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1 Directions: For numbers 1-30 please choose the letter that best fits the description. 1. The main force responsible for the formation of the universe is: a. Gravity b. Frictional force c. Magnetic force d. Electrical force 2. The approximate age of the universe is a. 1 Billion years old and 14 days b. 14 Billion years old c. 140 Billion years old d.13.7 Billion years old 3. The first objects to form in the solar system were a. Atoms b. Stars c. Comets d. Planets 4. Which of the following correctly lists the structures in space form smallest to largest? a. Star, galaxy, universe, solar system b. Star, solar system, galaxy, universe c. Star, solar system, universe, galaxy d. Star, universe, solar system, galaxy 5. A student uses the following characteristics to describe a group of objects in space. 200 billion stars 30 million light years from Earth Elliptical in shape Which of the following is the student most likely describing? a. A galaxy b. The universe c. A constellation d. The solar system 6. What are the three types of galaxies? a. spiral, black hole, irregular b. barred, nebula, elliptical c. irregular, neutron, pulsar d. spiral, elliptical, irregular 1

2 7. Our galaxy, The Milky Way, has a pinwheel shape, what type of galaxy is it? a. elliptical b. fun c. irregular d. spiral 8. Which of the following is the best estimate of the number of galaxies in the universe? a. hundreds b. thousands c. millions d. billions 9. Which of the following is the best estimate of the number of stars in a typical galaxy? a. hundreds b. thousands c. millions d. billions 10. What is electromagnetic radiation? a. Energy that travels through space. b. Energy that is caused by the disturbance between a medium. c. Energy that stores in chemical bonds. 11. A stars color also reveals its a. Brightness b. Size c. Surface Temperature d. Style 12. The radiation of the electromagnetic spectrum is organized by its a. Wavelength b. Energy c. Frequency d. All of the above 13. Light travels at a speed of a. 300,000 km/second b. 365 km/second c. 100,000 meters/second d. 9.5 trillion km/hour 2

3 14. According to astronomers, a system of paired stars is called a. Nebula b. Binaries c. Nova s d. Galaxies 15. In a pair of stars, when one star blocks light from the other star, it is known as a a. Globular cluster b. Quasar c. Eclipsing binary d. Binary star 16. After the contracting nebula cloud, a beginning star is called a a. Protostar b. Giant star c. Quasar d. White dwarf 17. A star s lifetime depends on its a. Color b. Mass c. Temperature d. Chemical make up 18. An astronomer can determine the temperature of a star by looking at its a. Size b. Color c. Brightness d. Parallax 19. A typical star is mostly made of this element a. Nitrogen b. Carbon c. Helium d. Hydrogen 20. Hydrogen atoms are fused into helium atoms during the process of a. Quasars b. Nuclear fusion c. Supernovas d. Pulsars 21. A cloud of gas and dust in space is called a a. White dwarf b. Pulsar c. Nebula d. Protostar 3

4 22. A light-year measures a. The time it takes light to travel b. The distance between stars c. The speed of light d. The wavelength of visible light 23. Black holes, supernovas, and neutron stars are possible result of the death of a. Protostars b. White dwarfs c. Medium sized stars d. Supermassive stars 24. Light can be broken up into its characteristic colors by a(n) a. Optical telescope b. Radio telescope c. Parallax d. Spectroscope 25. The following term describes the reason that galaxies are moving away from each other. a. Black hole b. Dark matter c. Dark energy d. Planetary Nebula 4

5 The diagram is a plot of the absolute magnitude and temperature for a selected sample of stars. The names of several of the stars are indicated. Use the diagram to answer questions Write the letter of each answer in the space provided. (2 points each) (26.) To which group do most of the stars belong? a. Giants c. Supergiants b. Main sequence d. White dwarfs (27.) Compared to our sun, Rigel is a. cooler and dimmer c. hotter and dimmer b. cooler and brighter d. hotter and brighter (28.) Compared to our sun, Betelgeuse is a. cooler and dimmer c. hotter and dimmer b. cooler and brighter d. hotter and brighter (29.) Which star and its group are INCORRECT? a. Sirius main sequence c. Polaris supergiant b. Aldebaran giant d. Rigel white dwarf (30.) Which star is most likely to be blue/white in color? a. Betelgeuse c. Sun b. Sirius A d. Alpha Centauri B 5

6 Choose 4 out of 5 of the short response (A E) questions for credit. You must use complete sentences and answer all parts of the question for full credit. A. Identify the theory that describes the formation of the universe, and describe one piece of evidence that supports this theory. (10 points) B. List the Electromagnetic Spectrum radiant energy forms in the correct order from lowest to highest energy (10 points) C. Name the five characteristics that scientist use to classify stars. (10 points) D. List the complete life cycle progression of either a medium star, massive star or supermassive star. Be sure to label which size you are referring to for credit! (10 points) 6

7 E. Please write the following numbers either into scientific notation or as a real number. (10 2 points each) a. 187, 500, 000 = b. 1.5 x 10-4 = c = d. 6,210,000 = d. 7.3 x 10 5 = 7

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