Solar wind is the name for the radiation that is emitted from the sun - even though it is just energy, it is strong enough to 'push' objects

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1 I can explain and demonstrate that the Sun and stars are the sources of light in our universe and that the Moon, planets, their moons, comets and asteroids are seen by reflecting that light. Emit vs. Reflect Emit - Sun/star, Meteors (burn up in the atmosphere emitting light) Reflect - Planets, moons (natural satellites), comets (not burning, but solar wind is causing more material to evaporate off it, making its area of reflection even bigger), asteroids, nebulas (large remnants of gas from exploded or forming stars), artificial satellites Solar wind is the name for the radiation that is emitted from the sun - even though it is just energy, it is strong enough to 'push' objects 1

2 I can describe the movement of stars and groups of stars (known as constellations) as they move through the night sky. What is a constellation? - a group of stars that form a recognizable pattern in the sky - ex. Ursa Major - many constellation names come to us from Greek and Roman mythology, some are more modern (but not many) Why do constellations appear to move during the night? during the year? - as the earth revolves around the sun, the angle that we see the constellations changes; the night movement is caused by the earth rotating on its axis, making the stars appear to 'move' across the sky Be familiar with common constellations - look them up!! 2

3 I can recognise that the movement of stars through the sky is regular and predictable. I can explain how this movement is related to the rotation of the earth. The movement of stars is predictable - stars move across the sky from the east to the west, just like the sun does (because the same earth motion causes both) 3

4 I can explain why it is dangerous to directly view the sun and different methods to safely make observations of the sun. I can construct and use a device to measure the passage of the sun through the sky (ex. a sun dial or a shadow stick). Why is it dangerous to look directly at the sun? Because the radiation/energy from the sun is so intense, prolonged viewing of the sun will cause the nerves at the back of your eye to 'burn out' How can you view the sun safely? Using a pinhole camera #14 Welder's Glass Devices to measure the movement of the sun Sundial, shadowstick - both of these use the shadow cast by the sun on an object to measure the movement of the sun across the sky 4

5 I can describe seasonal changes of how long a day is and the height the sun reaches in the sky. Why does the length of a day change from summer to winter? The earth is on a 23 degree tilt as it moves on its revolution around the sun, different parts of the earth will be more directly pointed towards the sun & some parts less directly (in between the tropics which go from 23 N Lat to 23 S Lat, the amount of sunlight never changes) 5

6 6

7 I can recognise the phases of the moon as a regular occurrence and demonstrate these phases with models or illustrations. What causes the phases of the moon? As the moon travels around the earth, it reflects light from the sun off its surface (half of the moon is always in sunlight, just like half the earth is always in daytime). Depending on its position around the earth, we see different amounts of light reflected to us, we call these the phases of the moon New moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, last quarter, waning crescent 7

8 I can demonstrate and explain the unique characteristics of the eight other planets including their surface conditions, size and orbits. What is the order of the planets from close to far? Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars (asteroid belt) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (Pluto/ Charon) Terrestrial planets - Venus, Mercury, Mars, Earth Gas planets - Uranus, Neptune, Saturn, Jupiter Planets with rings - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus Neptune (these ones also have lots of moons) Know your relative sizes of planets (biggest, smallest, etc) 8

9 I can identify that other planets besides Earth have moons and I can compare and contrast these moons 9

10 I can identify the tools and technologies used to gather information about the objects in the solar system. Telescope - Refracting (Lippershey), Reflecting (Newton), Catadioptric Other technologies - space probes (Voyager 1&2), ISS, planetary probes (Mars Rover), Radio Telescopes, Manned Space Exploration (Apollo & Russian moon missions), Satellites (including deep space) 10

11 I can explain that the solar system is only a small part of the observed universe. Planet, Solar System (a series of planets/ satellites around a star), Galaxy (hundreds of thousands/millions of solar systems), Universe (everything) 11

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