# Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earth s Motion Lesson 2 Earth s Moon Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides Chapter Wrap-Up. Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images

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1 Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earth s Motion Lesson 2 Earth s Moon Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides Chapter Wrap-Up Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images

2 What natural phenomena do the motions of Earth and the Moon produce?

3 What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements.

4 Do you agree or disagree? 1. Earth s movement around the Sun causes sunrises and sunsets. 2. Earth has seasons because its distance from the Sun changes throughout the year. 3. The Moon was once a planet that orbited the Sun between Earth and Mars.

5 Do you agree or disagree? 4. Earth s shadow causes the changing appearance of the Moon. 5. A solar eclipse happens when Earth moves between the Moon and the Sun. 6. The gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on Earth s oceans causes tides.

6 Earth s Motion How does Earth move? Why is Earth warmer at the equator and colder at the poles? Why do the seasons change as Earth moves around the Sun?

7 Earth s Motion orbit revolution rotation rotation axis solstice equinox

8 Earth and the Sun The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. The Sun is approximately 150 million km from Earth.

9 Earth and the Sun (cont.) Earth moves around the Sun in a nearly circular path.

10 Earth and the Sun (cont.) The path an object follows as it moves around another object is an orbit. The motion of one object around another object is called revolution. Earth makes one complete revolution around the Sun every days.

11 Earth and the Sun (cont.) What produces Earth s revolution around the Sun?

12 Earth and the Sun (cont.) Earth orbits the Sun because the Sun s gravity pulls on the Earth.

13 Earth and the Sun (cont.) A spinning motion is called rotation. The line on which an object rotates is the rotation axis. The tilt of Earth s rotation axis is always in the same direction by the same amount. During half of Earth s orbit, the north end of the rotation axis is toward the Sun and during the other half the north end of the rotation axis is away from the Sun.

14 Temperature and Latitude Because Earth s surface is curved, different parts of Earth s surface receive different amounts of the Sun s energy.

15 Temperature and Latitude (cont.) Relative to the direction of a beam of sunlight, Earth s surface tends to become more tilted as you move away from the equator. Why is Earth warmer at the equator and colder at the poles?

16 Temperature and Latitude (cont.) The energy in a beam of sunlight tends to become more spread out the farther you travel from the equator

17 Temperature and Latitude (cont.) Regions near the poles receive less energy than regions near the equator, which means Earth is colder at the poles and warmer at the equator.

18 Seasons During one half of Earth s orbit, the north end of the rotation axis is toward the Sun.

19 Seasons (cont.) Due to Earth s tilt, the northern hemisphere receives more solar energy. Temperatures increase in the northern hemisphere and decrease in the southern hemisphere. This is when spring and summer happen in the northern hemisphere, and fall and winter happen in the southern hemisphere.

20 During the other half of Earth s orbit, the north end of the rotation axis is away from the Sun.

21 Seasons (cont.) Due to Earth s tilt, the southern hemisphere receives more solar energy. Temperatures decrease in the northern hemisphere and increase in the southern hemisphere. This is when fall and winter happen in the northern hemisphere, and spring and summer happen in the southern hemisphere.

22 Seasons (cont.) How does the tilt of Earth s rotation axis affect Earth s weather?

23 Seasons (cont.) There are four days each year when the direction of Earth s rotation axis is special relative to the Sun.

24 Seasons (cont.) A solstice is a day when Earth s rotation axis is the most toward or away from the Sun.

25 Seasons (cont.) An equinox is a day when Earth s rotation axis is leaning along Earth s orbit, neither toward nor away from the Sun.

26 Seasons (cont.) equinox from Latin equinoxium, means equality of night and day

27 Seasons (cont.) The Sun s apparent path through the sky in the northern hemisphere is lowest on the December solstice and highest on the June solstice.

28 The gravitational pull of the Sun causes Earth to revolve around the Sun in a near-circular orbit.

29 Earth s rotation axis is tilted and always points in the same direction in space.

30 Equinoxes and solstices are days when the direction of Earth s rotation axis relative to the Sun is special.

31 Which body s gravitational pull causes the Earth to orbit the Sun? A. Earth B. Sun C. Moon D. none of these

32 Relative to the direction of a beam of sunlight, what happens to Earth s surface as you move away from the equator? A. The surface becomes less tilted. B. The surface becomes flat. C. The surface becomes more tilted. D. There is no change in the relationship.

33 Which term refers to the motion of one object around another object? A. orbit B. rotation C. rotation axis D. revolution

34 Do you agree or disagree? 1. Earth s movement around the Sun causes sunrises and sunsets. 2. Earth has seasons because its distance from the Sun changes throughout the year.

35 Earth s Moon How does the Moon move around Earth? Why does the Moon s appearance change?

36 Earth s Moon maria phase waxing phase waning phase

37 Seeing the Moon You only see the Moon because light from the Sun reflects off the Moon and into your eyes.

38 The Moon s Formation According to the giant impact hypothesis, shortly after Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago, an object about the size of the planet Mars collided with Earth.

39 The Moon s Formation (cont.) The impact ejected vaporized rock that formed a ring around Earth.

40 The Moon s Formation (cont.) Eventually, the material in the ring cooled and clumped together and formed the Moon.

41 The Moon s Formation (cont.) The surface of the Moon was shaped early in its history. Moon s craters were formed when objects from space crashed into the Moon.

42 The Moon s Formation (cont.) The large, dark, flat areas on the Moon are called maria. maria from Latin mare, means sea

43 The Moon s Formation (cont.) When the maria formed, lava flowed up through the Moon s crust and solidified, covering many of the Moon s craters and other features. The light-colored highlands are too high for the lava that formed the maria to reach.

44 The Moon s Motion The Moon rotates as it revolves around Earth. One complete rotation of the Moon takes 27.3 days, meaning the Moon makes one rotation in the same amount of time that it makes one revolution around Earth.

45 The Moon s Motion (cont.) What produces the Moon s revolution around Earth?

46 The Moon s Motion (cont.) Because the Moon takes the same amount of time to orbit Earth and make one rotation, the same side of the Moon is always facing Earth. This side of the Moon is called the near side. The side of the Moon that cannot be see from Earth is called the far side of the moon.

47 The Moon s Motion (cont.)

48 Phases of the Moon The lit part of the Moon or a planet that can be seen from Earth is called a phase. phase Science Use how the Moon or a planet is lit as seen from earth Common Use a part of something or a stage of development

49 The motion of the Moon around Earth causes the phase of the Moon to change. Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images

50

51 Phases of the Moon (cont.) What produces the phases of the Moon?

52 Phases of the Moon (cont.) The sequences of phases is the lunar cycle. During the waxing phases, more of the Moon s near side is lit each night. During the waning phases, less of the Moon s near side is lit each night.

53 Phases of the Moon (cont.)

54 According to the giant impact hypothesis, a large object collided with Earth about 4.5 billion years ago to form the Moon.

55 Features like maria, craters, and highlands formed on the Moon s surface early in its history. The Moon s phases change in a regular pattern during the Moon s lunar cycle. Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images

56 What features of the moon were formed when objects from space crashed into it? A. maria B. craters C. highlands D. phases

57 What term is given to the side of the Moon always facing Earth? A. far side B. phase C. near side D. maria

58 Which of these is characterized by more of the Moon s near side being lit each night? A. waxing phase B. waning phase C. lunar cycle D. full moon

59 Do you agree or disagree? 3. The Moon was once a planet that orbited the Sun between Earth and Mars. 4. Earth s shadow causes the changing appearance of the Moon.

60 Eclipses and Tides What is a solar eclipse? What is a lunar eclipse? How do the Moon and the Sun affect Earth s oceans?

61 Eclipses and Tides umbra penumbra solar eclipse lunar eclipse tide

62 Shadows the Umbra and the Penumbra Light from the Sun and other wide sources cast shadows with two distinct parts.

63 Shadows the Umbra and the Penumbra (cont.) The umbra is the central, darker part of a shadow where light is totally blocked. The penumbra is the lighter part of a shadow where light is partially blocked.

64 Shadows the Umbra and the Penumbra Light from the Sun and other wide sources cast shadows with two distinct parts.

65 Shadows the Umbra and the Penumbra (cont.) penumbra from Latin paene, means almost ; and umbra, means shade, shadow

66 Solar Eclipses During the new moon phase, Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are lined up and the Moon casts a shadow on Earth's surface. When the Moon s shadow appears on Earth s surface, a solar eclipse is occurring.

67 Solar Eclipses (cont.) Why does a solar eclipse occur only during a new moon?

68 During a total solar eclipse, the Moon appears to cover the Sun completely. You can only see a total solar eclipse from within the Moon s umbra.

69 Solar Eclipses (cont.) You can see a partial solar eclipse from within the Moon s much larger penumbra. The Sun s appearance changes during an eclipse as the moon moves in the sky.

70 The Moon s orbit is tilted slightly compared to Earth s orbit. As a result, during most new moons, Earth is either above or below the Moon s shadow.

71 Lunar Eclipses A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon moves into Earth s shadow.

72 Lunar Eclipses (cont.) When the entire Moon moves through Earth s umbra, a total lunar eclipse occurs.

73 Lunar Eclipses (cont.) When only part of the Moon passes through Earth s umbra, a partial lunar eclipse occurs. Lunar eclipses can only occur during a full moon phase, when the Moon and the Sun are on opposite sides of Earth.

74 Lunar Eclipses (cont.) When can a lunar eclipse occur?

75 Tides A tide is the daily rise and fall of sea level. It is primarily the Moon s gravity that causes Earth s oceans to rise and fall twice each day. The Moon s gravity is slightly stronger on the side of Earth closer to the Moon and slightly weaker on the side of Earth opposite the Moon.

76 Tides (cont.) The gravitational differences cause tidal bulges in the oceans on opposite sides of Earth.

77 Tides (cont.) High tides occur at the tidal bulges, and low tides occur between them. Because the Sun is so far away from Earth, its effect on tides is about half that of the Moon.

78 Tides (cont.) Spring tides occur during the full moon and new moon phases, when the Sun s and the Moon s gravitational effects combine and produce higher high tides and lower low tides.

79 Tides (cont.) A neap tide occurs a week after a spring tide, when the Sun, Earth, and the Moon form a right angle and the Sun s effect on tides reduces the Moon s effect.

80 Tides (cont.) Why is the Sun s effect on tides less than the Moon s effect?

81 Shadows from a wide light source have two distinct parts.

82 The Moon s shadow produces solar eclipses. Earth s shadow produces lunar eclipses.

83 The positions of the Moon and the Sun in relation to Earth cause gravitational differences that produce tides.

84 If the Moon s shadow appears on Earth s surface, which of these is occurring? A. lunar eclipse B. tide C. solar eclipse D. neap tide

85 What causes Earth s tides? A. the Moon s gravity B. the Moon s tilted orbit C. Earth s gravity D. the Moon s umbra

86 Which of these refers to the central, darker part of a shadow where light is totally blocked? A. umbra B. penumbra C. lunar eclipse D. tide

87 Do you agree or disagree? 5. A solar eclipse happens when Earth moves between the Moon and the Sun. 6. The gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on Earth s oceans causes tides.

88 Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice

89 Gravity causes objects in space to impact each other. Earth s motion around the Sun causes seasons. The Moon s motion around Earth causes phases of the Moon. Earth and the Moon s motions together cause eclipses and ocean tides.

90 Lesson 1: Earth s Motion The gravitational pull of the Sun on Earth causes Earth to revolve around the Sun in a nearly circular orbit. Areas on Earth s curved surface become more tilted with respect to the direction of sunlight the farther you travel from the equator. This causes sunlight to spread out closer to the poles, making Earth colder at the poles and warmer at the equator.

91 Lesson 1: Earth s Motion As Earth revolves around the Sun, the tilt of Earth s rotation axis produces changes in how sunlight spreads out over Earth s surface. These changes in the concentration of sunlight cause the seasons.

92 Lesson 2: Earth s Moon The gravitational pull of Earth on the Moon makes the Moon revolve around Earth. The Moon rotates once as it makes one complete orbit around Earth. The lit part of the Moon that you can see from Earth the Moon s phase changes during the lunar cycle as the Moon revolves around Earth. Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images

93 Lesson 3: Eclipses and Tides When the Moon s shadow appears on Earth s surface, a solar eclipse occurs. When the Moon moves into Earth s shadow, a lunar eclipse occurs. The gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on Earth produces tides, the rise and fall of sea level that occurs twice each day.

94 The line on which an object rotates is called what? A. orbit B. surface C. revolution D. rotation axis

95 What happens to temperatures in the northern hemisphere when the north end of the rotation axis is toward the Sun? A. increase B. stay the same C. decrease D. cannot be determined

96 Which is a day when Earth s rotation axis is leaning along Earth s orbit, neither toward nor away from the Sun? A. equinox B. solstice C. spring D. winter

97 Which of these is characterized by less of the Moon s near side being lit at night? A. lunar cycle B. waning phase C. waxing phase D. lunar eclipse

98 Which of these refers to the lighter part of a shadow where light is partially blocked? A. umbra B. solar eclipse C. tide D. penumbra

99 What term refers to a day when Earth s rotation axis is the most toward or away from the Sun? A. equinox B. fall C. spring D. solstice

100 What is the path an object follows as it moves around another object? A. revolution B. rotation axis C. orbit D. rotation

101 Which refers to the part of the Moon or a planet that can be seen from Earth? A. waning B. waxing C. phase D. lunar cycle

102 Which term refers to the daily rise and fall of sea level? A. eclipse B. umbra C. penumbra D. tide

103 During which does the Moon appear to cover the Sun completely? A. solar eclipse B. high tide C. lunar eclipse D. neap tide

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