APPLIED FLUID DYNAMICS HANDBOOK


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1 APPLIED FLUID DYNAMICS HANDBOOK ROBERT D. BLEVINS H imhnisdia ttodisdiule Darmstadt Fachbereich Mechanik 'rw.nr.. [VNR1 VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD COMPANY ' ' New York
2 Contents Preface / v 1. Definitions / 1 2. Symbols / 5 3. Units / 6 4. Dimensional Analysis / Introduction / Boundary Geometry / Euler Number / Reynolds Number / Mach Number / Froude Number / Weber Number / Cavitation Number / Richardson Number / Rayleigh Number / Strouhal Number / Kolmogoroff Scales / Application / ThenTheorem / Example: Model Testing a Nuclear Reactor / Example: Model Testing of a Surfboard / Conservation Equations / Introduction / Conservation of Mass / Equations of Conservation of Mass / Example of Conservation of Mass / Conservation of Energy / 23 ' 5.3 A Forms of Fluid Energy / Equations of Conservation of Energy / Examples of Conservation of Energy / The Bernoulli Equations / Presentation of the Equations / Example of the Bernoulli Equations / Conservation of Momentum / The Momentum Equations / Examples of Conservation of Momentum / Pipe and Duct Flow / General Considerations / General Assumptions / Principles of Pipe Flow / Velocity Profiles for Fully Developed Pipe Flow / Inlet Length / Fully Developed Profiles / Straight Uniform Pipes and Ducts / General Form for Incompressible Flow / Friction Factor for Laminar Flow (Re<2000) / Friction Factor for Transitional Flow (2000 <Re <4000) / Friction Factor for Turbulent Flow (Re>4000) / Curved Pipes and Bends / General Form./ Diametrical Pressure Difference / Curved Pipes and Gradual Bends / Sharp Bends / Vanes in Sharp Bends / Interaction Between Closely Spaced Bends and Components / Force on a Bend / Abrupt Changes in Flow Area / Entrances and Abrupt Contractions / Exits and Abrupt Expansions / Orifice Plates / Valves / 83 vii
3 viii CONTENTS 6.6 Joining and Dividing Flow / Classification of Pipe Junctions / 89 ' Pipe Junctions / Manifolds / Networks / Compressible Flow / Compressible Flow of a Perfect Gas Through Uniform Pipes and Ducts / A Technique for Adiabatic Flow Through Pipeline Components / TwoPhase Flow / Fundamental Concepts / LiquidGas TwoPhase Flow / SolidLiquid TwoPhase Flow / Examples of Pipe Flow / Compressible Air Flow Example / Water Flow Example / Adiabatic Pipeline Flow Example / Nozzles, Diffusers, and Venturis / General Assumptions / Theoretical Nozzle Performance / General Considerations / Incompressible Nozzle Flow / Compressible Nozzle Flow / Nozzle Discharge Coefficient / Theoretical Diffuser Performance / General Considerations in Diffuser Analysis / Theoretical Aspects of Diffuser Performance / 144 '7.4.3 Diffuser Stall / Diffuser Pressure Recovery Coefficient / General Considerations / 147 * Performance of Diffusers with Free Discharge / Venturi Tubes / Examples / Nozzle Example / Diffuser Example / 160 P 8. Open Channel Flow / General Considerations / Uniform Flow in a Uniform Channel / Pressure and Velocity Distribution/ 165 Q Computation of Uniform Flow / Critical Flow / Varied Flow / Gradually Varied Flow / Hydraulic Jump / 192, 8.4 Channel Structures / Weirs / Spillways / Flumes / Sluice Gates / Transitions / Sediment Transport / Sediment Production and Properties / Initiation of Motion / Rate of Sediment Discharge / Scour Around Piers / Example / Jets, Plumes, Wakes, and Shear Layers / General Assumptions / Submerged Jets / General Considerations / Submerged Laminar Jets (Re<2000) / Submerged Turbulent Jets (Re > 3000) / Wall Jets, Impinging Jets, Jets in Coflow, Jets in Cross Flow, Jets with Swirl / Wall Jets / Jets in Coflow / Round Jets in Cross Flow / Round Jets with Swirl / Plumes and Buoyant Jets / General Considerations / Plume Characteristics / Turbulent Buoyant Jets in a Uniform Reservoir / Turbulent Buoyant Jets in Stratified Reservoir with Cross Flow / Jet Pumps and Confined Jets / Jet Pumps / Confined Jets / Liquid Jets in Gases and Bubble Plumes in Liquids / Liquid Jets in Gases / Bubble Plumes / Far Wakes / General Considerations / Laminar Wakes / Turbulent Wakes / Shear Layers / Examples / Jet Example / Plume Example / Fluid Dynamic Drag / General Considerations / Boundary Layer Drag / General Considerations / 279
4 CONTENTS ix Laminar Similar Solutions / Approximate Methods for f Incompressible Laminar Boundary Layers / Separation and Boundary Layer Control / LaminarTurbulent Transition / Turbulent Boundary Layer / Approximate Methods for Turbulent Boundary Layers / Drag of Protuberances in Turbulent Boundary Layers / Screens, Grillages, and Tube Bundles / Screens, Grillages, and Perforated Plates / Tube and Rod Arrays / Bluff Structures / General Considerations / Three Coefficients / Principles of Drag Minimization / Application to Road Vehicles / Streamlined Structures / General Considerations Streamlined Struts, Bodies, and Nonlifting Airfoils / Wings, Airfoils, and Lift / Cavitating and SurfacePiercing Structures / Cavitation and Drag / ^ Ventilation and Drag / Resistance of Ships / lpA Method of Computing Ship Resistance / Aspects of Skin Friction Resistance of Ships / Aspects of WaveMaking Resistance / Examples / Terminal Speed of a Falling Object/ Glide Slope of a Wing / Wind and Atmospheric Processes / Introduction / Atmospheric Composition, Statics, and Stability / Atmospheric Characteristics / Atmospheric Stability / Origin of Wind and Storms I, General Considerations / Geostrophic and Local Winds / Surface Winds / General Considerations / Boundary Layer of the Earth / Extreme Winds / Wind Pressure, Wind Forces, and Urban Aerodynamics / General Considerations / Wind Pressure on Structures / Wind Forces on Structures / Wind Breaks and Urban Aerodynamics / Examples / Altimetry / Wind Force on a Lattice Tower / Ocean Waves and Coastal Processes / Introduction / Waves in Deep Water and Constant Depth Shallow Water / General Considerations / Wave Mechanics / Wind Waves and Swell / Other Wave Generation / Waves in Basins and Shoaling Water / Shoaling Water / Reflection and Resonance / Refraction and Diffraction / Wave Forces on Structures / General Considerations / Wave Forces on Pilings and Piers / Wave Forces on Large Cylindrical Structures / Wave Forces on Sea Walls / Rubble Mound Breakwater / Examples / Diffraction and Shoaling at a Beach / Wave Force on a Piling / Porous Media, Fluid Bearings, and Fluid Seals / Introduction / Porous Media / General Considerations / Darcy's Law and Its Solution / Application to Fluidized Beds / Fluid Bearings and Seals / General Considerations / Fluid Bearings / Seals / Example: Flow Between a Rotating and a Stationary Cylinder / Properties of Gases and Liquids / Introduction / Gases / Perfect Gas Law / 510
5 ) x CONTENTS Compressibility of Nonideal Gases / Viscosity / 516 t Data for Air and Other Gases at Low Pressure / Liquids / 524 Appendix A: NavierStokes and Boundary Layer Equations / 529 A.I NavierStokes Equations in TwoDimensional Flow / 529 A.2 NavierStokes Equations for Axisymmetric Flow in Cylindrical Coordinates / 530 A.3 Boundary Layer Equations / 531 Appendix B: Reynolds Stress and Turbulence Measurements / 536 B.I General Considerations / 536 B.2 Measurements in Turbulent Jets / 537 B.3 Measurements in Turbulent Wakes / 540 B.4 Measurements in Turbulent Plane Shear Layer / 541 B.5 Measurements in Turbulent Boundary Layers / 541 B.6 Measurements in Turbulent Pipe Flow / 543 Appendix C: Potential Flow / 544 C. 1 General Considerations / 544 C.2 Potential Flow Fields / 545 Index / 555
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