# Earth s Motion. Lesson Outline LESSON 1. A. Earth and the Sun 1. The diameter is more than 100 times greater than

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1 Lesson Outline Earth s Motion LESSON 1 A. Earth and the Sun 1. The diameter is more than 100 times greater than Earth s diameter. a. In the Sun, atoms combine during, producing huge amounts of energy. b. Some of the Sun s energy reaches Earth as thermal energy and. 2. is the movement of one object around another object. a. The path a revolving object follows is its. b. It takes approximately one for Earth to make one revolution around the Sun. c. Earth moves around the Sun because of the pull of between Earth and the Sun. 3. The force of gravity between two objects depends on the of the objects and how far apart they are. 4. The of an object is its spinning motion. a. The line around which an object rotates is the. b. Looking at Earth from above the North Pole, Earth rotates in a(n) direction from west to east. c. Earth s rotation makes the Sun appear to rise in the. 5. It takes one for Earth to complete one rotation. 6. Earth s rotation axis is always in the same direction. B. Temperature and Latitude 1. The Sun shines on the part of Earth that the Sun. 2. When light shines on a tilted surface, the light is more than it would be on a surface that is not tilted. a. Because of the tilt of Earth s axis, Earth s surface becomes more tilted as you move away from the. b. As a result of this tilt, regions of Earth near the receive less energy than regions near the. 10 The Sun-Earth-Moon System

2 Lesson Outline continued C. Seasons 1. Earth s change in a yearly cycle because of the tilt of its rotation axis and Earth s around the Sun. 2. The end of Earth s that is tilted toward the Sun receives more energy from the Sun. a. The part of Earth tilted toward the Sun experiences seasons of spring and. If the northern end of Earth s axis leans toward the Sun, it is spring or summer in the hemisphere. b. The part of Earth tilted away from the Sun experiences seasons of autumn and. If the southern end of Earth s axis leans toward the Sun, it is fall or winter in the hemisphere. 3. During a(n), Earth s rotation axis is the most toward or away from the Sun. a. Solstices occur each year. b. The June solstice is the first day of in the northern hemisphere. c. On the December solstice, the end of Earth s rotation axis leans the most away from the Sun. 4. During its revolution, Earth s axis does not lean toward or away from the Sun during a(n). a. The September equinox marks the first day of in the southern hemisphere. b. The March equinox marks the first day of in the northern hemisphere. 5. The Sun s apparent path through the sky in the northern hemisphere is near the June solstice and near the December solstice. The Sun-Earth-Moon System 11

3 Lesson Outline Earth s Moon LESSON 2 A. Seeing the Moon 1. Unlike the Sun, the Moon does not emit its own. 2. The Moon seems to shine because it light from the Sun. B. The Moon s Formation 1. Scientists hypothesize that formed from rock that was in a ring around Earth. This ring formed when collided with an object about the size of Mars. 2. Craters form when objects into the surface of another object. a. Light-colored streaks called extend in all directions from some craters. b. On Earth, wind, water, and plate tectonics have erased craters. The has no wind, water, or plate tectonics. 3. Large, flat areas on the Moon are called. They formed after most impacts on the Moon s surface had stopped; lava flowed up through the Moon s crust and solidified, covering many craters and other features and then solidifying. 4. are light-colored areas on the Moon s surface. C. The Moon s Motion 1. The amount of time it takes the Moon to revolve once around Earth is the amount of time it takes the Moon to make one rotation. One revolution of the Moon around Earth takes days. 2. The side of the Moon always faces Earth. The side of the Moon cannot be seen from Earth. D. Phases of the Moon 1. A(n) is the lit part of the Moon or a planet that can be seen from Earth. a. Phases of the Moon change because of the of the Moon around Earth. b. A(n) the sequence of moon phases takes 29.5 days to complete. 30 The Sun-Earth-Moon System

4 Lesson Outline continued 2. More of the Moon s near side is lit each night during the. a. After the first week of the lunar cycle, the Moon s entire half is lit. b. This phase is called the phase. c. During the second week of the lunar cycle, when the Moon s near side is completely lit, it is at the moon phase. 3. Less of the Moon s near side is lit each night during the. a. During the third week of the lunar cycle, only the half of the Moon is lit. b. This phase is called the phase. c. At the end of the lunar cycle, you cannot see any of the lit side of the Moon, which is called the moon phase. The Sun-Earth-Moon System 31

5 Lesson Outline Eclipses and Tides A. Shadows the Umbra and the Penumbra 1. When one object blocks light from another object, a(n) results. LESSON 3 2. Light from a(n) source forms a shadow with lighter and darker parts. a. The darker central part of a shadow is called the. b. In the umbra, light is blocked. c. The lighter part of a shadow is called the. d. In the penumbra, light is blocked. B. Solar Eclipses 1. When the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, it casts a shadow on. a. During a(n), the Moon s shadow passes over Earth s surface. b. A solar eclipse can occur only during a(n) moon. 2. If you are in the umbra of the Moon s shadow, you see a(n) solar eclipse. The Moon appears to cover the Sun. 3. If you are in the penumbra of the Moon s shadow, you see a(n) solar eclipse. 4. The Moon s orbit is slightly compared to Earth s orbit. C. Lunar Eclipses 1. During a(n), Earth casts a shadow on the Moon. A lunar eclipse can occur only during a(n) moon phase. 2. When the entire Moon passes through Earth s, a total lunar eclipse occurs. 3. When only part of the Moon passes through the of Earth s shadow, a partial lunar eclipse occurs. 4. You do not see a lunar eclipse every month because the Moon s orbit is slightly compared to Earth s orbit. The Sun-Earth-Moon System 47

6 Lesson Outline continued D. Tides 1. The daily rise and fall of sea level is called a(n). 2. The main cause of tides is the gravitational pull of the on Earth. a. A(n) occurs on the side of Earth that is closest to the Moon and on the opposite side of Earth. b. tides occur at tidal bulges. c. tides occur between tidal bulges. 3. The also affects tides, but not as much as the Moon does. 4. During a(n) tide, Earth, the Sun, and the Moon are positioned in a straight line. At this time, high tides are than usual, and low tides are. 5. During a(n) tide, Earth, the Sun, and the Moon form a right angle. At this time, high tides are low tides are. than usual, and 48 The Sun-Earth-Moon System

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