# FLOW IN PIPES. Mark J McCready University of Notre Dame July 24, chemeprof.com

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 FLOW IN PIPES Mark J McCready University of Notre Dame July 24, 2017

2 OVERVIEW This lecture will provide the simplest framework to explain The three forces at that are important to fluid flow in pipes The three equations that needed The three basic flow situations that comprise process pipe flows

3 IMPERIAL FLOWSHEET H100

4 BASIC FORCES THAT AFFECT A FLOWING FLUID Gravity: We observe that liquids flow down-hill and hence know that we will have to overcome the action of gravity to pump the liquid to top of the column F g = m g Friction caused by the viscosity of the liquid or gas: From the observations that pipes and tubes of different diameters are used in the same systems, presumably for different flow rates of the same liquid, (or when we try to drink using straws of different diameters, we expect that there is a resistance to fluid flow that must be overcome) 2 F v = f(μ) ==> 1/2 k v With reference to the straw, but when we are expelling air, (or simply playing the tuba), to make the fluid move, we need to make the pressure higher on one side of the tube. In a process, we use a pump to create the pressure increase F p = p A ==> Δp A

5

6 PIPES!

7 PIPES

8 PIPE SIZES We have to presume that engineers have picked the sizes of pipes for different applications in some sensible (optimal) fashion. Likewise, we expect that over millions of years, evolution has determined what size blood conduits should be. Thus one of the questions we would like to answer is how do we determine how large a pipe should be for a given flow rate The essence of this calculation is to determine the relationship between flow rate and pressure drop for liquids and gases in pipes.

9 ENGINEERING TRADEOFF Capital costs Operating Costs Optimal pipe diameter is a classic problem For engineers and It is evident in your circulatory system! Murray s Law

10 CONFIGURATIONS

11 DIMENSIONAL REASONING AND DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Before we address the specific questions related to fluid flow, it is worthwhile to introduce a general concept, that provides useful insights and quantitative results, across all transport process and many other topics in chemical engineering and other technical disciplines That we can gain understanding of fundamental behavior by first identifying quantities such as a time scale or a length scale associated with a process or device. Then by comparing these scales to an alternative scale of the same fundamental dimension.

12 DIMENSIONAL REASONING Simplest example: compare the same variable for a process at two different times Suppose that in one device, 1 mole of gas at STP is trapped in a piston and the initial volume is increased from 22.4 l to 44.8 l. In a second device, 10 moles of gas at STP are trapped in a piston and the initial volume is increased to from 224 l to 448 l. We realize the final temperature and pressure in both pistons is the same and only the ratio of volume 2 to volume 1 is needed to characterize the process. This comparison of like quantities tells us exactly how compare the two processes However, we would find it nonsensical to compare the initial volume to the final temperature.

13 ISOTHERMAL COMPRESSION If we want the temperature to be constant within the piston as we compress from V 1 to V 2, how slowly do we need to conduct the process? Intuition tells us that the one on the right will have to be slower. This is a statement saying we need to compare the time, τ, of compression (process time) to the time scale of heat conduction. To have identical outcomes, we need τ conduction /τ compress <<1 for both cases

14 LET S APPLY DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS TO A FLUID FLOW PROBLEM A field of 40 wind turbines covers about 1400 acre This field is producing 56 MW of power for a wind speed of 10 m/s (22 mph) which is about the optimal/maximal value This is.04 MW/acre A coal fired power plant would produce about 10 MW/acre! If the wind speed drops to 5m/s, how much power will the field produce? With no reference to formulas is it possible to get an answer? Does engineering analysis have to be really complex? 14

15 ENGINEERS LIKE TO COMPARE THINGS If I asked:.. how far is it to Chicago? would you answer? a couple of hours or... about 90 miles If I asked:.. is a meter a long distance? what would you say No, compared to the distance to Chicago Yes, compared to a micron For our conclusion to be valid we need to compare like (same dimensions) quantities.

16 POWER AND WIND SPEED? How does the power generated by the windmill change with wind speed? How is power being generated? Wind flows through area swept by blades Windmill converts this kinetic energy to electric power Air flow in Air flow out 16 Power out

17 POWER AND WIND SPEED? How does the power generated by the windmill change with wind speed? Let s see if we can figure this out based on dimensional reasoning Power is work/time which is force * distance/time which is mass* acceleration *distance/time Thus we could write power = m l / t 2 l / t = ml 2 What variables could be used? t 3 17

18 EQUATION FOR POWER FROM WIND Windspeed, blade diameter, air density v [=] l/t d, r [=] l Density of air ρ [=] m/l 3 Arrange these variables to get dimensions of power: power ~ ρv 3 d 2 [=] ml 2 If the wind speed is cut in half, the power reduced to 1/8! So our 40 wind turbines will produce about. 7 MW! t 3 18

19 WIND TURBINE POWER About a factor of 7! 19

20 FUNDAMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS For steady flow in a pipe, the forcing from the pressure difference is exactly balanced by the friction from the fluid viscosity An equivalent way to think of this is that the work being done to move the fluid is all being converted to heat.

21 DIMENSIONAL REASONING APPLIED TO PIPE FLOW The variables that describe flow in a pipe are, μ, ρ, Δp, D, V, L We might worry that to formulate and solve a problem in fluid flow that the result would be different for each combination of values of these variables However, by applying dimensional reasoning to this problem using a more formal process of Dimensional Analysis we determine that these variables can be arranged into two dimensionless groups (the dimensional comparisons are built it) which should describe the behavior for this problem. The result is:

22 DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS FOR FLUID FLOW Reynolds number: ratio of inertia to viscous forces Friction factor: ratio of pressure forces to inertia

23 THIS FORMULATION WORKS! DATA FOR LAMINAR AND TURBULENT PIPE FLOW!" \$%& ( ) + \$, 2&%. From: M. M. Denn, Process Fluid Mechanics

24

25 BASIS OF DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS If you have water flowing in a 1 cm pipe or a 2 cm pipe, we might expect that the physics of these two situations is exactly the same even if the numbers are different. Similarly, suppose we have the same pipe and we have a flow of water compared to water with a sugar solution. We might again expect the same physics with just a quantitative difference. This idea is substantially strengthened when we take the differential equations for fluid motion (derived from F = m a), solve them and then do some analysis to show exactly the simplifications that be obtained mathematically. If this done you get an exact result that f = 16/Re

26 REGIMES OF PIPE FLOW Laminar Straight streamlines Viscous (molecular) transmission of momentum/stress in radial direction Turbulent Irregularity of the flow causes increased pressure drop Convective transport of momentum/stress You don t get to choose. The system and conditions determine which will occur!

27 DYE STREAK EXPERIMENT

28 TYPICAL CALCULATION What is the pressure change over 30 m of pipe, if the flow rate is m 3 /s, the diameter is 0.03 m and liquid is water, μ = kg/(m-s), ρ = 1000 kg/m 3? About kg/(m-s 2 ) =~ 0.2 ATM or 3 PSI. This is probably acceptable. If we made the pipe just 20% smaller, the pressure change would be 63,000 kg/(m-s 2 ) and the power necessary to pump would increase from 20W to 60W!

29 NUMBER CHECK

30 HOW BIG SHOULD THE PUMP BE? Perhaps we are really asking the power that will be necessary to pump the liquid

31 BERNOULLI EQUATION To include gravity, friction from all of the straight sections of pipe and the pressure change associated with all of the fittings, the typical equation that is most convenient is the Engineering Bernoulli Equation This can be derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics and the equation can be applied between any 2 continuous flow paths in a process system.

32 TYPICAL CALCULATION Now what is the pumping power? Suppose that the flow rate is still 1 l/s of water, the total length of the pipe is still 30 m, the rise is 10 m and there are 6 elbows and a tank inlet Note we would do the calculation from 1 to 2 and if so, Δp is 0! The result is that it would take about 125 W. About 100 W is to pump against gravity, 20W for the straight pipe and only about 5W because of the fittings.

33 NUMBER CHECK

34 FRICTION FACTOR REYNOLDS NUMBER CHART ROUGHNESS, εε/d, ADDS AN ADDITIONAL PARAMETER

35 PUMPING FLUIDS Blowers and compressors are used for gases For low and moderate viscosity liquids, low to very high volumetric flow rates Centrifugal pumps are most common. The Imperial College pilot plant is a special case they use mostly positive displacement pumps with direct motor drive. The other key word is positive displacement This means that specific volumes of fluid are forced through the pump/ compressor/blower (with no back flow) so that the flow rate must be controlled by the speed of the motor/driving coupling.

36 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Not positive displacement. A valve at the outlet can control the flow rate. These can be throttled down quite a bit without causing any damage. Pump Curves

37 DIRECT DRIVE POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

38 BLOWER Gases are pumped using blowers and compressors. Imperial has a lobe blower for the N2 recycle. Blowers usually provide some modest increase in pressure, but handle large volumes of air efficiently.

39 Gas In Roto r Main Body Rotor Trapped Volume Gas Out

40 COMPRESSOR Compressors usually provide some ratio increase in pressure. Hence the power requirements are significant. Come in all sizes Reciprocating compressors are generally used for smaller scale flows (<50 HP). Imperial Compressor is a single-stage ( piston ) reciprocating compressor.

41 Pistons on top

42 PIPE FITTINGS

43 WELDED JOINTS/BOLTED FLANGES

45 CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY

46 PIPES Standard sizes of fabrication schedule relates to wall thickness Chose material for appropriate compatibility 304 Stainless is fine for MEA

47 SUMMARY Pipe sizing and piping system design is done based on the pressure drop flow rate behavior that occurs This is well known and for simple fluids is captured in the single plot of friction factor and Reynolds number To design an entire pipe system and to determine the power necessary for pumping, the Engineering Bernoulli Equation is used. The material selected must be compatible with the fluids being pumped, but cost, weight and strength are also factors that must be considered.

### PIPE FLOW. General Characteristic of Pipe Flow. Some of the basic components of a typical pipe system are shown in Figure 1.

PIPE FLOW General Characteristic of Pipe Flow Figure 1 Some of the basic components of a typical pipe system are shown in Figure 1. They include the pipes, the various fitting used to connect the individual

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### LECTURE 1 THE CONTENTS OF THIS LECTURE ARE AS FOLLOWS:

LECTURE 1 THE CONTENTS OF THIS LECTURE ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO FLUID AND BASIC EQUATIONS 2.0 REYNOLDS NUMBER AND CRITICAL VELOCITY 3.0 APPROACH TOWARDS REYNOLDS NUMBER REFERENCES Page 1 of

### Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow

Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow The specific objective of this lesson is to conduct a brief review of the fundamentals of fluid flow and present: A general equation for conservation of mass

### COURSE CODE : 3072 COURSE CATEGORY : B PERIODS/ WEEK : 5 PERIODS/ SEMESTER : 75 CREDIT : 5 TIME SCHEDULE

COURSE TITLE : FLUID MECHANICS COURSE CODE : 307 COURSE CATEGORY : B PERIODS/ WEEK : 5 PERIODS/ SEMESTER : 75 CREDIT : 5 TIME SCHEDULE MODULE TOPIC PERIOD 1 Properties of Fluids 0 Fluid Friction and Flow

### where = rate of change of total energy of the system, = rate of heat added to the system, = rate of work done by the system

The Energy Equation for Control Volumes Recall, the First Law of Thermodynamics: where = rate of change of total energy of the system, = rate of heat added to the system, = rate of work done by the system

### Water Circuit Lab. The pressure drop along a straight pipe segment can be calculated using the following set of equations:

Water Circuit Lab When a fluid flows in a conduit, there is friction between the flowing fluid and the pipe walls. The result of this friction is a net loss of energy in the flowing fluid. The fluid pressure

### M E 320 Professor John M. Cimbala Lecture 23

M E 320 Professor John M. Cimbala Lecture 23 Today, we will: Discuss diffusers and do an example problem Begin discussing pumps, and how they are analyzed in pipe flow systems D. Diffusers 1. Introduction.

### Introduction to Fluid Flow

Introduction to Fluid Flow Learning Outcomes After this lecture you should be able to Explain viscosity and how it changes with temperature Write the continuity equation Define laminar and turbulent flow

### 9. Pumps (compressors & turbines) Partly based on Chapter 10 of the De Nevers textbook.

Lecture Notes CHE 31 Fluid Mechanics (Fall 010) 9. Pumps (compressors & turbines) Partly based on Chapter 10 of the De Nevers textbook. Basics (pressure head, efficiency, working point, stability) Pumps

### Study fluid dynamics. Understanding Bernoulli s Equation.

Chapter Objectives Study fluid dynamics. Understanding Bernoulli s Equation. Chapter Outline 1. Fluid Flow. Bernoulli s Equation 3. Viscosity and Turbulence 1. Fluid Flow An ideal fluid is a fluid that

### vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment about O is given:

The angular momentum A control volume analysis can be applied to the angular momentum, by letting B equal to angularmomentum vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment

### Shell/Integral Balances (SIB)

Shell/Integral Balances (SIB) Shell/Integral Balances Shell or integral (macroscopic) balances are often relatively simple to solve, both conceptually and mechanically, as only limited data is necessary.

### Lecture 30 (Walker: ) Fluid Dynamics April 15, 2009

Physics 111 Lecture 30 (Walker: 15.6-7) Fluid Dynamics April 15, 2009 Midterm #2 - Monday April 20 Chap. 7,Chap. 8 (not 8.5) Chap. 9 (not 9.6, 9.8) Chap. 10, Chap. 11 (not 11.8-9) Chap. 13 (not 13.6-8)

### Chapter 6. Losses due to Fluid Friction

Chapter 6 Losses due to Fluid Friction 1 Objectives ä To measure the pressure drop in the straight section of smooth, rough, and packed pipes as a function of flow rate. ä To correlate this in terms of

### UNIT II CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER

UNIT II CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER Convection is the mode of heat transfer between a surface and a fluid moving over it. The energy transfer in convection is predominately due to the bulk motion of the fluid

### Lecture 27 (Walker: ) Fluid Dynamics Nov. 9, 2009

Physics 111 Lecture 27 (Walker: 15.5-7) Fluid Dynamics Nov. 9, 2009 Midterm #2 - Monday Nov. 16 Chap. 7,Chap. 8 (not 8.5) Chap. 9 (not 9.6, 9.8) Chap. 10, Chap. 11 (not 11.8-9) Chap. 13 (not 13.6-8) Chap.

### 150A Review Session 2/13/2014 Fluid Statics. Pressure acts in all directions, normal to the surrounding surfaces

Fluid Statics Pressure acts in all directions, normal to the surrounding surfaces or Whenever a pressure difference is the driving force, use gauge pressure o Bernoulli equation o Momentum balance with

### Fluids. Fluids in Motion or Fluid Dynamics

Fluids Fluids in Motion or Fluid Dynamics Resources: Serway - Chapter 9: 9.7-9.8 Physics B Lesson 3: Fluid Flow Continuity Physics B Lesson 4: Bernoulli's Equation MIT - 8: Hydrostatics, Archimedes' Principle,

### FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4)

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4) 1 1.0 Objectives The objective of this experiment is to calculate loss coefficient (K

### Lecture 22. Mechanical Energy Balance

Lecture 22 Mechanical Energy Balance Contents Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Key Words: Fluid flow, Macroscopic Balance, Frictional Losses, Turbulent Flow Exercise 1 It is proposed to install a fan to

### B.E/B.Tech/M.E/M.Tech : Chemical Engineering Regulation: 2016 PG Specialisation : NA Sub. Code / Sub. Name : CH16304 FLUID MECHANICS Unit : I

Department of Chemical Engineering B.E/B.Tech/M.E/M.Tech : Chemical Engineering Regulation: 2016 PG Specialisation : NA Sub. Code / Sub. Name : CH16304 FLUID MECHANICS Unit : I LP: CH 16304 Rev. No: 00

### ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts. Flow in Pipes and Ducts. Flow in Pipes and Ducts (cont d)

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Flow in Pipes and Ducts Flow in closed conduits (circular pipes and non-circular ducts) are very common. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared

### TOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle

Lecture 6 Fluids TOPICS Density Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth Pressure Measurements Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle Surface Tension ( External source ) Viscosity ( External source ) Equation

### FE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering)

Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.

### Nicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 10 Fluids

Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids A fluid may be either a liquid or a gas Some characteristics of a fluid Flows from one place to another Shape varies according

### Chapter 7 The Energy Equation

Chapter 7 The Energy Equation 7.1 Energy, Work, and Power When matter has energy, the matter can be used to do work. A fluid can have several forms of energy. For example a fluid jet has kinetic energy,

### CHAPTER EIGHT P U M P I N G O F L I Q U I D S

CHAPTER EIGHT P U M P I N G O F L I Q U I D S Pupmps are devices for supplying energy or head to a flowing liquid in order to overcome head losses due to friction and also if necessary, to raise liquid

### EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER

EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER 1.1 AIM: To determine the co-efficient of discharge of the orifice meter 1.2 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: Orifice meter test rig, Stopwatch 1.3 PREPARATION 1.3.1

### Chapter 10 Flow in Conduits

Chapter 10 Flow in Conduits 10.1 Classifying Flow Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow Laminar flow Unpredictable Turbulent flow Near entrance: undeveloped developing flow In developing flow, the wall shear

### Engineers Edge, LLC PDH & Professional Training

510 N. Crosslane Rd. Monroe, Georgia 30656 (770) 266-6915 fax (678) 643-1758 Engineers Edge, LLC PDH & Professional Training Copyright, All Rights Reserved Engineers Edge, LLC Pipe Flow-Friction Factor

### FLUID MECHANICS PROF. DR. METİN GÜNER COMPILER

FLUID MECHANICS PROF. DR. METİN GÜNER COMPILER ANKARA UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND TECHNOLOGIES ENGINEERING 1 5. FLOW IN PIPES Liquid or gas flow through pipes

### FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES EXPERIMENT

University of Leicester Engineering Department FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES EXPERIMENT Page 1 FORMAL LABORATORY REPORT Name of the experiment: FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES Author: Apollin nana chaazou Partner

### Lesson 37 Transmission Of Air In Air Conditioning Ducts

Lesson 37 Transmission Of Air In Air Conditioning Ducts Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1 The specific objectives of this chapter are to: 1. Describe an Air Handling Unit (AHU) and its functions (Section 37.1).

### Objectives. Conservation of mass principle: Mass Equation The Bernoulli equation Conservation of energy principle: Energy equation

Objectives Conservation of mass principle: Mass Equation The Bernoulli equation Conservation of energy principle: Energy equation Conservation of Mass Conservation of Mass Mass, like energy, is a conserved

### CLASS Fourth Units (Second part)

CLASS Fourth Units (Second part) Energy analysis of closed systems Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. MOVING BOUNDARY WORK Moving boundary work (P

### PIPE FLOW. The Energy Equation. The first law of thermodynamics for a system is, in words = +

The Energy Equation PIPE FLOW The first law of thermodynamics for a system is, in words Time rate of increase of the total storage energy of the t Net time rate of energy addition by heat transfer into

### Introductory Physics PHYS101

Introductory Physics PHYS101 Dr Richard H. Cyburt Office Hours Assistant Professor of Physics My office: 402c in the Science Building My phone: (304) 384-6006 My email: rcyburt@concord.edu TRF 9:30-11:00am

### Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No - 03 First Law of Thermodynamics (Open System) Good afternoon,

### Chapter Four fluid flow mass, energy, Bernoulli and momentum

4-1Conservation of Mass Principle Consider a control volume of arbitrary shape, as shown in Fig (4-1). Figure (4-1): the differential control volume and differential control volume (Total mass entering

### Introduction to Fluid Machines and Compressible Flow Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Introduction to Fluid Machines and Compressible Flow Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 21 Centrifugal Compressor Part I Good morning

### FE Exam Fluids Review October 23, Important Concepts

FE Exam Fluids Review October 3, 013 mportant Concepts Density, specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity (Water 1000 kg/m^3, Air 1. kg/m^3) Meaning & Symbols? Stress, Pressure, Viscosity; Meaning

### Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics. Chapter 7. KFUPM Housam Binous CHE 303

Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Chapter 7 1 Thermodynamics of flow is based on mass, energy and entropy balances Fluid mechanics encompasses the above balances and conservation of momentum

### LECTURE 6- ENERGY LOSSES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

LECTURE 6- ENERGY LOSSES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. What is the head loss ( in units of bars) across a 30mm wide open gate valve when oil ( SG=0.9) flow through at a

### ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Chapter 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Chapter 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Department of Mechanical Engineering Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey

### Chapter 3 NATURAL CONVECTION

Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences, 3rd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, Robert H. Turner, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2008 Chapter 3 NATURAL CONVECTION Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

### Chapter 6. Losses due to Fluid Friction

Chapter 6 Losses due to Fluid Friction 1 Objectives To measure the pressure drop in the straight section of smooth, rough, and packed pipes as a function of flow rate. To correlate this in terms of the

### MYcsvtu Notes HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION

www.mycsvtunotes.in HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION CONDUCTION Mechanism of heat transfer through a solid or fluid in the absence any fluid motion. CONVECTION Mechanism of heat transfer through a fluid in

### CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS

CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS 3.1. Measurement of Pressure Drop for Flow through Different Geometries 3.. Determination of Operating Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump 3.3. Energy Losses in Pipes under

### Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Mechanics Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013 s and FE Morning ( Mechanics) A. Flow measurement 7% of FE Morning B. properties Session

### (Refer Slide Time 1:25)

Mechanical Measurements and Metrology Prof. S. P. Venkateshan Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 24 Transient Response of Pressure Transducers

### Mechanical Engineering Programme of Study

Mechanical Engineering Programme of Study Fluid Mechanics Instructor: Marios M. Fyrillas Email: eng.fm@fit.ac.cy SOLVED EXAMPLES ON VISCOUS FLOW 1. Consider steady, laminar flow between two fixed parallel

### In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is constant as time passes.

Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids in Motion In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is constant as time passes. Unsteady flow exists whenever the velocity of the fluid particles at a point

### What s important: viscosity Poiseuille's law Stokes' law Demo: dissipation in flow through a tube

PHYS 101 Lecture 29x - Viscosity 29x - 1 Lecture 29x Viscosity (extended version) What s important: viscosity Poiseuille's law Stokes' law Demo: dissipation in flow through a tube Viscosity We introduced

### Fluid Mechanics Prof. T.I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture - 17 Laminar and Turbulent flows

Fluid Mechanics Prof. T.I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 17 Laminar and Turbulent flows Welcome back to the video course on fluid mechanics. In

### 1-Reynold s Experiment

Lect.No.8 2 nd Semester Flow Dynamics in Closed Conduit (Pipe Flow) 1 of 21 The flow in closed conduit ( flow in pipe ) is differ from this occur in open channel where the flow in pipe is at a pressure

### MASS TRANSFER AND GAS ABSORPTION EQUIPMENT

MASS TRANSFER AND GAS ABSORPTION EQUIPMENT Mark J McCready University of Notre Dame Indiana, USA TOPICS Review of heat transfer and heat exchangers Some fundamental aspects of mass transfer Analysis of

### Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering 150A Transport Processes Spring Semester 2017

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering 150A Transport Processes Spring Semester 2017 Objective: Text: To introduce the basic concepts of fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for solution of engineering

### Turbulent Compressible Flow in a Slender Tube

Turbulent Compressible Flow in a Slender Tube Kurt O. Lund* 1, and Christine M. Lord 2 1 COMSOL Consultant, 2 Lord Engineering Corp. *Corresponding author: 135 Sixth Street, Del Mar, CA 92014, kurtlund@roadrunner.com

### SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SRM UNIVERSITY COURSE PLAN

SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SRM UNIVERSITY COURSE PLAN Course code : CH0317 Course Title : Momentum Transfer Semester : V Course Time : July Nov 2011 Required Text

### Reynolds, an engineering professor in early 1880 demonstrated two different types of flow through an experiment:

7 STEADY FLOW IN PIPES 7.1 Reynolds Number Reynolds, an engineering professor in early 1880 demonstrated two different types of flow through an experiment: Laminar flow Turbulent flow Reynolds apparatus

### Fluid Mechanics. du dy

FLUID MECHANICS Technical English - I 1 th week Fluid Mechanics FLUID STATICS FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid Statics or Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's

### Basic Fluid Mechanics

Basic Fluid Mechanics Chapter 6A: Internal Incompressible Viscous Flow 4/16/2018 C6A: Internal Incompressible Viscous Flow 1 6.1 Introduction For the present chapter we will limit our study to incompressible

### HOW TO GET A GOOD GRADE ON THE MME 2273B FLUID MECHANICS 1 EXAM. Common mistakes made on the final exam and how to avoid them

HOW TO GET A GOOD GRADE ON THE MME 2273B FLUID MECHANICS 1 EXAM Common mistakes made on the final exam and how to avoid them HOW TO GET A GOOD GRADE ON THE MME 2273B EXAM Introduction You now have a lot

### Answers to questions in each section should be tied together and handed in separately.

EGT0 ENGINEERING TRIPOS PART IA Wednesday 4 June 014 9 to 1 Paper 1 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Answer all questions. The approximate number of marks allocated to each part of a question is indicated in the

### HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION. Dr. Şaziye Balku 1

HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION Dr. Şaziye Balku 1 CONDUCTION Mechanism of heat transfer through a solid or fluid in the absence any fluid motion. CONVECTION Mechanism of heat transfer through a fluid in the

### REE 307 Fluid Mechanics II. Lecture 1. Sep 27, Dr./ Ahmed Mohamed Nagib Elmekawy. Zewail City for Science and Technology

REE 307 Fluid Mechanics II Lecture 1 Sep 27, 2017 Dr./ Ahmed Mohamed Nagib Elmekawy Zewail City for Science and Technology Course Materials drahmednagib.com 2 COURSE OUTLINE Fundamental of Flow in pipes

### CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical Engineering Department ME 347, Fluid Mechanics II, Winter 2018

CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical Engineering Department ME 347, Fluid Mechanics II, Winter 2018 Date Day Subject Read HW Sept. 21 F Introduction 1, 2 24 M Finite control volume analysis

### Hydroelectric Design

INTERAMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF BAYAMON PUERTO RICO Hydroelectric Design Dr. Eduardo G. Pérez Díaz Erik T. Rosado González 5/14/2012 Hydroelectric design project for fluid class. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF

### Heat and Mass Transfer Prof. S.P. Sukhatme Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

Heat and Mass Transfer Prof. S.P. Sukhatme Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. 18 Forced Convection-1 Welcome. We now begin our study of forced convection

### Major and Minor Losses

Abstract Major and Minor Losses Caitlyn Collazo, Team 2 (1:00 pm) A Technovate fluid circuit system was used to determine the pressure drop across a pipe section and across an orifice. These pressure drops

### Conservation of Momentum using Control Volumes

Conservation of Momentum using Control Volumes Conservation of Linear Momentum Recall the conservation of linear momentum law for a system: In order to convert this for use in a control volume, use RTT

### Principles of Convection

Principles of Convection Point Conduction & convection are similar both require the presence of a material medium. But convection requires the presence of fluid motion. Heat transfer through the: Solid

### General Physics I (aka PHYS 2013)

General Physics I (aka PHYS 2013) PROF. VANCHURIN (AKA VITALY) University of Minnesota, Duluth (aka UMD) OUTLINE CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 19 REVIEW CHAPTER 12: FLUID MECHANICS Section 12.1: Density Section 12.2:

### ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS. CHAPTER 1 Properties of Fluids

CHAPTER 1 Properties of Fluids ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Development of Fluid Mechanics 1.3 Units of Measurement (SI units) 1.4 Mass, Density, Specific Weight, Specific Volume, Specific

### Chemical Engineering 3P04 Process Control Tutorial # 1 Learning goals

Chemical Engineering 3P04 Process Control Tutorial # 1 Learning goals 1. Sensor Principles with the flow sensor example 2. The typical manipulated variable: flow through a conduit Sensors: We need them

### 2 Internal Fluid Flow

Internal Fluid Flow.1 Definitions Fluid Dynamics The study of fluids in motion. Static Pressure The pressure at a given point exerted by the static head of the fluid present directly above that point.

### Introduction to Turbomachinery

1. Coordinate System Introduction to Turbomachinery Since there are stationary and rotating blades in turbomachines, they tend to form a cylindrical form, represented in three directions; 1. Axial 2. Radial

### Detailed Outline, M E 320 Fluid Flow, Spring Semester 2015

Detailed Outline, M E 320 Fluid Flow, Spring Semester 2015 I. Introduction (Chapters 1 and 2) A. What is Fluid Mechanics? 1. What is a fluid? 2. What is mechanics? B. Classification of Fluid Flows 1. Viscous

### Sizing of Gas Pipelines

Sizing of Gas Pipelines Mavis Nyarko MSc. Gas Engineering and Management, BSc. Civil Engineering Kumasi - Ghana mariiooh@yahoo.com Abstract-In this study, an effective approach for calculating the size

### (Refer Slide Time: 4:41)

Fluid Machines. Professor Sankar Kumar Som. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Indian Institute Of Technology Kharagpur. Lecture-30. Basic Principle and Energy Transfer in Centrifugal Compressor Part

### Lecture 4. Lab this week: Cartridge valves Flow divider Properties of Hydraulic Fluids. Lab 8 Sequencing circuit Lab 9 Flow divider

91 Lecture 4 Lab this week: Lab 8 Sequencing circuit Lab 9 Flow divider Cartridge valves Flow divider Properties of Hydraulic Fluids Viscosity friction and leakage Bulk modulus Inertance Cartridge Valves

### 7. Development of the 2nd Law

7-1 7. Development of the 2nd Law 7.1 1st Law Limitations The 1 st Law describes energy accounting. Once we have a process (or string of processes) we can calculate the relevant energy interactions. The

### Thermodynamics ENGR360-MEP112 LECTURE 7

Thermodynamics ENGR360-MEP11 LECTURE 7 Thermodynamics ENGR360/MEP11 Objectives: 1. Conservation of mass principle.. Conservation of energy principle applied to control volumes (first law of thermodynamics).

### EXPERIMENT NO: F5. Losses in Piping Systems

SJSU ME115 - THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB EXPERIMENT NO: F5 Losses in Piping Systems Objective One of the most common problems in fluid mechanics is the estimation of pressure loss. It is the objective of this

### Chapter 5. Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes

Chapter 5 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes Conservation Principles for Control volumes The conservation of mass and the conservation of energy principles for open systems (or control volumes)

### 4 Mechanics of Fluids (I)

1. The x and y components of velocity for a two-dimensional flow are u = 3.0 ft/s and v = 9.0x ft/s where x is in feet. Determine the equation for the streamlines and graph representative streamlines in

### Convective Mass Transfer

Convective Mass Transfer Definition of convective mass transfer: The transport of material between a boundary surface and a moving fluid or between two immiscible moving fluids separated by a mobile interface

### S.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 100

Total No. of Questions 12] [Total No. of Printed Pages 8 Seat No. [4262]-113 S.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, 2012 (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum

### COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I 3 credit hour. Basic Equations in fluid Dynamics

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I 3 credit hour Basic Equations in fluid Dynamics Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 Description of Fluid

### 1 st Law Analysis of Control Volume (open system) Chapter 6

1 st Law Analysis of Control Volume (open system) Chapter 6 In chapter 5, we did 1st law analysis for a control mass (closed system). In this chapter the analysis of the 1st law will be on a control volume

### Bernoulli and Pipe Flow

Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids Head Loss Calculations Bernoulli and The Bernoulli equation that we worked with was a bit simplistic in the way it looked at a fluid system All real systems

### Calculation of Power and Flow Capacity of Rotor / Stator Devices in VisiMix RSD Program.

Calculation of Power and Flow Capacity of Rotor / Stator Devices in VisiMix RSD Program. L.N.Braginsky, D.Sc. (Was invited to be presented on the CHISA 2010-13th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling

### Fluid Flow Analysis Penn State Chemical Engineering

Fluid Flow Analysis Penn State Chemical Engineering Revised Spring 2015 Table of Contents LEARNING OBJECTIVES... 1 EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES AND OVERVIEW... 1 PRE-LAB STUDY... 2 EXPERIMENTS IN THE LAB...

### ME3560 Tentative Schedule Spring 2019

ME3560 Tentative Schedule Spring 2019 Week Number Date Lecture Topics Covered Prior to Lecture Read Section Assignment Prep Problems for Prep Probs. Must be Solved by 1 Monday 1/7/2019 1 Introduction to

### OE4625 Dredge Pumps and Slurry Transport. Vaclav Matousek October 13, 2004

OE465 Vaclav Matousek October 13, 004 1 Dredge Vermelding Pumps onderdeel and Slurry organisatie Transport OE465 Vaclav Matousek October 13, 004 Dredge Vermelding Pumps onderdeel and Slurry organisatie

### CHAPTER 5 MASS AND ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CONTROL VOLUMES

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach 8th Edition in SI Units Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles McGraw-Hill, 2015 CHAPTER 5 MASS AND ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CONTROL VOLUMES Lecture slides by Dr. Fawzi Elfghi

### Angular momentum equation

Angular momentum equation For angular momentum equation, B =H O the angular momentum vector about point O which moments are desired. Where β is The Reynolds transport equation can be written as follows: