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1 Astronomy Take Home Test Answer on a separate sheet of paper In complete sentences justify your answer Name: 1. The Moon s cycle of phases can be observed from Earth because the Moon 4. The accompanying diagram shows the Moon in different positions as it revolves around Earth, as observed from above the North Pole (NP). A. is smaller than Earth B. is tilted on its axis C. rotates on its axis D. revolves around Earth 2. Locations in New York State are warmest in summer because sunlight in summer is A. least intense and of shortest duration Which image correctly represents the Moon at position 8, as observed from Earth? A. B. B. least intense and of longest duration C. most intense and of shortest duration D. most intense and of longest duration C. D. 3. Measurements of gravity are greater at the poles than at the Equator. This evidence best supports the inference that Earth has a A. slightly oblate shape B. perfectly spherical shape C. very elliptical orbit D. slightly elliptical orbit 5. The passage of the Moon into Earth s shadow causes a A. lunar eclipse B. solar eclipse C. new Moon D. full Moon page 1

2 6. The accompanying diagram shows the relative positions of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth when an eclipse was observed from Earth. Positions A and B are locations on Earth s surface. 8. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the world map below, which shows regions of Earth where a solar eclipse was visible on May Locations A, B, C, and D are on Earth s surface. Which statement correctly describes the type of eclipse that was occurring and the position on Earth where this eclipse was observed? A. A lunar eclipse was observed from position A. B. A lunar eclipse was observed from position B. C. A solar eclipse was observed from position A. D. A solar eclipse was observed from position B. At which location could an observer have viewed this total solar eclipse if the skies were clear? A. A B. B C. C D. D 7. The accompanying photographs show the Moon and Earth as viewed from space. It is inferred that Earth had many impact craters similar to those shown on the Moon. 9. The diagram below shows Earth s orbit around the Sun and different positions of the Moon as it travels around Earth. Letters A through D represent four different positions of the Moon. (Not drawn to scale) Describe one process that has destroyed many of the impact craters that once existed on Earth. An eclipse of the Moon is most likely to occur when the Moon is at position A. A B. B C. C D. D Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 2 Astronomy Take Home Test

3 10. Which sequence of Moon phases could be observed from Earth during a 2-week period? 13. What is the main reason that the gravitational attraction between Earth and the Moon changes each day? A. Earth s axis is tilted at B. Earth s rotational speed varies with the seasons. C. The Moon has an elliptical orbit. A. D. The Moon has a spherical shape. B. C. 14. One factor responsible for the strength of gravitational attraction between a planet and the Sun is the D. A. degree of tilt of the planet s axis B. distance between the planet and the Sun C. planet s period of rotation 11. Scientists can plan to photograph a solar eclipse because most astronomical events are D. amount of insolation given off by the Sun A. cyclic and predictable B. cyclic and unpredictable C. random and predictable D. random and unpredictable 15. The apparent daily movement of the Sun across the sky is caused by A. Earth s rotation on its axis B. Earth s revolution around the Sun C. the Sun s revolution around Earth 12. The force of gravity between two objects is greatest when D. the Sun s rotation during a 24-hour period A. masses are small and the objects are close together B. masses are small and the objects are far apart C. masses are large and the objects are close together D. masses are large and the objects are far apart 16. The length of an Earth day is determined by the time required for approximately one A. Earth rotation B. Earth revolution C. Sun rotation D. Sun revolution Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 3 Astronomy Take Home Test

4 17. Which observation provides the best evidence that Earth rotates? A. The position of the planets among the stars changes during the year. 20. Earth s rate of rotation is approximately A. 1 per day B. 15 per day C. 180 per day D. 360 per day B. The location of the constellations in relationship to Polaris changes from month to month. C. The length of the shadow cast by a flagpole at noontime changes from season to season. D. The direction of swing of a freely swinging pendulum changes during the day. 21. Compared to the weight of a person at the North Pole, the weight of the same person at the Equator would be A. slightly less, because the person is farther from the center of the Earth 18. The diagram below represents the direction of Earth s rotation as it appears from above the North Pole. Point X is a location on Earth s surface. B. slightly less, because the person is closer to the center of the Earth C. slightly more, because the person is farther from the center of the Earth D. slightly more, because the person is closer to the center of the Earth The time at point X is closest to A. 6 am B. 12 noon C. 6 pm D. 12 midnight 22. Units of time are based on Earth s motion relative to other celestial objects. The year is best defined as Earth s motion relative to the A. asteroids B. Sun C. Moon D. planets 19. The best evidence that Earth spins on its axis is the motion of A. tectonic plates B. Polaris C. a wind vane D. a Foucault pendulum 23. Which event is a direct result of Earth s revolution? A. the apparent deflection of winds B. the changing of the Moon phases C. the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky D. the daily rising and setting of the Sun Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 4 Astronomy Take Home Test

5 24. Ocean tides are best described as A. unpredictable and cyclic B. unpredictable and noncyclic C. predictable and cyclic D. predictable and noncyclic 25. The diagrams below represent Earth s ocean tides at four different positions of the Moon. Which diagram shows the Moon position that will produce the highest high tides and the lowest low tides? (The diagrams are not drawn to scale.) E = Earth M = Moon Key H = High tide L = Low tide A. B. C. D. Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 5 Astronomy Take Home Test

6 26. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the passage and map below and the tide table on the next page. The map shows the tidal range (the difference between the highest and lowest tides) in meters for the Bay of Fundy, Chignecto Bay, and the Minas Basin. The table shows the times of high and low tides for Hopewell Cape for August 21 and 22, The Bay of Fundy has the Highest Tides on Earth The unique shape of the Bay of Fundy contributes to the extremely high ocean tides experienced there. Frequently described as funnel shaped, the bay gradually becomes more narrow and shallow to the northeast where it splits to form Chignecto Bay and the Minas Basin. The highest tides of the Bay of Fundy are found within these fingers of the bay and are caused by the incoming tides encountering seaward-moving river currents as the bay narrows. The tide height is also affected by the amount of time it takes for high tide to flood the bay. This time is nearly identical from one high tide to the next. Hopewell Cape Tide Table, August 2005 Date Time Tide Height (m) 21 1:28 am :03 am :54 pm :26 pm :20 am :52 am :46 pm :16 pm 0.0 On the grid below, plot with an X the height of the water for each time listed on the tide table. centers of the Xs with a smooth, curved line. Connect the Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 6 Astronomy Take Home Test

7 27. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below, which shows the locations of high and low tides on Earth at a particular time. 30. Compared to Pluto, Mercury moves more rapidly in its orbit because Mercury A. is larger B. is more dense C. is closer to the Sun D. has a more elliptical orbit Identify the force that causes ocean tides on Earth. 28. The table below shows times of ocean tides on March 4 for a city on the Atlantic coast of the United States. Ocean Tides on March 4 Tide high low high Time 12:00 a.m. 6:13 a.m. 12:26 p.m. Determine the time when the next low tide occurred. Include a.m. or p.m. in your answer, if needed. 31. In a Doppler red shift, the observed wavelengths of light from distant celestial objects appear closer to the red end of the spectrum than light from similar nearby celestial objects. The explanation for the red shift is that the universe is presently A. contracting, only B. expanding, only C. remaining constant in size 29. The diagrams below represent photographs of Venus at four different positions in its orbit, as taken from Earth. D. alternating between contracting and expanding At which point is Venus closest to Earth? A. A B. B C. C D. D Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 7 Astronomy Take Home Test

8 32. In the accompanying diagram, the spectral lines of hydrogen gas from three galaxies, A, B, and C, are compared to the spectral lines of hydrogen gas observed in a laboratory. 34. Which sequence correctly lists the relative sizes from smallest to largest? A. our solar system, universe, Milky Way Galaxy B. our solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, universe C. Milky Way Galaxy, our solar system, universe D. Milky Way Galaxy, universe, our solar system What is the best inference that can be made concerning the movement of galaxies A, B, and C? A. Galaxy A is moving away from Earth, but galaxies B and C are moving toward Earth. B. Galaxy B is moving away from Earth, but galaxies A and C are moving toward Earth. 35. Cosmic background radiation provides direct evidence for the origin of A. the universe B. our solar system C. Earth s ozone layer D. Earth s earliest atmosphere C. Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving toward Earth. D. Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving away from Earth. 36. A blue shift of the light from a star indicates that the star 33. Most scientists believe the Milky Way Galaxy is A. spherical in shape B. 4.6 billion years old C. composed of stars revolving around Earth A. will soon become a main sequence star B. will soon become a giant star C. is moving closer to Earth D. is moving away from Earth D. one of billions of galaxies in the universe Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 8 Astronomy Take Home Test

9 37. The accompanying graph represents the brightness and temperature of stars visible from Earth. 40. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below, which shows two possible sequences in the life cycle of stars, beginning with their formation from nebular gas clouds in space. Which location on the graph best represents a star with average brightness and temperature? A. A B. B C. C D. D According to the diagram, the life-cycle path followed by a star is determined by the star s initial A. mass and size B. temperature and origin 38. The Sun s position in space is best described as the approximate center of C. luminosity and color D. luminosity and structure A. a constellation B. the universe C. the Milky Way galaxy D. our solar system 41. Stars like Earth s Sun most likely formed directly from a A. nebula B. supernova C. red giant D. black dwarf 39. Which star color indicates the hottest star surface temperature? A. blue B. white C. yellow D. red 42. Compared to other groups of stars, the group that has relatively low luminosities and relatively low temperatures is the A. Red Dwarfs B. White Dwarfs C. Red Giants D. Blue Supergiants Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 9 Astronomy Take Home Test

10 43. Where has the process of nuclear fusion been occurring for over four billion years? A. in Earth s inner core B. on the surface of the Moon 46. Which graph best represents a portion of the heliocentric model of the solar system? [S=Sun, E=Earth, and M=Moon.] A. B. C. at lithospheric plate boundaries D. in the Sun s interior C. D. 44. By which process do stars convert mass into great amounts of energy? A. nuclear fusion B. heat transfer C. gravitational pull D. radioactive decay 47. The planets known as gas giants include Jupiter, Uranus, and A. Pluto B. Saturn C. Mars D. Earth 45. Which diagram most accurately represents the diameter of the Moon and the diameter of the Earth? A. B. 48. A black hole is a celestial feature believed to have a mass millions of times the mass of our Sun and a diameter less than the diameter of Earth. An object of such high mass and small volume would have A. a very low density C. D. B. a very high density C. an elliptical orbit with the Sun at one focal point D. an elliptical orbit with Earth at one focal point Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 10 Astronomy Take Home Test

11 49. The accompanying diagram represents two planets in our solar system drawn to scale, Jupiter and planet A. 53. Which object in our solar system reflects light and is a satellite that or bits around one planet? A. Earth B. Mercury C. the Sun D. the Moon Planet A most likely represents A. Earth B. Venus C. Saturn D. Uranus 50. Which celestial feature is largest in actual size? A. the Moon B. Jupiter C. the Sun D. the Milky Way 54. Which statement best describes the Big Bang Theory? A. Galaxies within the universe collided about 13.5 billion years ago forming the present objects in the universe. B. Existing objects in the universe move randomly with the potential of colliding in about 13.5 billion years. C. Galaxies throughout the universe moved toward each other after an event that occurred about 13.5 billion years ago. D. Most objects in the universe are moving away from each other as a result of an event that occurred about 13.5 billion years ago. 51. Terrestrial planets move more rapidly in their orbits than the Jovian planets because terrestrial planets are A. rotating on a tilted axis B. more dense C. more massive 55. Where would a new star most likely form? A. in a nebula B. in a supernova C. in a black hole D. in an asteroid field D. closer to the Sun 52. Which event takes the most time? A. one revolution of Earth around the Sun B. one revolution of Venus around the Sun C. one rotation of the Moon on its axis D. one rotation of Venus on its axis 56. Gravity is responsible for the A. orbits of the planets around the Sun. B. rotation of a planet on its axis. C. tilt of Earth s axis. D. phases of the Moon. Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 11 Astronomy Take Home Test

12 57. A galaxy is best described as a cluster of 61. What is the source of energy for the Sun? A. hundreds of stars. B. thousands of stars. C. millions of stars. D. billions of stars. A. hydrogen fusion B. internal combustion C. nuclear fission of metals D. burning of solar gases 58. When a metal is heated in a flame, the flame has a distinctive color. This information was eventually extended to the study of stars because A. the color spectra of stars indicate which elements are present. 62. B. a red shift in star color indicates stars are moving away. C. star color indicates absolute distance. D. it allows the observer to determine the size of stars. 59. Which planet was formed from the light gases of the outer solar nebula? A. Mars B. Mercury C. Venus D. Uranus Astronomers study the spectra of stars to determine their composition. According to these spectra, what are some of the elements that make up the sun s atmosphere? A. Mercury, sodium, and helium B. Calcium, helium, and hydrogen 60. Before the telescope was invented, people had the idea that the planets were closer to Earth than were the stars. Which piece of evidence contributed to this conclusion? C. Sodium, helium, and calcium D. Hydrogen, helium, and sodium A. The planets were the only objects with visible moons. B. The Milky Way was sometimes visible during the day. C. The stars were consistently brighter than the planets. D. The planets appeared to move much more quickly than the stars. 63. One way stars are different from moons is stars A. move around planets, and moons do not. B. are colder than moons. C. are rounder than moons. D. produce heat and light, and moons do not. Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 12 Astronomy Take Home Test

13 64. Which of the following drawings best represents the motion of a planet and its moon around the Sun? A. 65. Which of the following lists is in order from smallest to largest? A. universe solar system galaxy B. galaxy solar system universe C. solar system universe galaxy D. solar system galaxy universe B. C. 66. Explain two main causes of seasons on Earth. Look at the diagram below to help with your written explanation. D. Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 13 Astronomy Take Home Test

14 67. Earth, the sun, and the orbital path of the moon are shown. a) Draw two lines between the dots that show where Earth s shadow can cause a total lunar eclipse (an eclipse of the moon). 68. Phases of the Moon As the moon revolves around Earth, it appears to change shape. It changes from a full moon to a quarter moon to a new moon to a quarter moon again. b) Draw the moon at a position in its orbit where a total lunar eclipse can be seen from Earth. full moon last quarter new moon first quarter a) What is the source of the light of the moon? b) Make a picture of the sun, Earth, and the moon that SHOWS why a quarter moon looks the way it does. The lines should begin at the dots around the sun and end at the dots on the right side of Earth. Only one line should be drawn from a particular point. Not all of the dots need to have lines between them. 69. A. Using the picture of Earth and the Sun below, mark a spot on Earth where it is day with a D. Then mark a spot on Earth where it is night with an N. B. Louisiana goes through a period of day and night every 24 hours. Explain what causes day and night. Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 14 Astronomy Take Home Test

15 70. The diagram below shows different phases of the Moon. a) Describe the Moon s phases as seen from Earth when the Moon is at positions P and Q. b) Explain why the Moon has different phases. Answer on a separate sheet of paper page 15 Astronomy Take Home Test

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