# Hydraulics and hydrology

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Hydraulics and hydrology - project exercises - Class 4 and 5 Pipe flow Discharge (Q) (called also as the volume flow rate) is the volume of fluid that passes through an area per unit time. The discharge in a pipe is related to the flow velocity and cross-sectional area. The volume flow rate through a differential area of the section is v da, and the total volume flow rate is obtained by integration the velocity distribution over the entire cross-section. Q = v da A Flow mean velocity ( v ) (average velocity) is defined as the discharge divided by the cross-sectional area: Q v = A Hence, the volume flow rate can be calculated as: Continuity equation for flow in a pipe Q = v A Pipe flow governing equations Q 1 = Q or v 1 A1 = v A The Bernoulli equation p1 α v1 p α v z = z γ g γ g where: Total head loss (or combined head loss) h = Σh + Σh T P C h T Minor head loss (or component head loss) is associated with flow through devices such as valves, bends, elbows, contractions, expansions etc. v h C = ζ g ζ is head loss coefficient

2 Example 1 Water flows though an orifice inside a pipe of diameter d = 0 cm as shown in figure below. Estimate the minor head loss coefficient (ζ) for the orifice if the discharge in the pipe is Q = 6,8 l/s, and the water surface levels in the piezometers, attached just upstream and downstream the orifice, are at h 1 = 55 cm and h = 35 cm respectively. Neglect major losses. h 1 h d Q solution: orifice Example Find the water flow discharge (Q) through the Venturi s meter shown in figure below. Diameters are: d = 10 [cm] and D = 0 [cm]. Piezometric head difference H is 0 cm. Both minor and major loses can be neglected. H D Q d solution:

3 Major head loss (or pipe head loss) is associated with fully developed flow in conduits, and is caused by shear stresses that act on the flowing fluid. Major head loss can be determined using the Darcy-Weisbach formula: h L v = λ P d g Friction factor (resistance coefficient) λ = f ( R, ε ) Reynolds number Relative roughness coefficient v d R e = ν k ε = d k is absolute roughness (or equivalent sand-grain roughness) Equivalent sand-grain roughness for various pipe materials Material Glass, plastic e Equivalent sand-grain roughness k [mm] smooth Cooper or brass tubing 0,0015 Wrought iron, steel 0,046 Galvanized iron 0,15 Cast iron 0,45 Concrete 0,3 3,0 Riveted steel 0,9 9,0 Rubber pipe (straight) 0,05 Moody diagram Effects of wall roughness Depending on the parameter range the friction factor (λ) may be influenced either by the Reynolds number (R e ) or the relative roughness (ε) or by both these parameters as shown in the table below: Type of Flow Parameter Ranges Influence of Parameters on λ Laminar Flow R e < 000 NA Turbulent Flow, Smooth Tube R e > 3000 ε R e < 10 Transitional Turbulent Flow R e > < ε R e < 1000 Fully Rough Turbulent Flow R e > 3000 ε R e > 1000 λ depends on R e λ is independent of ε λ depends on R e λ is independent of ε λ depends on R e λ depends on ε λ is independent of R e λ depends on ε

4 0,130 Moody Diagram (PN-76/M-34034) 0,100 Laminar flow Transitional zone Fully rough turbulent flow 0,090 0, ,070 0, ,050 Resistance coefficient λ λ a a r c i t n i k ó ł c z y p W s 0,040 0,030 0,05 0,00 0, λ = R e Smooth pipes a - n 8 d ę 6 g l z 4 w o ś ć a t w 10 o - 3 p o 6 h r 4 c Relative roughness ε 0,010 0,009 0,008 0,007 0, Reynolds L i c z b a number R e y n o l d Rs e a vd R e = ν construction is co-financed by the European Union within the confines of the European Social Fund

5 Example 3 A horizontal pipe of diameter d = 50 cm carries water at the temperature T = 10 o C. Determine the piezometric head difference if the distance between the piezometers is L = 800 m, the volume flow rate is Q = 1000 m 3 /h, and absolute roughness k = 0,3 mm. H=? d Q L solution: Example 4 Three pipes of equal length (L) but different diameters (d) and absolute roughness carry water at different temperatures (T) and velocities (v). Indicate the pipe which causes the highest total head loss. Justify your answer by calculations. pipe I: L = 1000 m, d = 10 cm, v = cm/s, T = 10 o C, k = 0,1 mm, pipe II: L = 1000 m, d = 0 cm, v = 50 cm/s, T = 10 o C, k = 0,4 mm, pipe III: L = 1000 m, d = 40 cm, v = 60 cm/s, T = 0 o C, k = 1 mm, solution: Energy and Hydraulic Grade Line The Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) and the Energy Grade Line (EGL) are graphical presentations of the Bernoulli equation that show head in a system. These imaginary lines help the engineers locate the trouble spots in the system (usually points of low pressure). The EGL is a line that indicates the total head at each location along a pipe and is related to terms in the Bernoulli equation by: p v EGL = z + + γ g The HGL is a line that indicates the piezometric head at each point along a pipe and therefore is coincided with the liquid free surface in a piezometer. p HGL = z + γ

6 where: z elevation head, γ p pressure head, v g velocity head. The piezometric head represents the potential energy of flowing liquid whereas the total head represents the total energy (potential and cinematic) of the liquid. Example 5 For a system shown in figure below the EGL is given. Determine all minor and major losses. Draw the HGL for the system and describe all drops on it. Assume that all pipes have the same absolute roughness. Neglect velocities in the tanks. Where is the potential trouble spot in the system (point of the lowest pressure)? gas p g > p atm L 1 L 1 L 1 water d d 1 L d 1 L 1 solution:.....

7 Pipe Entrance squared Minor head losses coefficients (PN-76/M-34034) chamfered rounded ζ = 0,5 re-entrant rounded ζ = 0,5 re-entrant sharp edged ζ = 0,10 0,06 angled ζ = 0,56 ζ = 1,30 ζ = 0,5 + 0,3 sinϕ + 0, sin ϕ Valves butterfly valve ϕ ζ 0,4 0,5 0,9 1,54,51 3,91 6, 10,8 18, ball valve ϕ ζ 0,05 0,9 1,56 5,17 17,3 31, 5, sluice-valve D s s/d 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/ 5/8 3/4 7/8 ζ 0,07 0,6 0,81,06 5,5 17,0 97,8

8 Change of direction elbow ζ = 0,946 sin +,05 sin 4 0 o 40 o 60 o 80 o 90 o 100 o 10 o 140 o 160 o ζ 0,04 0,14 0,36 0,74 0,98 1,6 1,86,43,85 bend r R ζ = 0, ,847 r R 3,5 o 90 o r/r 0 o 40 o 60 o 80 o 90 o 100 o 10 o 140 o 160 o 180 o 0,1 0,09 0,058 0,088 0,117 0,13 0,146 0,175 0,05 0,34 0,63 0, 0,031 0,061 0,09 0,1 0,138 0,153 0,183 0,14 0,45 0,75 0,3 0,035 0,070 0,106 0,141 0,158 0,176 0,11 0,46 0,81 0,317 0,4 0,046 0,091 0,137 0,183 0,06 0,9 0,74 0,30 0,366 0,41 0,5 0,065 0,131 0,196 0,6 0,94 0,37 0,39 0,458 0,53 0,589 0,6 0,098 0,196 0,93 0,391 0,440 0,489 0,587 0,684 0,78 0,880 0,7 0,147 0,94 0,441 0,588 0,661 0,734 0,881 1,08 1,175 1,3 0,8 0,17 0,434 0,651 0,868 0,977 1,085 1,30 1,50 1,737 1,954 0,9 0,313 0,66 0,939 1,5 1,408 1,565 1,878,191,504,817 1,0 0,440 0,879 1,319 1,758 1,978,198,637 3,077 3,516 3,956

9 expansion (sudden enlargement) d D D ζ = d 1 D /d 1, 1,4 1,6 1,8,0,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 6,0 ζ 0,04 0,16 0,36 0,64 1,00,5 4,00 6,5 9,00 1,5 16,5 5,00 Example 6 Both pipes shown in figure below have an equivalent sand roughness (k) of 0,1 mm and a discharge (Q) of 0,1 m 3 /s. Also, D 1 = 15 cm, L 1 = 50 m, D = 30 cm, and L = 160 m. Determine the difference (H) in the water-surface elevation between the two reservoirs. Draw the EGL and HGL. water at T = 0 o C H =? squared entrence D 1 butterfly valve =5 o D L 1 Solution: L

10 Example 7 Two open reservoirs are connected by a 0 m long pipe as shown in figure below. Find the diameter (d) of the pipe if the difference in the water-surface elevation between the two reservoirs H = m, the discharge Q = 6 l/s, the bend radiuses are R 1 = 100 mm, and R = 50 mm, the absolute roughness k = 0,08 mm, and the kinematic viscosityν = 0,1 cm /s, Assume the re-entrant sharp edged pipe entrance. H R 1 R Solution:

11 Example 8 A pipe of length L = 35 m, and diameter d = 40 mm carries water from a closed pressurized tank to a point at height of H = 15 m above the water surface in the tank as shown in figure below. Find the discharge (Q) through the pipe if the gas in the tank is under pressure of p gas = 300 kpa. The bend radius is R = 00 mm, the absolute roughness k = 0,15 mm, and the kinematic viscosity ν = 0,1 cm /s. Assume the squared pipe entrance. Use the atmospheric pressure p atm = 100 kpa and the specific weight of water γ = 9,81 [kn/m 3 ]. H R ball valve = 45 o Q =? gas water sluice-valve s/d = 0,5 Solution:

### Chapter 10 Flow in Conduits

Chapter 10 Flow in Conduits 10.1 Classifying Flow Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow Laminar flow Unpredictable Turbulent flow Near entrance: undeveloped developing flow In developing flow, the wall shear

### Reynolds, an engineering professor in early 1880 demonstrated two different types of flow through an experiment:

7 STEADY FLOW IN PIPES 7.1 Reynolds Number Reynolds, an engineering professor in early 1880 demonstrated two different types of flow through an experiment: Laminar flow Turbulent flow Reynolds apparatus

### Hydraulics. B.E. (Civil), Year/Part: II/II. Tutorial solutions: Pipe flow. Tutorial 1

Hydraulics B.E. (Civil), Year/Part: II/II Tutorial solutions: Pipe flow Tutorial 1 -by Dr. K.N. Dulal Laminar flow 1. A pipe 200mm in diameter and 20km long conveys oil of density 900 kg/m 3 and viscosity

### Pipe Flow. Lecture 17

Pipe Flow Lecture 7 Pipe Flow and the Energy Equation For pipe flow, the Bernoulli equation alone is not sufficient. Friction loss along the pipe, and momentum loss through diameter changes and corners

### Hydraulics for Urban Storm Drainage

Urban Hydraulics Hydraulics for Urban Storm Drainage Learning objectives: understanding of basic concepts of fluid flow and how to analyze conduit flows, free surface flows. to analyze, hydrostatic pressure

### Hydraulic (Piezometric) Grade Lines (HGL) and

Hydraulic (Piezometric) Grade Lines (HGL) and Energy Grade Lines (EGL) When the energy equation is written between two points it is expresses as in the form of: Each term has a name and all terms have

### Experiment (4): Flow measurement

Experiment (4): Flow measurement Introduction: The flow measuring apparatus is used to familiarize the students with typical methods of flow measurement of an incompressible fluid and, at the same time

### 1-Reynold s Experiment

Lect.No.8 2 nd Semester Flow Dynamics in Closed Conduit (Pipe Flow) 1 of 21 The flow in closed conduit ( flow in pipe ) is differ from this occur in open channel where the flow in pipe is at a pressure

### Chapter 6. Losses due to Fluid Friction

Chapter 6 Losses due to Fluid Friction 1 Objectives ä To measure the pressure drop in the straight section of smooth, rough, and packed pipes as a function of flow rate. ä To correlate this in terms of

### FE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering)

Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.

### FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4)

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4) 1 1.0 Objectives The objective of this experiment is to calculate loss coefficient (K

### Chapter (3) Water Flow in Pipes

Chapter (3) Water Flow in Pipes Water Flow in Pipes Bernoulli Equation Recall fluid mechanics course, the Bernoulli equation is: P 1 ρg + v 1 g + z 1 = P ρg + v g + z h P + h T + h L Here, we want to study

### Chapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications

Chapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli equation is one of the most useful equations in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. And it s a statement of the principle of conservation

### Fluid Mechanics II 3 credit hour. Fluid flow through pipes-minor losses

COURSE NUMBER: ME 323 Fluid Mechanics II 3 credit hour Fluid flow through pipes-minor losses Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 Losses in Noncircular

### FLUID MECHANICS D203 SAE SOLUTIONS TUTORIAL 2 APPLICATIONS OF BERNOULLI SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1

FLUID MECHANICS D203 SAE SOLUTIONS TUTORIAL 2 APPLICATIONS OF BERNOULLI SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1 1. A pipe 100 mm bore diameter carries oil of density 900 kg/m3 at a rate of 4 kg/s. The pipe reduces

### LECTURE 6- ENERGY LOSSES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

LECTURE 6- ENERGY LOSSES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. What is the head loss ( in units of bars) across a 30mm wide open gate valve when oil ( SG=0.9) flow through at a

### CVE 372 HYDROMECHANICS EXERCISE PROBLEMS

VE 37 HYDROMEHNIS EXERISE PROLEMS 1. pump that has the characteristic curve shown in the accompanying graph is to be installed in the system shown. What will be the discharge of water in the system? Take

### Review of pipe flow: Friction & Minor Losses

ENVE 204 Lecture -1 Review of pipe flow: Friction & Minor Losses Assist. Prof. Neslihan SEMERCİ Marmara University Department of Environmental Engineering Important Definitions Pressure Pipe Flow: Refers

### ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts. Flow in Pipes and Ducts. Flow in Pipes and Ducts (cont d)

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Flow in Pipes and Ducts Flow in closed conduits (circular pipes and non-circular ducts) are very common. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared

### V/ t = 0 p/ t = 0 ρ/ t = 0. V/ s = 0 p/ s = 0 ρ/ s = 0

UNIT III FLOW THROUGH PIPES 1. List the types of fluid flow. Steady and unsteady flow Uniform and non-uniform flow Laminar and Turbulent flow Compressible and incompressible flow Rotational and ir-rotational

### STEADY FLOW THROUGH PIPES DARCY WEISBACH EQUATION FOR FLOW IN PIPES. HAZEN WILLIAM S FORMULA, LOSSES IN PIPELINES, HYDRAULIC GRADE LINES AND ENERGY

STEADY FLOW THROUGH PIPES DARCY WEISBACH EQUATION FOR FLOW IN PIPES. HAZEN WILLIAM S FORMULA, LOSSES IN PIPELINES, HYDRAULIC GRADE LINES AND ENERGY LINES 1 SIGNIFICANCE OF CONDUITS In considering the convenience

### When water (fluid) flows in a pipe, for example from point A to point B, pressure drop will occur due to the energy losses (major and minor losses).

PRESSURE DROP AND OSSES IN PIPE When water (luid) lows in a pipe, or example rom point A to point B, pressure drop will occur due to the energy losses (major and minor losses). A B Bernoulli equation:

### Viscous Flow in Ducts

Dr. M. Siavashi Iran University of Science and Technology Spring 2014 Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate

### s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam General Section Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering October 26, 2010 s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum

### Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Mechanics Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013 s and FE Morning ( Mechanics) A. Flow measurement 7% of FE Morning B. properties Session

### Water Circuit Lab. The pressure drop along a straight pipe segment can be calculated using the following set of equations:

Water Circuit Lab When a fluid flows in a conduit, there is friction between the flowing fluid and the pipe walls. The result of this friction is a net loss of energy in the flowing fluid. The fluid pressure

### ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Chapter 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Chapter 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Department of Mechanical Engineering Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey

### Lecture 13 Flow Measurement in Pipes. I. Introduction

Lecture 13 Flow Measurement in Pipes I. Introduction There are a wide variety of methods for measuring discharge and velocity in pipes, or closed conduits Many of these methods can provide very accurate

### PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

Unit - I Chapter - PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS Solutions of Examples for Practice Example.9 : Given data : u = y y, = 8 Poise = 0.8 Pa-s To find : Shear stress. Step - : Calculate the shear stress at various

### Chapter (3) Water Flow in Pipes

Chapter (3) Water Flow in Pipes Water Flow in Pipes Bernoulli Equation Recall fluid mechanics course, the Bernoulli equation is: P 1 ρg + v 1 g + z 1 = P ρg + v g + z h P + h T + h L Here, we want to study

### INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY EXPERIMENT IN FLUID MECHANICS

INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY EXPERIMENT IN FLUID MECHANICS VT2010 Pipe Flow: General Information: Attendance at the laboratory experiment is required for completion of the course. The experiments will be

### EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER

EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER 1.1 AIM: To determine the co-efficient of discharge of the orifice meter 1.2 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: Orifice meter test rig, Stopwatch 1.3 PREPARATION 1.3.1

### Piping Systems and Flow Analysis (Chapter 3)

Piping Systems and Flow Analysis (Chapter 3) 2 Learning Outcomes (Chapter 3) Losses in Piping Systems Major losses Minor losses Pipe Networks Pipes in series Pipes in parallel Manifolds and Distribution

### FLOW IN CONDUITS. Shear stress distribution across a pipe section. Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Shear stress distribution across a pipe section FLOW IN CONDUITS For steady, uniform flow, the momentum balance in s for the fluid cylinder yields Fluid Mechanics, Spring Term 2010 Velocity

### Chapter 6. Losses due to Fluid Friction

Chapter 6 Losses due to Fluid Friction 1 Objectives To measure the pressure drop in the straight section of smooth, rough, and packed pipes as a function of flow rate. To correlate this in terms of the

### Experiment- To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. Experiment To determine the coefficient of discharge of an orifice meter.

SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS VIVA QUESTIONS (M.E 4 th SEM) Experiment- To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. Q1. Explain impulse momentum principal. Ans1. Momentum equation is based on Newton s

### Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks

### LOSSES DUE TO PIPE FITTINGS

LOSSES DUE TO PIPE FITTINGS Aim: To determine the losses across the fittings in a pipe network Theory: The resistance to flow in a pipe network causes loss in the pressure head along the flow. The overall

### FLOW FRICTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE PRESSURE PIPE

11 ACPPA TECHNICAL SERIES FLOW FRICTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE PRESSURE PIPE This paper presents formulas to assist in hydraulic design of concrete pressure pipe. There are many formulas to calculate

### Chapter 10: Flow Flow in in Conduits Conduits Dr Ali Jawarneh

Chater 10: Flow in Conduits By Dr Ali Jawarneh Hashemite University 1 Outline In this chater we will: Analyse the shear stress distribution across a ie section. Discuss and analyse the case of laminar

### R09. d water surface. Prove that the depth of pressure is equal to p +.

Code No:A109210105 R09 SET-1 B.Tech II Year - I Semester Examinations, December 2011 FLUID MECHANICS (CIVIL ENGINEERING) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 75 Answer any five questions All questions carry equal

### FE Exam Fluids Review October 23, Important Concepts

FE Exam Fluids Review October 3, 013 mportant Concepts Density, specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity (Water 1000 kg/m^3, Air 1. kg/m^3) Meaning & Symbols? Stress, Pressure, Viscosity; Meaning

### Approximate physical properties of selected fluids All properties are given at pressure kn/m 2 and temperature 15 C.

Appendix FLUID MECHANICS Approximate physical properties of selected fluids All properties are given at pressure 101. kn/m and temperature 15 C. Liquids Density (kg/m ) Dynamic viscosity (N s/m ) Surface

### Mechanical Engineering Programme of Study

Mechanical Engineering Programme of Study Fluid Mechanics Instructor: Marios M. Fyrillas Email: eng.fm@fit.ac.cy SOLVED EXAMPLES ON VISCOUS FLOW 1. Consider steady, laminar flow between two fixed parallel

### Chapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW

Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil - 016 Chapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW 4-1 Types of Energy 4- Euler s Equation 4-3 Bernoulli s Equation 4-4 Total Energy Line (TEL) and Hydraulic Grade Line

### Chapter 7 The Energy Equation

Chapter 7 The Energy Equation 7.1 Energy, Work, and Power When matter has energy, the matter can be used to do work. A fluid can have several forms of energy. For example a fluid jet has kinetic energy,

### vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment about O is given:

The angular momentum A control volume analysis can be applied to the angular momentum, by letting B equal to angularmomentum vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment

### Chapter 3 Water Flow in Pipes

The Islamic University o Gaza Faculty o Engineering Civil Engineering Department Hydraulics - ECI 33 Chapter 3 Water Flow in Pipes 3. Description o A Pipe Flow Water pipes in our homes and the distribution

### Lesson 37 Transmission Of Air In Air Conditioning Ducts

Lesson 37 Transmission Of Air In Air Conditioning Ducts Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1 The specific objectives of this chapter are to: 1. Describe an Air Handling Unit (AHU) and its functions (Section 37.1).

### HEADLOSS ESTIMATION. Mekanika Fluida 1 HST

HEADLOSS ESTIMATION Mekanika Fluida HST Friction Factor : Major losses Laminar low Hagen-Poiseuille Turbulent (Smoot, Transition, Roug) Colebrook Formula Moody diagram Swamee-Jain 3 Laminar Flow Friction

### Major and Minor Losses

Abstract Major and Minor Losses Caitlyn Collazo, Team 2 (1:00 pm) A Technovate fluid circuit system was used to determine the pressure drop across a pipe section and across an orifice. These pressure drops

### Bernoulli and Pipe Flow

Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids Head Loss Calculations Bernoulli and The Bernoulli equation that we worked with was a bit simplistic in the way it looked at a fluid system All real systems

### Chapter 7 FLOW THROUGH PIPES

Chapter 7 FLOW THROUGH PIPES 7-1 Friction Losses of Head in Pipes 7-2 Secondary Losses of Head in Pipes 7-3 Flow through Pipe Systems 48 7-1 Friction Losses of Head in Pipes: There are many types of losses

CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS PART - A 1. Define fluid and fluid mechanics. 2. Define real and ideal fluids. 3. Define mass density

### Calculation of Pipe Friction Loss

Doc.No. 6122-F3T071 rev.2 Calculation of Pipe Friction Loss Engineering Management Group Development Planning Department Standard Pump Business Division EBARA corporation October 16th, 2013 1 / 33 2 /

### FLUID MECHANICS. Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Flow in Closed Pipe: Darcy-Weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Major and minor losses in pipe lines.

FLUID MECHANICS Dynamics of iscous Fluid Flow in Closed Pipe: Darcy-Weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Major and minor losses in pipe lines. Dr. Mohsin Siddique Assistant Professor Steady Flow Through

### PIPING SYSTEMS. Pipe and Tubing Standards Sizes for pipes and tubes are standardized. Pipes are specified by a nominal diameter and a schedule number.

PIPING SYSTEMS In this chapter we will review some of the basic concepts associated with piping systems. Topics that will be considered in this chapter are - Pipe and tubing standards - Effective and hydraulic

### Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

8-1 Introduction 8-2 Laminar and Turbulent Flows 8-3 The Entrance Region 8-4 Laminar Flow in Pipes 8-5 Turbulent Flow in Pipes 8-6 Fully Developed Pipe Flow 8-7 Minor Losses 8-8 Piping Networks and Pump

### UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND STATICS

SIDDHARTH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS :: PUTTUR Siddharth Nagar, Narayanavanam Road 517583 QUESTION BANK (DESCRIPTIVE) Subject with Code : Fluid Mechanics (16CE106) Year & Sem: II-B.Tech & I-Sem Course & Branch:

### INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK : AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.

Course Name Course Code Class Branch INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad - 00 0 AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING : Mechanics of Fluids : A00 : II-I- B. Tech Year : 0 0 Course Coordinator

### ME 309 Fluid Mechanics Fall 2010 Exam 2 1A. 1B.

Fall 010 Exam 1A. 1B. Fall 010 Exam 1C. Water is flowing through a 180º bend. The inner and outer radii of the bend are 0.75 and 1.5 m, respectively. The velocity profile is approximated as C/r where C

### Pressure Head: Pressure head is the height of a column of water that would exert a unit pressure equal to the pressure of the water.

Design Manual Chapter - Stormwater D - Storm Sewer Design D- Storm Sewer Sizing A. Introduction The purpose of this section is to outline the basic hydraulic principles in order to determine the storm

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### EXPERIMENT II - FRICTION LOSS ALONG PIPE AND LOSSES AT PIPE FITTINGS

MM 30 FLUID MECHANICS II Prof. Dr. Nuri YÜCEL Yrd. Doç. Dr. Nureddin DİNLER Arş. Gör. Dr. Salih KARAASLAN Arş. Gör. Fatih AKTAŞ EXPERIMENT II - FRICTION LOSS ALONG PIPE AND LOSSES AT PIPE FITTINGS A. Objective:

### CHAPTER 3 BASIC EQUATIONS IN FLUID MECHANICS NOOR ALIZA AHMAD

CHAPTER 3 BASIC EQUATIONS IN FLUID MECHANICS 1 INTRODUCTION Flow often referred as an ideal fluid. We presume that such a fluid has no viscosity. However, this is an idealized situation that does not exist.

### An overview of the Hydraulics of Water Distribution Networks

An overview of the Hydraulics of Water Distribution Networks June 21, 2017 by, P.E. Senior Water Resources Specialist, Santa Clara Valley Water District Adjunct Faculty, San José State University 1 Outline

### Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow

Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow The specific objective of this lesson is to conduct a brief review of the fundamentals of fluid flow and present: A general equation for conservation of mass

### 5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION

5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION 5.1 Introduction In order to develop the equations that describe a flow, it is assumed that fluids are subject to certain fundamental laws of physics. The pertinent laws

### Rate of Flow Quantity of fluid passing through any section (area) per unit time

Kinematics of Fluid Flow Kinematics is the science which deals with study of motion of liquids without considering the forces causing the motion. Rate of Flow Quantity of fluid passing through any section

### 2 Internal Fluid Flow

Internal Fluid Flow.1 Definitions Fluid Dynamics The study of fluids in motion. Static Pressure The pressure at a given point exerted by the static head of the fluid present directly above that point.

### Friction Factors and Drag Coefficients

Levicky 1 Friction Factors and Drag Coefficients Several equations that we have seen have included terms to represent dissipation of energy due to the viscous nature of fluid flow. For example, in the

### NPTEL Quiz Hydraulics

Introduction NPTEL Quiz Hydraulics 1. An ideal fluid is a. One which obeys Newton s law of viscosity b. Frictionless and incompressible c. Very viscous d. Frictionless and compressible 2. The unit of kinematic

### Mass of fluid leaving per unit time

5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION 5.1 Eulerian Approach & Control Volume In order to develop the equations that describe a flow, it is assumed that fluids are subject to certain fundamental laws of physics.

### Chapter Four fluid flow mass, energy, Bernoulli and momentum

4-1Conservation of Mass Principle Consider a control volume of arbitrary shape, as shown in Fig (4-1). Figure (4-1): the differential control volume and differential control volume (Total mass entering

### CIVE HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING PART I Pierre Julien Colorado State University

CIVE 401 - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING PART I Pierre Julien Colorado State University Problems with and are considered moderate and those with are the longest and most difficult. In 2018 solve the problems with

### The Mechatronics Design for Measuring Fluid Friction Losses in Pipe Flows Rıza Gurbuz

Solid State Phenomena Vol. 113 (2006) pp 603-608 Online available since 2006/Jun/15 at www.scientific.net (2006) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.113.603 The Mechatronics

### Q1 Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each):

FLUID MECHANICS First Year Exam Solutions 03 Q Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each): (a) A cylinder of m in diameter is made with material of relative density 0.5. It is moored

### Hydraulic Design Of Polyethylene Pipes

Hydraulic Design Of Polyethylene Pipes Waters & Farr polyethylene pipes offer a hydraulically smooth bore that provides excellent flow characteristics. Other advantages of Waters & Farr polyethylene pipes,

### CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 7, D Steady State Head Form of the Energy Equation P. P 2g + z h f + h p h s.

CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 7, 2015 81 3.21 Review 1-D Steady State Head Form of the Energy Equation ( ) ( ) 2g + z = 2g + z h f + h p h s out where h f is the friction head loss (which combines

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### Chapter 3 Bernoulli Equation

1 Bernoulli Equation 3.1 Flow Patterns: Streamlines, Pathlines, Streaklines 1) A streamline, is a line that is everywhere tangent to the velocity vector at a given instant. Examples of streamlines around

### CIVE HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING PART II Pierre Julien Colorado State University

1 CIVE 401 - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING PART II Pierre Julien Colorado State University Problems with and are considered moderate and those with are the longest and most difficult. In 2018 solve the problems

### Fluid Mechanics c) Orificemeter a) Viscous force, Turbulence force, Compressible force a) Turbulence force c) Integration d) The flow is rotational

Fluid Mechanics 1. Which is the cheapest device for measuring flow / discharge rate. a) Venturimeter b) Pitot tube c) Orificemeter d) None of the mentioned 2. Which forces are neglected to obtain Euler

### A Model Answer for. Problem Set #7

A Model Answer for Problem Set #7 Pipe Flow and Applications Problem.1 A pipeline 70 m long connects two reservoirs having a difference in water level of 6.0 m. The pipe rises to a height of 3.0 m above

### PIPE FLOW. The Energy Equation. The first law of thermodynamics for a system is, in words = +

The Energy Equation PIPE FLOW The first law of thermodynamics for a system is, in words Time rate of increase of the total storage energy of the t Net time rate of energy addition by heat transfer into

### F L U I D S Y S T E M D Y N A M I C S

F L U I D S Y S T E M D Y N A M I C S T he proper design, construction, operation, and maintenance of fluid systems requires understanding of the principles which govern them. These principles include

### Fluid Dynamics Exercises and questions for the course

Fluid Dynamics Exercises and questions for the course January 15, 2014 A two dimensional flow field characterised by the following velocity components in polar coordinates is called a free vortex: u r

### EXPERIMENT NO: F5. Losses in Piping Systems

SJSU ME115 - THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB EXPERIMENT NO: F5 Losses in Piping Systems Objective One of the most common problems in fluid mechanics is the estimation of pressure loss. It is the objective of this

### Engineers Edge, LLC PDH & Professional Training

510 N. Crosslane Rd. Monroe, Georgia 30656 (770) 266-6915 fax (678) 643-1758 Engineers Edge, LLC PDH & Professional Training Copyright, All Rights Reserved Engineers Edge, LLC Pipe Flow-Friction Factor

### CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS

CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS 3.1. Measurement of Pressure Drop for Flow through Different Geometries 3.. Determination of Operating Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump 3.3. Energy Losses in Pipes under

### Laminar and turbulent flows

Ventilation 0 Duct Design Vladimír Zmrhal (room no. 84) http://users.fs.cvut.cz/~zmrhavla/index.htm Dpt. Of Environmental Engineering Laminar and turbulent flos Reynolds number d Re = ν laminar flo Re

### VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur

VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK III SEMESTER CE 8302 FLUID MECHANICS Regulation 2017 Academic Year 2018 19 Prepared by Mrs.

### Atmospheric pressure. 9 ft. 6 ft

Name CEE 4 Final Exam, Aut 00; Answer all questions; 145 points total. Some information that might be helpful is provided below. A Moody diagram is printed on the last page. For water at 0 o C (68 o F):

### 3.25 Pressure form of Bernoulli Equation

CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct 3, 2012 83 3.24 Review The Energy Equation Q Ẇshaft = d dt CV ) (û + v2 2 + gz ρ d + (û + v2 CS 2 + gz + ) ρ( v n) da ρ where Q is the heat energy transfer rate, Ẇ

### B.E/B.Tech/M.E/M.Tech : Chemical Engineering Regulation: 2016 PG Specialisation : NA Sub. Code / Sub. Name : CH16304 FLUID MECHANICS Unit : I

Department of Chemical Engineering B.E/B.Tech/M.E/M.Tech : Chemical Engineering Regulation: 2016 PG Specialisation : NA Sub. Code / Sub. Name : CH16304 FLUID MECHANICS Unit : I LP: CH 16304 Rev. No: 00

### ρg 998(9.81) LV 50 V. d2g 0.062(9.81)

6.78 In Fig. P6.78 the connecting pipe is commercial steel 6 cm in diameter. Estimate the flow rate, in m 3 /h, if the fluid is water at 0 C. Which way is the flow? Solution: For water, take ρ = 998 kg/m

### Flow Measurement in Pipes and Ducts COURSE CONTENT

Flow Measurement in Pipes and Ducts Dr. Harlan H. Bengtson, P.E. COURSE CONTENT 1. Introduction This course is about measurement of the flow rate of a fluid flowing under pressure in a closed conduit.

### UNIT II Real fluids. FMM / KRG / MECH / NPRCET Page 78. Laminar and turbulent flow

UNIT II Real fluids The flow of real fluids exhibits viscous effect that is they tend to "stick" to solid surfaces and have stresses within their body. You might remember from earlier in the course Newtons