22. What came out of the cracks or fissures?

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1 PACKET #6 EARTH S MOON Reading Guide: Chapter 28.1 (read text pages ) 1b. Know the evidence from Earth and moon rocks indicates that the solar system was formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas approximately 4.6 billion years ago. IE.1d.. Students formulate explanations using logic and evidence. IE 1g. Students will recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality. 1. What is a satellite? 4. The moon has much mass than the Earth does, so the gravity on the moon s surface is of the gravity on Earth. 2. These natural satellites are also called. 5. Luna is the Latin word for. 3. What are artificial satellites? 6. What are mare: 7. When did the mare form? 8. The bowl-shaped depressions are called. Most of the craters formed billion years ago. Younger crater are characterized by bright streaks called, that. Long, deep channels called. 9. What is Regolith? 14a. What is the near side of the moon? 10. Many lunar rocks are 11. Lunar rocks contain many of the same elements as Earth s rocks do, but lunar rocks contain. 12. Rocks on the lunar surface are about as. 13. Where does most of the information about the interior of the moon come from? 18. Draw and label Figure 6 in the boxes below: 14b. What is the far side of the moon? 15. Why the crust on near side of the moon thicker? 16. Describe the moon s mantle: 17. Describe the moon s core Describe: Describe: Describe: 19. The moon was covered in an ocean of molten rock. Over time, the densest 20. The outer surface of the moon cooled to form a thick crust over the molten interior. At the same time debris left over from the formation of the solar system 21. What happened 3 billion years ago? 22. What came out of the cracks or fissures? 23. The lava flooded the crater basins to form. 1

2 MOVEMENTS OF THE MOON Reading Guide: Chapter 28.2 (read text pages ) IE.1d.. Students formulate explanations using logic and evidence. IE 1g. Students will recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality. 1. To observers on earth the moon appears to orbit the. However, if you could observe the earth & moon from space, you would see that they revolve. 2a.The mass of the moon is. 2b. What is the average distance of the moon from the earth? 3. Why does the moon appear to rise and set? 4. Why does the moon rise or set 50 minutes later each night? 5. The moon rotated rapidly when it formed, however, the pull of slowed it down. The moon now spins very slowly and completes a rotation only once during. 6a. The moon revolves around the earth in days. 6b. Because the rotation and revolution of the moon take the same amount of time, observers on earth always. 7. Define eclipse: 8a. Describe a solar eclipse: 8b. Describe the sky during a total solar eclipse: 9. Describe a lunar eclipse: 10. How many solar and lunar eclipses may occur during a calendar year? 11. Use Figure 8 on pg 730 to fill in the missing phases in the diagram below: 12a. Bulges in the earth s oceans are called. 12b. The ocean on the near side is pulled toward the moon with the. 12c. The ocean on the far side is subjected to 12d. Because the earth rotates, tides occur Illustration from: 2

3 SATELLITES OF OTHER PLANETS Reading Guide: Chapter 28.3 (read text pages ) 1a Know the differences and similarities among the sun, and the planets may have been established during the formation of the solar system. 1. List 3 characteristics of the 2 moons of Mars: 2. List the 4 moons of Jupiter that Phobos Deimos Galileo discovered: Describe how the volcanoes on Io were discovered: 4. Compare the characteristics of Saturn s rings with the rings of the other outer planets: Reading Guide: Chapter 28.4 (Read text pages ) ASTEROIDS, COMETS, & METEOROIDS 1f Students know the evidence for the dramatic effects that asteroid impacts have had in shaping the surface of planets and their moons and in mass extinctions of life on Earth. 1. In addition to the sun, planets and moons there are other smaller objects in the solar system. Astronomers theorize that these small bodies are 2. Define Asteroids: 3. What is the asteroid belt and where is it located? How many asteroids have we discovered? 5a. What is the composition of Asteroids? 5b. What are near-earth asteroids? 5c. Why are we interested in near-earth asteroids? 4. Are asteroids only located in the asteroid belt? (Describe) 6. Define Comet: 7. Name and describe the 3 main parts of a comet. 1. : 2. : 3. : 8. Comets come from the Oort Cloud:(define Oort Cloud) 9a. What are long-period comets? 9b. What are short-period comets: 10. Define meteoroids: 11a. Define meteors: 12a. Define meteorites: Size mm. Scientists think that most meteoroids are pieces 11b. Define fireball: 11c: Define meteor shower: 12b. List the 3 types:, 12c.Where do meteorites come from? 3

4 Reading Guide: Chapter 21.3 (read text pages ) TIDES IE.1a. Students will select & use appropriate tools & technology to perform tests, collects data, analyze relationships, & display data. IE.1d. Students formulate explanations using logic & evidence 1. Define tides: 2. What 2 things cause our tides? 3. The gravitation pull of the moon on the earth is strongest on the side of the earth that is to the moon. As a Result, the ocean on the Earth s near side, which causes a within the area of the bulge. 4. At the same time, another tidal bulge forms on the of the Earth. This tidal bulge forms because the. This tidal bulge is(smaller/bigger)than the other 5. Because there are low tidal bulges, most locations have & 6. What are Spring tides? 7. What are Neap tides? 8. List the 4 things that greatly influence tidal patterns: 9. Describe how a tidal bore forms: Reading Guide: Chapter 21.2 (read text pages ) OCEAN WAVES 5a. Students know how differential heating of Earth results in circulation patterns in the atmosphere and oceans that globally distribute heat. 1. Define wave: 2. Define wave period: 3. Explain makes waves? (read the Wave Energy section) 4. As a wave moves across the surface of the ocean, only the, not the water,. 5. What three factors determine the size of a wave: 6. What causes an undertow: 7. What makes a rip tide? 8. Explain Longshore current: 9. What is a Tsunami? How does a Tsunami form? 4

5 The Moon- formation & features The Moon vs. Earth How are they different? (list 3 ways),, How did our Moon form? Impact by, billion years ago This theory is great because it explains: Lunar History Step 1: billion years ago, our Moon forms when a giant mars sized object. Material is ejected from earth to form. Step 2: The moon was an that cooled and solidified into 3 layers (, mantle & core) Step 3: the moon was impacted by large, &. These impacts produced craters & deep basins up to 1000 km. Step 4: the number objects impacting the moon. The craters forming during this stage have rays because there is now moon dirt from the earlier impacts. Rayed Crater- Features Volcanoes Volcanoes Produced the = Mare BIG Dark areas Rocks called Rille- large Rilles formed from lava flows. Craters- Highlands Mountains formed by crater material Piles of Rocks called Breccias: made of Regolith: A layer of rock & mineral fragments ( ) that formed from impacts Rayed Craters Regolith (moon dirt) ejects out and makes rays. Young Craters 5

6 Moon Facts & Phases Moon Facts The earth s only Orbits the earth in a path called Average distance from the earth to the moon is 384,403 kilometers (238,857 miles) Diameter of 3,474 km, of the earth Gravity of the earth Why do we always see the same side of the Moon? Because: 1) The moon takes to go around the earth (revolve). 2) It also takes to spin once around on it s axis (rotate on axis). Since the moon rotates & revolves at the, we always see the same side! The moon rotates & revolves at the same speed (27.3 days) around the earth So, we always see the! If the moon didn t rotate you would see! Moon Phases of the Moon is always lit by the sun. The Moon shines because it sunlight off of its surface. The phases of the Moon are caused by our eyes seeing the lit half of the Moon as the moon orbits the earth. A common misconception is that the phases of the Moon are caused by the shadow of the Earth. Light on right means moon phases are. Light on left means. 6

7 Moon vs. Earth (Pg ) I. Exploring the Moon: (Lunar Info. vs. Earth info.) 1. The mass of the moon is less than the mass of the earth. How does this effect the gravity on the moon? 2. The earth has an atmosphere that is approximately 1000km thick. Does the moon have an atmosphere? Why or Why not? 3. The high temperature on the moon is and the low temperature is. Why is the temperature so extreme? II. Lunar Surface: 1. The moon has light and dark patches. Describe the light patches: 2. The dark patches are called maria which is the Latin word for sea. However, the moon does not have seas, what are the maria really made of? When did they form? III. Craters & Rilles 1. What do craters look like? When were they formed? 2. What made the craters? 3. Describe what the younger craters look like? 4. What are rilles? 5. How did the rilles form? How long are they? IV. Lunar Soil vs. Earth Soil The soil on the earth is made of weathered rock fragments. The soil layer on the moon is called regolith. 1. How did the regolith form? 2. What is the regolith made of? 3. How thick is the regolith? V. Lunar rocks vs. Earth rocks 1. Earth rocks and moon rocks have the same elements, but in very different. 2. Lunar rocks are, and most rocks near the surface are composed of &. These rocks are similar to the rocks in. 3. The rocks from the lunar highlands are colored grained,. 4. Rocks from the maria (lava flows) are grained and contain large amounts of,, &. 5. One type of rock that occurs in both maria and the highlands is Breccia. Describe what a Breccia is made of:. 6. Breccias are formed on earth by large landslides that break rocks into many pieces that then get glued together. How are Breccia s formed on the moon? VI. Lunar Interior vs. Earth Interior 1. How have astronomer s gathered information about the moon s interior? 2. The crust of the moon is not all the same thickness. Explain how thick the sides are 3. Describe the rocks that make up the moon s mantle: How thick is the mantle: 4. Describe the moons core 7

8 How Can a Comet Be Studied? Background Astronomers can study comets because they appear at regular intervals in an orbit that can be plotted. These orbits generally form long, narrow loops, called elongated ellipses, around the sun. There are recorded reports of Halley s Comet as early as 240 B.C. Edmund Halley, however, was the first person to calculate the comet s complete period, predicting it would be seen again form earth in The comet appeared in 1759 and since then has been seen roughly every 76 years. In this investigation you will make calculations about the movement of comets. Objectives After completing this investigation, you will be able to: 1) identify the path of a comet, 2) determine how long it takes a comet to complete its period, & 3) project the return dates of a comet FIGURE 1: The Orbit of Halley s Comet A. Study Figure 1. Note the shape of the comet s orbit and the shapes of the orbits of the planets. 1. What is the length, in time of the period of Halley s Comet? 2. Figure 1 shows that the last time Halley s Comet was visible from earth was Using that date, calculate when the comet next is visible from earth? Hint: use your data from question #1. 3. If Halley s comet was visible from earth in 1910, what year was it visible before that? 4. If the gravitational pull of the sun and Jupiter decreased the speed of the comet by 5 percent, when would it next be visible from earth? B. Imagine you have discovered a new comet whose period extends through the orbit of Uranus but not into the orbit of Neptune. On Figure 1, draw in the orbit of the new comet using your red pencil. C. A historical reference refers to a comet in 1784, an amateur astronomer reported sighting it in 1875, and an early US space probe took a close-up picture of it in When would you predict the comet would next be visible form earth? D. Encke s Comet has a period of 3.3 years. Its period decreases by 0.1 day at each revolution. 6. How many days will the period lose in 23 years? day(s) Hint: first calculate how many periods will occur in 23 years 8

9 7. How many days will the period lose in 2,300 years? day(s) Conclusions 1. Explain why people on earth generally see only one visit of a particular comet during their lifetime? A B C D Earth Comets path 1. In what directions will the comet s tail point at positions A-D? Using a ruler and a pencil, indicate the tail directions on the figure by drawing arrows extending out from each of the 4 positions. 2. With earth located as show, will the comet s tail be visible using a telescope on earth when the comet is at position C? Explain your answer. 3. With earth located as shown, will the comet s tail be visible to the unaided eye on earth when the comet is a t position A? explain your answer Label the above picture with the following parts of a comet: Coma Nucleus Tail 9

10 Models of Eclipses Modified from Earth-Science-Prentice Hall Background Information As the moon and the earth revolve around each other and the sun, they block some of the sun's light. When the sun or moon is blocked out by another object, an eclipse occurs. There are two types of eclipses- a lunar eclipse and a solar eclipse. During a lunar eclipse, the moon passes through the earth's shadow. And during a solar eclipse the moon is directly between the sun and the earth. Shadows cast into space during an eclipse have two parts. The completely dark inner shadow is the umbra. The outer area where light is only partially blocked is called the penumbra. Purpose: To draw a model of a solar eclipse & a lunar eclipse and identify the parts of a shadow. Materials: Ruler, Colored pencils Procedure: 1. Color the sun red, the moon yellow, and the earth blue in both Figures 1 and On Figure 1, use the ruler to draw a line from each side of the sun to the same side of the moon. Extend these lines until they touch the earth. (A1 drawn to A2) & (B1 drawn to B2). 3. On Figure 1, use the ruler to draw a line from the same points on the sides of the sun to the opposite sides of the moon. Extend these lines until they touch the earth. (A1 drawn to B2) & (B1 drawn to A2). 4. Color in the shadows produced by the moon. Color the inner shadow black and label it umbra. Color the outer shadow purple and label it penumbra. 5. On Figure 2, use the ruler to draw a line from each side of the sun to the same side of earth. (A1 drawn to A2) & (B1 drawn to B2). Extend these lines beyond the earth. 6. On Figure 2, use the ruler to draw lines from the sides of the sun to the opposite sides of the earth. (A1 drawn to B2) & (B1 drawn to A2). Extend these lines beyond the earth. Figure 1 Figure 2 A1 A1 A2 A2 B2 B2 B1 B1 Conclusions 1. What type of eclipse have you drawn in Figure 1? In Figure 2? 2. At what phase is the moon in Figure 1? In Figure 2? 3. What type of eclipse occurs when the moon is between the Earth & Sun? 4. What type of eclipse occurs when the Earth is between the moon and Sun? Critical Thinking and Application 1. Why don t we see eclipses every month? 10

11 Lunar and Solar Eclipse 1. Label the solar eclipse & lunar eclipse 2. Fill in the blanks with the correct term. The Amazing Earth -Moon Formation 1. What is the time in between our geologic catastrophes? 2. How big was the asteroid that formed our moon? 3. How long did it take the fragments to form our moon? 4. How big is the largest basin? 5. What were the mountains made of? 6. What would happen if an object 6 miles across hit the earth? 7. What would happen if an object ¼ of a mile across hit the earth on land? 8. What would happen if an object ¼ of a mile across hit the earth in the ocean? Bill Nye-The Moon 1. When the moon revolves it goes around the. 2. Where does the moonlight come from? 3. Can you ever see the moon in the daytime? 4. Are moon rocks like earth rocks? Why 5. What does the moons gravity pull on? 6. Why don t we get an eclipse every month? 7. What was the geologist s job when he was on the moon? 8. What is the gravity on the moon? 9. What are earthquakes on the moon called? 10. When was Apollo 11 on the moon? 11

12 Characteristics of Ocean Waves Most waves are caused by wind. As a wave moves through water, the surface of the water rises and falls. The highest part of a wave is referred to as the crest; the lowest part is called the trough. The wave height is the difference in level between the crest and the trough. The wavelength is the distance between two successive crests or troughs. The time required for two successive crests or troughs to pass a certain point is referred to as the wave period. Wave speed can be calculated using the following relationship. wave height = 1/2 wl wave speed = wavelength 1.3 wave period When waves move into shallow water, the troughs begin to drag along the bottom and slow down, while the crests continue at their normal speed. As a result, the front of the wave becomes steeper than the back of the wave. Eventually the crest topples over and the wave is said to break. Waves break in water that has a depth equal to approximately one-half the wavelength or about 1.3 times the wave height. Use the background information and the diagram below to answer questions 1-4. Use the diagram on the left for questions Label the wave crests and wave troughs on the diagram on the left. 2. What is the wavelength? 3. What is the wave height? 4. What is the speed of the waves if the wave period is 4 seconds? Use the diagram on the right for questions In what depth of water would a wave begin to break if it had a wavelength of 3 meters? 6. According to the diagram, how far from shore would a wave break that had a wave length of 3 meters? 7. What would the wave height be for the wave described in the previous two questions? 8. What would happen to the distance from shore that the waves were breaking if increased winds caused an increase in the wave heights? Activity modified from Earth Science, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 12

13 WAVES Crest- Trough- the bottom of the wave Wave height- Wave length- Where do waves come from? What causes waves? They are produced by: 1. from storms. 2. the the wind has blown the that mix with our that the wind has traveled across the open water. How does water move in the open ocean? The water particles move in a. The wave through the water, but!! Think about it: We don t get Alaskan water on our shore when we get waves from a storm in Alaska How does water move at the shore? As the wave moves into the wave drags along the ocean floor. This makes the water at the bottom of the wave move. this causes the waves to. How is Surf formed? As the water moves on to the shore the wave 13

14 Tide Predictions Purpose: To plot the tide curve showing the three types of tides Background: There are three types of tides. Range is the difference in height between low water and the high water for a given period of time. Diurnal tide - has only one high water and one low water each day. The tides along the Vietnam and China coast are diurnal. Semidiurnal tide - has two high waters and two low waters. There is little difference between the high waters and little or no difference between the low waters. Tides along the east coast of the United States are semidiurnal. Mixed tide - has two high waters and two low waters each day with considerable difference between the two high water heights and the two low water heights. Range- is the difference in height between low & high water for a given time. Procedure A. Use the data table to plot the tide curve & answer the questions below. 1. What day shows a diurnal tide? 2. What day shows a mixed tide? 3. What day shows a semidiurnal tide? 4. What day shows the greatest range in tides? 5. What type of tides do San Diego County beaches experience? Day Time Height (ft.)

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