Introduction The Role of Astronomy p. 3 Astronomical Objects of Research p. 4 The Scale of the Universe p. 7 Spherical Astronomy Spherical

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1 Introduction The Role of Astronomy p. 3 Astronomical Objects of Research p. 4 The Scale of the Universe p. 7 Spherical Astronomy Spherical Trigonometry p. 9 The Earth p. 12 The Celestial Sphere p. 14 The Horizontal System p. 14 The Equatorial System p. 15 Rising and Setting Times p. 18 The Ecliptic System p. 18 The Galactic Coordinates p. 19 Perturbations of Coordinates p. 19 Positional Astronomy p. 23 Constellations p. 27 Star Catalogues and Maps p. 28 Sidereal and Solar Time p. 30 Astronomical Time Systems p. 32 Calendars p. 35 Examples p. 39 Exercises p. 42 Observations and Instruments Observing Through the Atmosphere p. 45 Optical Telescopes p. 47 Detectors and Instruments p. 62 Radio Telescopes p. 67 Other Wavelength Regions p. 74 Other Forms of Energy p. 77 Examples p. 79 Exercises p. 80 Photometric Concepts and Magnitudes Intensity, Flux Density and Luminosity p. 81 Apparent Magnitudes p. 83 Magnitude Systems p. 84 Absolute Magnitudes p. 86 Extinction and Optical Thickness p. 86 Examples p. 89 Exercises p. 91 Radiation Mechanisms Radiation of Atoms and Molecules p. 93

2 The Hydrogen Atom p. 95 Line Profiles p. 97 Quantum Numbers, Selection Rules, Population Numbers p. 98 Molecular Spectra p. 100 Continuous Spectra p. 100 Blackbody Radiation p. 101 Temperatures p. 103 Other Radiation Mechanisms p. 105 Radiative Transfer p. 106 Examples p. 107 Exercises p. 109 Celestial Mechanics Equations of Motion p. 111 Solution of the Equation of Motion p. 112 Equation of the Orbit and Kepler's First Law p. 114 Orbital Elements p. 114 Kepler's Second and Third Law p. 116 Systems of Several Bodies p. 118 Orbit Determination p. 119 Position in the Orbit p. 119 Escape Velocity p. 121 Virial Theorem p. 122 The Jeans Limit p. 123 Examples p. 124 Exercises p. 127 The Solar System Planetary Configurations p. 130 Orbit of the Earth p. 131 The Orbit of the Moon p. 132 Eclipses and Occultations p. 135 The Structure and Surfaces of Planets p. 137 Atmospheres and Magnetospheres p. 140 Albedos p. 145 Photometry, Polarimetry and Spectroscopy p. 147 Thermal Radiation of the Planets p. 151 Mercury p. 151 Venus p. 154 The Earth and the Moon p. 157 Mars p. 164 Asteroids p. 168 Jupiter p. 172

3 Saturn p. 177 Uranus, Neptune and Pluto p. 180 Minor Bodies of the Solar System p. 186 Origin of the Solar System p. 192 Other Solar Systems p. 196 Examples p. 196 Exercises p. 200 Stellar Spectra Measuring Spectra p. 201 The Harvard Spectral Classification p. 203 The Yerkes Spectral Classification p. 205 Peculiar Spectra p. 207 The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram p. 208 Model Atmospheres p. 210 What Do the Observations Tell Us? p. 210 Exercise p. 212 Binary Stars and Stellar Masses Visual Binaries p. 214 Astrometric Binary Stars p. 214 Spectroscopic Binaries p. 214 Photometric Binary Stars p. 216 Examples p. 218 Exercises p. 219 Stellar Structure Internal Equilibrium Conditions p. 221 Physical State of the Gas p. 224 Stellar Energy Sources p. 225 Stellar Models p. 229 Examples p. 232 Exercises p. 234 Stellar Evolution Evolutionary Time Scales p. 235 The Contraction of Stars Towards the Main Sequence p. 236 The Main Sequence Phase p. 238 The Giant Phase p. 240 The Final Stages of Evolution p. 242 The Evolution of Close Binary Stars p. 244 Comparison with Observations p. 246 The Origin of the Elements p. 247 Example p. 250 Exercises p. 250

4 The Sun Internal Structure p. 251 The Atmosphere p. 253 Solar Activity p. 257 Example p. 263 Exercises p. 263 Variable Stars Classification p. 266 Pulsating Variables p. 267 Eruptive Variables p. 269 Examples p. 275 Exercises p. 276 Compact Stars White Dwarfs p. 277 Neutron Stars p. 278 Black Holes p. 283 Examples p. 286 Exercises p. 287 The Interstellar Medium Interstellar Dust p. 289 Interstellar Gas p. 300 Interstellar Molecules p. 308 The Formation of Protostars p. 311 Planetary Nebulae p. 313 Supernova Remnants p. 314 The Hot Corona of the Milky Way p. 317 Cosmic Rays and the Interstellar Magnetic Field p. 317 Examples p. 319 Exercises p. 320 Star Clusters and Associations Associations p. 321 Open Star Clusters p. 321 Globular Star Clusters p. 325 Example p. 326 Exercises p. 327 The Milky Way Methods of Distance Measurement p. 331 Stellar Statistics p. 333 The Rotation of the Milky Way p. 337 The Structure and Evolution of the Milky Way p. 343 Examples p. 344

5 Exercises p. 345 Galaxies The Classification of Galaxies p. 347 Luminosities and Masses p. 352 Galactic Structures p. 355 Dynamics of Galaxies p. 359 Stellar Ages and Element Abundances in Galaxies p. 361 Systems of Galaxies p. 361 Active Galaxies and Quasars p. 364 The Origin and Evolution of Galaxies p. 369 Exercises p. 369 Cosmology Cosmological Observations p. 371 The Cosmological Principle p. 376 Homogeneous and Isotropic Universes p. 378 The Friedmann Models p. 379 Cosmological Tests p. 381 History of the Universe p. 383 The Formation of Structure p. 384 The Future of the Universe p. 385 Examples p. 388 Exercises p. 389 Appendices p. 391 Mathematics p. 392 Geometry p. 392 Conic Sections p. 392 Taylor Series p. 394 Vector Calculus p. 394 Matrices p. 396 Multiple Integrals p. 398 Numerical Solution of an Equation p. 399 Theory of Relativity p. 401 Basic Concepts p. 401 Lorentz Transformation. Minkowski Space p. 402 General Relativity p. 403 Tests of General Relativity p. 403 Tables p. 405 Answers to Exercises p. 425 Further Reading p. 429 Photograph Credits p. 433 Name and Subject Index p. 435

6 Colour Supplement p. 449 Table of Contents provided by Blackwell's Book Services and R.R. Bowker. Used with permission.

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