4 th Grade: Sun, Moon, and Earth Unit Assessment Study Guide

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1 Name: Teacher: Test Date: 4 th Grade: Sun, Moon, and Earth Unit Assessment Study Guide Vocabulary: Solar System: A group of objects that revolve around a single star. Sun: The central (and only) star in our solar system. The Earth and all other planets revolve around it. Moon: Earth s only natural satellite. Made up of solid rock and has no atmosphere. It does NOT have the ability to create light. Instead, we see light reflected from the Sun. Earth: The only planet in our solar system that can support life. It has a solid core and a breathable atmosphere. Revolve: When one object moves around another larger object. Orbit: The ACTUAL path the object travels on when it revolves. Rotate: To spin around on a fixed point. Axis: An imaginary line going through an object around which it turns. Reflect: To bounce off light. Apparent Motion: The way an object appears, or seems, to move across our sky. Phases of the Moon: the shape of the Moon that is lit up and can be seen from Earth. Natural satellite: an object that orbits another object naturally. Sun: o The central (and only) star in our solar system. The Earth and all other planets revolve around it. o The closest star to Earth (93,000,000 miles away) o Very large the Sun s diameter is 110 times larger than Earth s (meaning that 110 Earths could fit across the surface of the Sun) o Gaseous: full of hot gas o Stays in place (has no orbit) o CANNOT support life o Has the ability to create its own light o Appears to move in a predictable pattern across our sky (night /day) o Appears to rise in the east and set in the west - Actually caused by Earth s rotation (spinning on its axis) Moon: o Appears to rise in the east, and set in the west - Actually caused by Earth s rotation (spinning on its axis) o Has a predictable pattern across our sky o The closest object to Earth. o Has NO atmosphere o Cannot support life

2 o Does not produce its own light- light is a reflection of the Sun s rays o Rotates on its axis Rotation: a single turn around something on its axis or a fixed point, spinning. Axis: an imaginary line through the center of an object around which that object turns o Natural satellite of the Earth orbits around the Earth o Small in comparison to the Earth - ¼ the diameter of Earth (four Moons could fit across the surface of the Earth) o The Moon is the closest object to the Earth Phases of the Moon: the shape of the Moon that is lit up and can be seen from Earth. New Moon: The sun lights the side of the moon facing away from Earth. The side of the moon that faces Earth is dark. Waxing Crescent: You see a sliver on the right side of the moon. 1 st Quarter: You see half of the lighted side of the moon (on the right). Waxing Gibbous: The moon continues to wax (get bigger). The moon is called Gibbous and is almost completely full (light on the right). Full Moon: You see the whole lighted side of the moon. Waning Gibbous: The fraction of the lighted side of the moon that you see gets smaller each day (light on the left now). 3 rd Quarter: You can see half of the moon s lighted side (on the left). Waning Crescent: You see a crescent/sliver again (on the left). Waxing = growing Waning = shrinking

3 Earth: o The only planet in our solar system that can support life o Surface is covered by almost 75% water o Breathable atmosphere o Cannot produce its own light reflects light from the Sun o Orbits the Sun Natural satellite of the Sun o Rotates (spins) on its own axis **Study Tip: Try drawing a Venn diagram of the Sun, Moon, and Earth to compare and contrast each of their properties. Use your notes and study guide to help you. Sun Moon Earth Apparent Motion: o Caused by the Earth s rotation on its axis, as well as its yearly revolution around the Sun. o The Sun and Moon both appear to rise in the east and set in the west daily. o The Sun appears to rise higher in the sky during summer months and lower in the sky during winter months. Seasons: When it is summer in the northern hemisphere, it is winter in the southern hemisphere. The steeper the angle of the sun s rays, the warmer the weather. When the sunlight strikes the hemisphere at low angles, the Earth is experiencing colder weather. The Sun appears to rise highest in the sky during summer and lowest in the sky during winter.

4 Day and Night: How long does one complete rotation of Earth take? 24 hours The side of Earth facing the Sun is experiencing day The side of Earth facing away from the Sun is experiencing night The turning, or rotation of Earth, moving into and out of the Sun s light causes Earth s cycle of day and night. Sample Questions ** Study Tip: Try answering the following questions WITHOUT USING YOUR NOTES to see if you are ready for the test. Use the key below to help check your answers. 1. It is 11:45 pm in Michigan, what object is possible for you to see in the sky? a. The Sun b. The Moon c. The Sun & the Moon d. None of the above Rank the following objects in order from smallest to largest. Use the following words: a. Moon b. Sun c. Earth In what direction does the Moon travel around the Earth? a. Counterclockwise b. Clockwise 6. About how long does it take for the Moon to complete one revolution around Earth? a. 24 hours b. 28 days c. 365 ¼ days d. 365 days 7. At what phase can you see the entire illuminated side of the Moon? a. Full Moon b. Third/Last Quarter c. Waning Crescent d. New Moon 8. Based on what you know about moon phases and the picture below, select the phase you predict you would observe next. Current Phase

5 Predicted Next Phase a. new moon b. last quarter c. first quarter 9. The Sun appears to rise in the and set in the. a. north, south b. south, north c. west, east d. east, west 10. The Sun appears highest across our sky during which season? a. spring b. summer c. fall d. winter SAMPLE QUESTIONS KEY: 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.B 5.A 6.B 7.A 8.C 9.D 10.B

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