Key Concepts Solar System, Movements, Shadows Recall that Earth is one of many planets in the solar system that orbit the Sun.

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1 Key Concepts Solar System, Movements, Shadows Recall that Earth is one of many planets in the solar system that orbit the Sun. It is essential for students to know that Earth is a planet that orbits around the Sun. There are also other planets that also orbit the Sun; some are closer to the Sun than Earth and others are farther away. Some are small, rocky planets like Earth (Mercury, Venus, Mars); some are large planets with a surface made of gas (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus) unlike Earth. o Planets: Planets are bodies, natural satellites, that orbit the Sun, a star. o Earth: Earth is the third planet from the Sun in the solar system o Sun: The Sun is the name for the central star in our solar system. The sequence of the named planets from the Sun outward is also part of this standard.

2 4-3.2 Compare the properties (including the type of surface and atmosphere) and the location of Earth to the Sun, which is a star, and the Moon. Earth Sun large ball of glowing gases that is extremely hot. Moon Explain how the Sun affects Earth. It is essential for students to know that the Sun as a star produces heat and light deep down inside of it. energy and use it to make food energy. from some organisms that died long ago. tural gas) that formed

3 4-3.4 Explain how the tilt of Earth s axis and the revolution around the Sun results in the seasons of the year. It is essential for students to know that Earth has distinct seasons which result from the tilt of its axis and its revolution around the Sun. t, the number of daylight hours changes throughout the year. oward the Sun, the season is summer; when the tilt is away from the Sun, the season is winter. Axis planet s center. aight line called an axis that runs through the Revolution Seasons h s axis. o Summer occurs when part of Earth is tilted most toward the Sun o Autumn and spring occur when neither part of Earth is pointed directly toward or away from the Sun. o Winter occurs when part of Earth is tilted away from the Sun. o The sequence of the seasons during the year is summer, autumn/fall, winter, and then spring.

4 4-3.5 Explain how the rotation of Earth results in day and night. It is essential for students to know that: rotates (spins) on its axis and completes one rotation in 24 hours. west. experiences day; the side of Earth not facing the Sun experiences night Illustrate the phases of the Moon and the Moon s effect on ocean tides. It is essential for students to know that the Moon reflects light from the Sun and just like Earth, half of the Moon is always lit by the Sun. shape., the Moon, and Earth, the Moon appears to change phases. There are four main phases: o New moon the entire half/side of the Moon facing Earth is dark. o Quarter moon half of the side of the Moon facing Earth is lighted and the other half is dark; the Moon appears as a half circle; there are two quarter moon phases in the cycle. NOTE TO PARENT: Students may see the name also as Half-moon. o Full moon the entire half/side of the Moon facing Earth is lighted; the Moon appears as a full circle. o Crescent moon a small section (less than a quarter moon) of the half/side of the Moon facing Earth is lighted. 29½ days.

5 4-3.7 Interpret the change in the length of shadows during the day in relation to the position of the Sun in the sky. It is essential for students to know that objects on Earth cast shadows that help show Earth s rotation. The angle of the Sun, low in the sky to higher in the sky, changes the length of the shadow cast behind an object. e Sun s appears higher in the sky, and the shadows get shorter. shadows get longer again Recognize the purpose of telescopes. It is essential for students to know that telescopes are tools that aid in the study of objects in outer space. telescope can gather more light than the eye, so it makes faint, faraway objects seem brighter and closer.

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