BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 1: October 2014 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 950

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1 BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 9 Test 1: October 2014 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 950 Examination date: 3 October 2013 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 20:00 20:50 Instructor: S. D Agostino Answer all questions on the scantron sheet provided. No aids permitted except for a non-programmable calculator. Each question is worth 1 mark. Total number of marks: One billion is (a) 10 6 (b) 10 9 (c) (d) The result of is equal to (a) 10 3 (b) (c) 2.5 (d) The speed of light is about 300,000 km/s. A light year is the distance that light travels in a year. A light year is about (a) 300 thousand km (b) 10 million km (c) 300 million km (d) 10 trillion km 4. It takes light emitted by the Sun about 760 s to reach Mars. The speed of light is about 300,000 km/s. The distance from the Sun to Mars is about (a) 225 thousand km (b) 225 million km (c) 225 billion km (d) 225 trillion km

2 ASTR 1P01 October 2014 Page 2 of 9 5. Place the following planets in order of distance from the Sun, from closer to farther: (a) Venus, Mars, Saturn, Neptune (b) Mars, Venus, Saturn, Neptune (c) Saturn, Venus, Mars, Neptune (d) Venus, Mars, Neptune, Saturn 6. Place the following planets in order of mass, from largest to smallest: (a) Jupiter, Uranus, Venus, Mercury (b) Jupiter, Uranus, Mercury, Venus (c) Uranus, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury (d) Uranus, Jupiter, Mercury, Venus 7. Place the following planets in order of diameter, from largest to smallest: (a) Jupiter, Uranus, Venus, Mercury (b) Jupiter, Uranus, Mercury, Venus (c) Uranus, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury (d) Uranus, Jupiter, Mercury, Venus 8. Evidence that the Earth s interior is hotter than the surface is the existence of (a) tropical climates near the equator. (b) geysers. (c) polar ice caps. (d) the water cycle. 9. Landscape features similar to those caused by atmospheric erosion on Earth are also found on the surfaces of (a) Venus and Mars. (b) Saturn and Venus. (c) Mercury and Jupiter. (d) Jupiter and Mars.

3 ASTR 1P01 October 2014 Page 3 of The Moon s atmosphere (a) is about one-tenth the density of Earth s atmosphere. (b) consists primarily of hydrogen and helium. (c) is smaller but denser than Earth s atmosphere. (d) is virtually nonexistent. 11. Dense clouds of sulfuric acid can be found in the atmosphere of (a) Jupiter. (b) Saturn. (c) Uranus. (d) Venus. 12. The positions of planets compared to the positions of distant stars (a) change regularly because Earth rotates on its axis. (b) are fixed because Earth rotates on its axis. (c) change regularly because planets orbit the Sun. (d) are fixed because planets orbit the Sun. 13. Life was discovered on the Moon in (a) (b) (c) (d) [No life has ever been discovered on the Moon.] 14. The Sun is (a) significantly larger than average stars. (b) significantly smaller than average stars. (c) an average-sized star. (d) not a star. 15. The Kuiper belt is (a) a region of the outer solar system that contains a vast number of asteroids and other debris. (b) the name of the three stars along the waist of the constellation Orion. (c) the name of the region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter that contains many asteriods and other debris. (d) the former name of the ring of stars that we now call the zodiac.

4 ASTR 1P01 October 2014 Page 4 of The Earth s orbit around the Sun is (a) elliptical but more eccentric than the orbit of Halley s comet. (b) elliptical but with an eccentricity between that of Pluto s orbit and the orbit of Halley s comet. (c) elliptical and nearly circular. (d) parabolic and nearly circular. 17. Comets (a) populate the periphery of the solar system. (b) are emitted by the Sun periodically during solar storms. (c) are chunks that break off the colder planets, much like icebergs are formed from glaciers. (d) are formed when asteroids explode. 18. Ancient people named constellations (a) for religious ceremonies. (b) to stake claims on various parts of the heavens in the names of certain mythological gods and goddesses. (c) to honour important writers, artists, and politicians. (d) as aids in navigation and for keeping track of seasons. 19. The Earth is farthest from the Sun when it is (a) spring in Canada. (b) summer in Canada. (c) fall in Canada. (d) winter in Canada. 20. If you are standing at the Earth s equator at the spring equinox, then the is directly overhead. (a) nadir (b) north celestial pole (c) ecliptic (d) celestial equator

5 ASTR 1P01 October 2014 Page 5 of If the Earth actually rotated in the opposite sense, then (a) the Sun would rise in the west and set in the east. (b) the seasons would occur in the opposite order. (c) winter in the northern hemisphere would occur in July. (d) [None of the others.] 22. You walk in the same direction for many days. You notice that each evening the North Star appears to be closer to the horizon than the previous evening. You are walking approximately (a) north. (b) south. (c) east. (d) west. 23. The ecliptic is so named because (a) it is shaped somewhat like a paper clip. (b) the orbit is clipped from the usual elliptical shape. (c) only when the new moon or full moon crosses the ecliptic can an eclipse occur. (d) only when the sun crosses the ecliptic can an eclipse occur. 24. The Earth travels around the Sun in approximately (a) one day. (b) one month. (c) one year. (d) thirty million years. 25. The change in visible constellations in each season is due to (a) the motion of the Earth around the Sun. (b) the rotation of the Earth on its axis. (c) changes in atmospheric conditions in each season. (d) the motion of the solar system as it circles the galaxy. 26. In 26,000 years, the visible star closest to the north celestial pole will be (a) Polaris. (b) Thuban. (c) Ursa Major. (d) Vega.

6 ASTR 1P01 October 2014 Page 6 of When someone on Earth sees a lunar eclipse, an observer on the Moon would see (a) a solar eclipse. (b) a solar eclipse, but only at the right location on the Moon. (c) a lunar eclipse. (d) a lunar eclipse, but only at the right location on the Moon. 28. A total lunar eclipse is visible (a) from anywhere on the night side of Earth. (b) only at certain locations on the night side of Earth. (c) from anywhere on either side of Earth. (d) only at certain locations on either side of Earth. 29. A total solar eclipse is visible (a) from anywhere on the day side of Earth. (b) only at certain locations on the day side of Earth. (c) from anywhere on either side of Earth. (d) only at certain locations on either side of Earth. 30. An annular solar eclipse occurs (a) annually. (b) when the Moon is far enough away from the Earth that none of the Moon s umbra touches the Earth. (c) when the Moon s umbra shrinks because the Earth-Moon system is unusually far from the Sun. (d) when the Moon is close enough to the Earth that none of the Moon s umbra touches the Earth. 31. The Moon s orbit is tipped relative to the Earth s orbit at an angle of about (a) 0.5 degrees. (b) 5 degrees. (c) 23.5 degrees. (d) 66.5 degrees. 32. Solar eclipses occur only when the Moon s phase is (a) new. (b) waxing crescent. (c) half moon. (d) full.

7 ASTR 1P01 October 2014 Page 7 of Lunar eclipses occur only when the Moon s phase is (a) new. (c) half moon. (d) full. 34. The dates of solar eclipses get shifted from one year to the next because of (a) precession of the Earth s rotational axis. (b) precession of the equinoxes. (c) precession of the solstices. (d) precession of the Moon s orbit. 35. Eclipses are possible when the line of nodes (a) points at the Moon. (b) points at the Earth. (c) points at the Sun. (d) is perpendicular to the ecliptic. 36. If the Moon has just begun a waxing crescent phase, then over the next few days the angle between the Sun and the Moon will (a) increase. (b) decrease. (c) remain constant. (d) [It depends on your latitude.] 37. If the Moon has just begun a waning crescent phase, then over the next few days the angle between the Sun and the Moon will (a) increase. (b) decrease. (c) remain constant. (d) [It depends on your latitude.] 38. If the Moon rose at 8 pm yesterday, then today the Moon will rise at about (a) 7:10 pm. (b) 7:56 pm. (c) 8:04 pm. (d) 8:50 pm.

8 ASTR 1P01 October 2014 Page 8 of If the Moon rises a few hours before sunset, then its phase is (a) waxing crescent. (c) waxing gibbous. (d) waning gibbous. 40. If the Moon rises a few hours before sunrise, then its phase is (a) waxing crescent. (c) waxing gibbous. (d) waning gibbous. 41. If the Moon sets a few hours before sunset, then its phase is (a) waxing crescent. (c) waxing gibbous. (d) waning gibbous. 42. If the Moon sets a few hours before sunrise, then its phase is (a) waxing crescent. (c) waxing gibbous. (d) waning gibbous. 43. On the first day of summer at 40 degrees south latitude, the Sun rises (a) north of east. (b) directly east. (c) south of east. 44. On the first day of summer at 40 degrees north latitude, the Sun rises (a) north of east. (b) directly east. (c) south of east.

9 ASTR 1P01 October 2014 Page 9 of On the first day of spring at 40 degrees south latitude, the Sun rises (a) north of east. (b) directly east. (c) south of east. 46. On the first day of fall at 40 degrees south latitude, the Sun rises (a) north of east. (b) directly east. (c) south of east. 47. The amount of time after sunrise and before sunset is less than 12 hours on days (a) after the vernal equinox until before the autumnal equinox. (b) after the summer solstice until before the winter solstice. (c) after the autumnal equinox until before the vernal equinox. (d) after the winter solstice until before the summer solstice. 48. Suppose that the tilt of the Earth s rotation axis were to suddenly change from 23.5 degrees to 0 degrees. Then the following change would occur: (a) The north pole would be warm and the equator would be cold. (b) Summer and winter would last six months each, and there would be no spring or fall. (c) The seasons would be unchanged, remaining the same as they are now. (d) All times of the year would have about the same climate (i.e., there would be no seasons). 49. The Sun is directly overhead in St. Catharines (which has latitude about 45 degrees north) (a) for a few weeks during the summer. (b) only at the summer solstice. (c) only at the equinoxes. (d) never. 50. The Milky Way galaxy belongs to the Local Group of galaxies, which in turn belongs to the (a) Andromeda supercluster. (b) Scorpio supercluster. (c) U2 supergroup. (d) Virgo supercluster.

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