Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics

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1 Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics

2 Origin of the Universe Big Bang Theory about bya all matter in the universe existed in a hot dense state about the size of an atom (tiny). That matter sort of exploded and began expanding a great speeds. The expansion speed slowed down (is still expanding) and temperatures cooled and stars and galaxies were formed.

3 Evidence of Big Bang In 1929 astronomer Edwin Hubble found redshifts evidence galaxies are moving away from each other. In 1964 radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered radiation (cosmic background radiation) left over from the big bang. (Detected this in infrared and radio telescopes so we can hear it buzzing through radiowaves).

4 Spectral Analysis We can t always get a sample of a piece of the Universe. So we depend on light!

5 Spectral Analysis Light is a form of Electromagnetic Radiation. Electromagnetic radiation = energy that travels in waves (radiowaves, x-rays, etc) Length of the waves determine the characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation. The types of electromagnetic radiation can be arranged in a continuum called the Electromagnetic Spectrum (longest wavelengths at one end and shortest wavelengths at the other end)

6 Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible white light is actually made up of light of various colors, each with a different wavelength. (colors seen in rainbow or when light passes through a triangular prism.) Red light has the longest wavelength, violet has the shortest wavelength. Electromagnetic waves emitted by an object provide information about elements within it or its motion. (use this to learn about distant stars)

7 The intensity of the electrons bouncing around in their levels makes those wavelengths, and therefore shows us colors (bigger jump = longer wavelength and shows as red light).

8 Spectroscope Spectroscope tool astronomers use to separate starlight into its colors (uses a prism to split light, gathered by a telescope, into a spectrum) Break light into 3 different types of spectra: Continuous Spectrum Emission Spectrum Absorption Spectrum

9 Types of Visible Spectra Continuous Spectrum unbroken band of colors, which shows that its source is emitting light of all visible wavelengths. Emitted by: Glowing solids, such as the hot filament of an electric light Glowing liquids, such as molten iron The hot, compressed gases inside stars

10 Types of Visible Spectra Emission Spectrum series of unevenly spaced lines of different colors and brightnesses. The bright lines show the source is emitting light of only certain wavelengths. Emitted by: Glowing thin gases (every element has its own color signature)

11 Types of Visible Spectra Absorption Spectrum a continuous spectrum crossed by dark lines. Dark lines form when light from a glowing object passes through a cooler gas, which absorbs some of the wavelengths. Elements absorb the same wavelengths that they would emit if they were in the form of glowing gases. A stars absorption spectrum indicates the composition of the star s outer layer.

12 Spectral Analysis Each element has a unique spectral signature: Determined by arrangement of electrons. Lines of emission or absorption arise from re-arrangement of electrons into different energy levels. Hydrogen

13 (Developed by Shirley Burris, Nova Scotia) Spread a rainbow of color across a piano keyboard Then, play an element Hydrogen

14 More Musical Elements Now play another element Helium And Another Carbon

15 Getting a Handle on Water Oxygen Hydrogen All together now... Water

16 Doppler Effect Evidence of a star s motion relative to Earth. If lines on the spectrum are shifted toward the red side then object is moving away = Red Shift If lines on the spectrum are shifted toward the blue side then the object is moving toward you = Blue Shift

17 Spectral Analysis Explains what is going on in Space! Astronomers use spectral analysis to identify what is going on in space. How fast stars are moving away from us. What life stage a star is in. The chemical makeup of a star or a planet.

18 Now that we can tell if a star is moving toward or away from us lets learn more about stars measuring their brightness, their distances, their life cycles

19 If we imagined that the distance from the Earth to the Sun was 1 Centimeter.. Sun Earth 1 Centimeter

20 How far away do you think the next nearest star would be???? 2.5 Kilometers 1.5 miles

21 In real distance, the next closest star would be 300,000 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun, or Earth Sun Proxima Centauri 39 Trillion miles (that s 4.24 Light Years!)

22 What does 39 trillion miles look like???? Objects in Space are so far apart that units of measurement used on Earth are not useful.

23 The distance to the next nearest big galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy, is 21,000,000,000,000,000,000 km. This is a number so large that it becomes hard to write and hard to interpret. So astronomers use other units of distance. Earth 21,000,000,000, 000,000,000 kms Andromeda Spiral Galaxy

24 The basic unit of measurement of distance inside of our solar system is the

25 An Astronomic Unit (1 A.U.) is equal to the distance from the Sun to the Earth, which is about 93 million miles. Sun 93 million miles Earth

26 Planets inside Earth s orbit have distances from the Sun of less than 1 AU. (Mercury is.4 AU s from the Sun.) Sun.4 AU s Mercury

27 Planets outside the orbit of the Earth have distances from the Sun of greater than 1 AU. (Mars is 1.5 AU s and Pluto is 39 AU s from the Sun.)

28 But, Astronomic Units are too small for measuring distances outside of our own Solar System.

29 The closest star to the Sun, Proxima Centauri, would be more than 300,000 AU s from our star, and that s the closest!

30 Astronomers use to measure distances outside our Solar System.

31 A Light-Year is a unit of Distance. A Light Year is equal to the distance that light can travel in one Earth year. A Light Year is equal to 5.3 trillion miles. Use of Light Years makes the units used in measuring distances in Space smaller, but small is pushing it!

32 The Speed of Light is 186,000 miles per second. Peeoooummmmmmm!!! That is almost 8 times around the Earth in 1 second!

33 The Crab supernova remnant is about 4,000 light-years away.

34 The Andromeda Galaxy (next closest galaxy) is 2.3 million light-years away.

35 Our Milky Way Galaxy is about 150,000 light-years across.

36 The Virgo Galaxy Cluster is 45 million light- years away.

37 The most distant Supernova is 10 billion light-years away.

38 The most distant Galaxy Cluster is 12 billion Light-years away.

39 The most distant Galaxy is 13 billion light- years away.

40 The background radiation from the big-bang is 14 billion lightyears away.

41 Types of Stars and Their Organization in Space

42 How are Stars and Planets different? Stars emit light, due to nuclear fusion in their center, while planets only reflect light.

43 Binary Systems Solar systems contain at least one star, and can contain two or more 2 1 3

44 Six Star Binary System

45 Star Cluster contain from tens and hundreds to millions of stars. Pleiades Seven- Sisters

46 Open Cluster-Galactic center behind

47 Large Globular cluster-millions of stars

48 Center of Globular cluster-note star density

49 Spiral Galaxies contain billions of stars. Globular Clusters of old Stars Open Clusters of new Stars

50 Elliptical Galaxy- Many billions All old Globular Clusters

51

52 A Star is a self-luminous (it is giving off light as opposed to reflecting it) sphere of gas that is undergoing Nuclear Fusion in its center.

53 Not all stars are the same. In fact, they vary in many ways.

54 Stars Vary in Brightness. Magnitude -How bright an object in Space is, or appears to be. (The brighter the star the lower the magnitude). Magnitude sequence for stars starting with the brightest is -1, then as stars get dimmer their number/magnitude will increase 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 magnitude,... etc. Luminosity - the true brightness of an Individual unit of a star. The Luminosity of a Star depends on a star s temperature and size/radius. (how much energy it puts out). A hotter star is more luminous than a cooler one of the same radius. A bigger star is more luminous than a smaller one of the same temperature. Which star is brighter? (hint: look at temperature) A. Temp is 5,000 B. Temp is 3,000

55 Absolute Magnitude- is a measurement of the true brightness of stars as if all stars were viewed from the same distance. The Absolute Magnitude of a star depends on its Volume and Luminosity.

56 Apparent Magnitude- Apparent Magnitude is a how bright a star appears to be from Earth. The Apparent Magnitude of a star is affected by Absolute Magnitude (Volume x Luminosity) and Distance from Observer. Betelgeuse, one of the brightest stars in the Universe, does not appear to be as bright as our Sun, because of its distance from us compared to the Sun s distance.

57 The Pink star appears to be the brightest to us from here on Earth, and the Yellow star appears to be the 2 nd brightest. But the Pink and Yellow stars are actually less bright than the other stars. (they only appeared brighter because they are closer to us on Earth).

58 Stars also vary in their: Mass density Volume interior and surface temperature rate of fuel-consumption Color Main Sequence life-span what they do when they die and what they become after they die.

59 Stellar Mass When comparing the masses of different stars, we will use the mass of our star, the Sun, as the standard. A star that is identical to ours would be a star of 1 Solar Mass.

60 Stars vary in mass from a fraction of 1 solar mass, up to 50 times the mass of our Sun, or 50 Solar Masses. Red Dwarf star 50 solar mass star The Sun

61 Stars vary even more in their volume/density

62 Number represents xsun volume

63

64

65

66 Earth White Dwarf

67

68 Star Density

69 Stars vary in their Main Sequence and Giant life-span So bigger stars tend to burn out faster/have a shorter life span than smaller stars.

70 Stars vary in what they become when they are no longer fusing Hydrogen. Blue Supergiant

71 Red Supergiant Betelgeuse Orion Nebula Orion s Belt Rigel

72 Supernova explosion Stars vary in how they die

73 Supernova

74 Supernova

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80 Native American Petroglyph recording Supernova explosion

81 Planetary Nebula

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91 White Dwarf in Binary System Stars vary in what they become when they die (Run out of material that can be fused to create outward pressure).

92 White Dwarfs

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96 White Dwarf in Binary System

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98 White Dwarfs in Globular Cluster

99 Neutron Stars

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101 Neutron Star

102 Pulsars

103 Almost like a very dim lighthouse, pulses light.

104

105 Pulsar Cone

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108 Black Holes

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116 Temperature Life-Span Volume Density A star s mass determines every other characteristic of the star that we mentioned earlier. Rate of Fuel consumption How it dies Luminosity

117 Life Cycles of Stars

118 The universe started with the Big Bang! Everything continued to expand, clouds of dust started to gravitate towards each other forming stars.

119 A star s life begins in a Nebula! A cloud of gas and dust, consisting mostly of Hydrogen

120 A star s life begins Gas and dust begin to clump together to form a Protostar (a baby star).

121 A star s life begins The smaller a star is the longer it will live. Larger stars have more fuel, but they have to burn (fuse) it faster in order to maintain equilibrium. Because fusion occurs at a faster rate in massive stars, large stars use all their fuel in a shorter length of time. So A smaller star has less fuel, but its rate of fusion is not as fast. Therefore, smaller stars live longer than larger stars because their rate of fuel consumption is not as rapid.

122 A star s life begins The star s main goal in life is to achieve stability, or equilibrium, where pressure from fusion within the core is equal to the force of gravity pushing down on it (this keeps the star alive ). G G G E G G G

123 A star s life begins Continuous steps occur inside the core of a main sequence star, until there is no more Hydrogen. Step 1 - Nuclear fusion (hydrogen turning to helium). Gravity = gas pressure (equilibrium) Step 2 - Out of fuel Step 3 - Fusion stops, temperature drops Step 4 - Core contracts (gravity pulling atoms in) Step 5 - Increased temperature (more atoms, more collisions) and density in the core reinitiates nuclear fusion, equilibrium is achieved, and the cycle begins again at Step 1. This entire process (repeating steps 1 5) continues until there is no more Hydrogen left in the star. Then the star will start fusing other elements until it has burnt up all the elements.

124 Life Cycle of a Star like our Sun Nebula Protostar Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf

125 Life Cycle of a Star like our Sun Our sun is at the Main Sequence stage in its life. When the hydrogen in the core has been used up, the core shrinks and hydrogen fusion begins in the outer layers, which then expands the entire star, turning it into a Red Giant. The sun begins to die when helium is fusing into other elements, then the gases at the sun s surface start to blow away in bursts, called a Planetary Nebula (or halo of gases, Resulting in a hot carbon-oxygen core called a White Dwarf.

126 Life Cycle of a Star With Greater Mass Than Our Sun Nebula Protostar Main Sequence Star Red Supergiant Supernova Black Hole or Neutron Star

127 Life Cycle of a Star With Greater Mass Than Our Sun Massive stars go through the same life stages as our sun (just on a larger scale) upto the Main Sequence stage, Then the massive stars expand into a Red Supergiant, Explode into a Supernova, Then turn into a Black Hole or a Neutron Star.

128 Life Cycle of Stars

129 Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram

130 HR Diagram The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram is a tool that shows relationships and differences between stars (temperatures, brightness, colors, etc.) It is something of a "family portrait." It shows stars of different ages and in different stages, all at the same time. A star in the upper left corner of the diagram would be hot and bright. A star in the upper right corner of the diagram would be cool and bright. The Sun rests approximately in the middle of the diagram, and it is the star which we use for comparison. A star in the lower left corner of the diagram would be hot and dim. A star in the lower right corner of the diagram would be cold and dim.

131 Hot and Bright Cool and Bright Hot and Dim Cool and Dim

132 HR Diagram

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137 Main Sequence Main Sequence Line; Core Fusion of H at constant rate; Volume directly related to mass

138 M sun Masses/Luminosity of Main Sequence Stars

139 Giants Core fusion of He

140 Supergiants... Supergiants

141

142 White Dwarfs White Dwarfs Dead Star; High temps. Due to compression

143 Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron- Stars are not identified on the HR Diagram because they are either very dim or do not give off energy in the visible wavelengths.

144 Star Life Cycles

145 As we have discussed, stars are not all the same. All of the characteristics of a star are determined by their mass. Stars with different masses have different life cycles.

146 Based upon their masses, stars can follow three main pathways and fit into three candidate groups during the course of their lives.

147 These groups include: White Dwarf Candidates (less than one solar mass to 15 solar masses) Neutron Star and Pulsar Candidates (16 to 30 solar masses) Black Hole Candidates (Greater than 30 Solar Masses)

148

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150 White Dwarf Candidates

151 Pulsar and Neutron Star Candidates Supergiant

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153 Pulsar

154 Black Hole Candidates Supergiant

155 Black Holes

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