). Introducing the effect of this contraction, the equation (1) is applied for sections (1) and (3) obtaining another equation of orifice. Example 4: An orifice meter has an orifice of 10 cm diameter and a coefficient of discharge of It is fixed in a pipe of 5 cm diameter with flowing oil of 0.8 specific gravity. The pressure difference between pipe and orifice is measured by a mercury manometer that gives a reading of 80 cm. Determine the discharge? Solution For pipe, A 1 = (π d 1 )/4 = (π x 5 )/4 = cm For orifice, A = (π d )/4 = (π x 10 )/4 = cm Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

12 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil H = h m [( m / ) - 1] = 80 [(13.6 / 0.8) - 1] = 180 cm of oil Q x78.54 x981x180 (490.87) Q = cm3/sec (78.54) x III- Pitot Tube: It is a device for measuring the velocity of a liquid flowing in a pipe or an open channel. As shown in figure, it consists of a glass tube bent at 90º with short length. The lower short end of pitot tube is put to face the direction of flow. The liquid rises in the tube due to the pressure of flowing liquid. The rise of liquid is measured to calculate the velocity of flowing liquid. For ideal fluid, applying Bernoulli s equation between sections (1) and () as shown in figure, Z 1 + (P 1 / ) + (v 1 / g) = Z + (P / ) + 0 At the same level, Z 1 = Z = 0 Thus, (P 1 / ) + (v 1 /g) = (P / ) But, (P / ) = (P 1 / ) + h Where h is the rise of flowing liquid in pitot tube above the surface. Then, (P 1 / ) + (v 1 /g) = (P1 / ) + h (v 1 /g) = h v = ( g h) 1/ This is the equation of pitot tube for measuring velocity of ideal fluid flowing in a pipe or an open channel. For the case of a real fluid, Q R = C d Q I C d ~ 1 (The velocity becomes zero rapidly upon entry to the tube with negligible energy losses.) Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

13 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Chapter 5 FLOW THROUGH AN ORIFICE 5-1 The Orifice 5- Orifice under a Constant Head 5-3 Orifice under a Varying Head The Orifice: It is a small opening in any vessel through which liquid flows out. An orifice may be located in a vertical side of the vessel or in its base. It may be rounded or sharp edged. The main function of an orifice is measuring the discharge. 5- Orifice under a Constant Head: Jet of Liquid: It is the continuous stream of liquid that flows out the orifice. Vena Contraction: As shown in the figure, fluid particles take a turn to enter the orifice from all directions. This consumes some energy of the flowing liquid. The liquid flowing out the orifice (liquid jet) contracts as it is unable to make sharp turns. The maximum contraction (minimum cross sectional area of the liquid jet) is found to be slightly downstream the orifice. The section of maximum contraction is called vena contraction (section C- C in the figure). Applying Bernoulli s equation between the point (1) on the liquid surface and the point () at centre line of vena contraction (section C-C in the figure), H = (v /g) Where, H: Elevation of liquid surface above vena contraction. v :Velocity at vena contraction. v = (gh) 1/ Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

14 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Coefficient of Contraction C c : C c = Actual Area = Area of Jet at Vena Contraction = A c Theoretical Area Area of Orifice A o A c = C c A o & C c = Coefficient of Velocity C v : Considering the friction loss of energy between the two points, thus: C v = Actual Velocity = v a Theoretical Velocity v v a = C v v & C v = Coefficient of Discharge C d : C d = Actual Discharge = Q a Theoretical Discharge Q Q a = C d Q Thus, Q = A o v Q a = A c v a = (C c A o ) (C v v) = (C c C v ) (A o v) C d = C c C v Example 1: Water of head 9 m is flowing through an orifice of 60 mm diameter. The coefficients of discharge and velocity are 0.6 and 0.9 respectively. 1- Calculate the actual discharge through the orifice? - Determine the actual velocity at vena contraction? Solution 1- A o = π d / 4 = (π 6 ) / 4 = 8.7 cm Q = A o (gh) 1/ = 8.7 [ (981) (900)] 1/ = cm 3 /sec Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

15 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Q a = C d Q = 0.6 ( ) = cm 3 /sec - v = (gh) 1/ = [ (981) (900)] 1/ = cm/sec v a = C v v = 0.9 (138.83) = cm/sec Orifice under a Varying Head: Assume a tank, as shown in the figure, of a cross sectional area AT contains a liquid that is flowing through an orifice. During a period of time T, the liquid level decreased from H1 to H. At some instant, the liquid height is (h+dh) above the orifice. During a small interval of time dt, the head decreases by a small amount dh. The actual discharge of liquid flowing out the orifice is dq, dq = Cd Ao ( g h)1/ The volume of liquid flowing out the orifice is dv, dv = dq dt = Cd Ao ( g h)1/ dt Also, with respect to the tank, the liquid volume in it decreased during the time interval dt by the amount dv, dv = - AT dh Thus, Cd Ao ( g h)1/ dt = - AT dh dt = - AT (h)-1/ dh / Cd Ao ( g)1/ The total time T for decreasing liquid level from H1 to H, T = [- AT / Cd Ao ( g)1/] (h)-1/ dh T = - AT (H 1/ - H1 1/ ) / Cd Ao ( g)1/ Minus sign may be eliminated by using (H1 - H), where H1 > H. T = AT (H1 1/ - H 1/ ) / Cd Ao ( g)1/ AT ( H1 H ) T C A g d o Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

16 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Applications: This equation can be used to determine the time T required to reduce the liquid surface from one level to another. Also, it can be applied to detect the time T required to empty any tank containing a liquid. For this case, the liquid level decreases from H1 to zero. 43 Example : A swimming pool 10 m long and 6 m wide holds water to a depth of 1.5 m. The water is discharged from the pool through an orifice at its bottom. The area of the orifice is 0.3 m, and the coefficient of discharge is 0.6. Determine the time required to completely empty the pool? Solution AT = 10 x 6 = 60 m Ao = 0.3 m H1 = 1.5 m & H = 0 T AT ( H1 H ) C A g d o *60( 1.5 0) T 0.6*0.3 *9.81 T = 1 sec Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

17 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Chapter 6 MOMENTUM EQUATION 6-1 Momentum 6- Force Applied by a Liquid Jet on a Flat Plate Momentum: Momentum of any moving body (such as a flowing fluid particle) is the quantity of motion. It is the product of its mass and velocity. Momentum = Mass x Velocity = M * v Units: SI system: kg.m/s Examples: The lift force on an aircraft is exerted by the air moving over the wing. A jet of water from a hose exerts a force on whatever it hits. As the velocity, the momentum is a vector quantity. According to Newton's second law, the rate of change of momentum of a moving body (or its acceleration) is equal to the resultant force acting on the body, and takes place in the direction of the force. Momentum for One Dimensional Flow: For a steady and non-uniform flow in the shown streamtube, Mass entering the streamtube = Volume * Density = A 1 (v 1 t)* Momentum entering the streamtube = Mass*Velocity = A 1 (v 1 t) *v 1 Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

18 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Similarly, Mass leaving the streamtube = Volume * Density = A (v t)* Momentum leaving the streamtube = Mass*Velocity = A (v t) *v Resultant force on the fluid = Rate of change of momentum F = [A (v t) *v A 1 (v 1 t) *v 1 ] / t & Q = A v = A 1 v 1 F = Q (v v1) The resultant force is acting in the direction of the flow of the fluid. 45 Momentum for Two Dimensional Flow: For a steady and non-uniform flow in the shown streamtube, In x direction, F x = Rate of change of momentum in x - direction F x = Q (v x v 1x ) In y direction, F y = Rate of change of momentum in y - direction F y = Q (v y v 1y ) The resultant force: F is inclined with angle to the x axis: (F y / F x ) Momentum for Three Dimensional Flow: In general, F T = F B + F W + F P = Q (v out v in ) F T : The total force. F B : The force exerted on the fluid by the surrounding boundary. F W : The force exerted on the fluid by the gravity (the weight). F P : The force exerted on the fluid by the pressure. Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

19 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil According to Newton s third law, the fluid will exert an equal and opposite reaction. The reaction or the force exerted by the fluid on the surrounding boundary is equal and opposite to (F B ). R = F B Force Applied by a Liquid Jet on a Flat Plate: Example 1: A flat fixed plate is hit normally by a jet of water 5 mm diameter with a velocity of 18 m/s, as shown in figure. Find the force on the plate? Solution In x direction: F Tx = F B + F W + F P = Q (v out v in ) x F B : The force exerted on the fluid by the surrounding boundary (the plate). F W : The gravity force. F W = 0 (Negligible weight of water) F P : The pressure force. F P = 0 (Atmospheric pressure) F B = Q (v out v in ) x F B = 1,000*18*(π0.05 /4)*(0 18) = 16 N The force on the plate R = F B = 16 N in ve x - direction in + ve x - direction In y direction: F Ty = F B + F W + F P = Q (v out v in ) y (v out = v in ) y No force in y direction. Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

20 Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil Example : A nozzle is connected to a hose. At the entry section, the pressure is 50 kpa and the diameter is 5 mm. At the exit section, the diameter is 10 mm. The flow rate is 1 lit/s. Determine the force required to hold the nozzle? 47 Solution q = 1 lit/s = m 3 /s At entry: P 1 = 50 k Pa d 1 = 5 mm At exit: P = 1 atm = 0 d = 10 mm In x direction: v 1 = Q / A 1 = / (π (0.05) /4) =.04 m/s v = Q / A = / (π (0.01) /4) = 1.73 m/s F Tx = F B + F W + F P = Q (v out v in ) x F B + (P 1 A 1 + 0) + 0 = Q (v v 1 ) x F B = [(50,000 * (π 0.05 /4)] + 1,000 * * ( ) F B = 11 N in ve x - direction Thus, the required holding force is R = F B = 11 N in + ve x - direction In y direction: v out Y = v in Y = 0 No force in y direction. Fluid Mechanics, CVE 14

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