21/11/ /11/2017 Space Physics AQA Physics topic 8

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "21/11/ /11/2017 Space Physics AQA Physics topic 8"

Transcription

1 Space Physics AQA Physics topic 8

2 8.1 Solar System, Orbits and Satellites

3 The eight planets of our Solar System Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune As well as the eight planets, the solar system is also made up of asteroids, dwarf planets, comets and moons

4 Asteroids An asteroid belt lies between Mars and Jupiter. But what is an asteroid?

5 Comets Comets are balls of dust and frozen gas. They have very elliptical orbits: Notice how the tail always points away from the sun!

6 The Solar System summarised What makes up our solar system? Complete the following mind map with what you now about each object: The solar system

7 Solar systems, galaxies and the Universe Our planet (around 13,000km diameter) is pretty small compared to... OUR SUN (100 times wider), which is small compared to THE UNIVERSE, which contains billions of galaxies. THE MILKY WAY, which contains at least 200 billion stars, which is small compared to

8 Nuclear Fusion vs Nuclear Fission Nuclear fission happens in power plants and nuclear bombs it s basically splitting a nucleus. Nuclear fusion happens in stars it s basically fusing nucleii together

9 The Life Cycle of a Star

10 Stage 1: Nebulae A nebulae is a collection of dust, gas and rock. Some examples of nebulae

11 Dark nebula

12 Emission nebula

13 Reflection nebula

14 Planetary nebula (This nebula is smaller and will only form a planet)

15 Stage 2: Protostar Gravity will slowly pull these particles together As they move inwards their gravitational potential energy is converted into heat and a PROTOSTAR is formed

16 Stage 3: Main Sequence In a main sequence star the forces of attraction pulling the particles inwards are by expansion forces due to nuclear reactions and the high temperature. Stars are basically reactors that use as a fuel. During its main sequence a star will release energy by converting hydrogen and helium (light elements) into elements and this is why the universe now contains a number of heavier elements. Our sun is an example of a main sequence star it s in the middle of a 10 billion year life span Words heavier, balanced, hydrogen, nuclear, fusion

17 Nuclear Fusion in stars Proton Neutron Nuclear fusion happens in stars and leads to the formation of new elements. It s not possible to use it in power stations yet as it needs temperatures of around 10,000,000 O C and seriously high pressure.

18 Stage 4: Red Giant Eventually the hydrogen and helium will run out. When this happens the star will become colder and redder and start to swell If the star is relatively small (like our sun) the star will become a RED GIANT If the star is big (at least 4 times the size of our sun) it will become a RED SUPERGIANT

19 Stage 5: The Death What happens at this point depends on the size of the star 1) For SMALL stars the red giant will collapse under its own gravity and form a very dense white dwarf: Red giant White dwarf Black dwarf

20 Stage 5: The Death 2) If the star was a RED SUPERGIANT it will shrink and then EXPLODE, releasing massive amounts of energy, dust and gas. This explosion is called a SUPERNOVA Before After

21 Stage 5: The Death The dust and gas on the outside of the supernova are thrown away by the explosion and the remaining core turns into a NEUTRON STAR. If the star is big enough it could become a BLACK HOLE instead.

22 Stage 6: Second generation stars The dust and gas thrown out by a supernova can be used to form a new star Our sun is believed to be a star this is because it contains some elements along with hydrogen and. These heavier elements would have been produced by a and thrown out when the star exploded. These heavier elements are also found on planets, indicating that they might have been made from remains of previous as well. Words helium, heavier, second generation, stars, supernova

23 The Life Cycle of a Star summary SMALL stars Protostar Main sequence BIG stars Red giant Red super giant White dwarf Supernova Black dwarf Neutron star Black hole Basically, it all depends on the size of the star!

24 The Earth s Orbit Gravity keeps us in orbit around the sun. How long does this orbit take? Ellipse

25 Circular Motion recap 1) Is this car travelling at constant speed? 2) Is this car travelling at constant velocity?

26 The Moon s Orbit Gravity also keeps the moon (a natural satellite) in orbit around us. How long does this take? Does the moon travel at constant speed? Does it travel at constant velocity?

27 Satellite orbits Gravity also keeps artificial satellites in orbit around us. Q. What would have to happen to the satellite s speed if it moved closer to the Earth? A. As the orbital radius INCREASES the speed of the satellite will DECREASE.

28 8.2 Red Shift

29 How did the universe begin? The Big Bang Theory suggests that the universe began from a very small region that was very hot and dense, and then

30 How did the universe begin?

31 Evidence for the Big Bang Theory Source of light Spectra

32 If you pass the light through a gas something different is seen helium Some wavelengths of light are absorbed by the gas an absorption spectrum.

33 If the light source is moving away the absorption spectra look a little different Before helium After

34 The absorption lines have all been shifted towards the longer wavelength end (red end) This is called red shift. The faster the light source moves the further its light will be shifted Before After A similar effect happens with sound this is called The Doppler Effect

35 Red Shift simplified Basically, if I walk towards you I ll look slightly more blue. Then, if I walk away from you, I ll look slightly more red!! Let s try it

36

37

38 Light from different stars and from the edge of the universe also shows this red-shift. This suggests that everything in the universe is moving away from a single point. This is the BIG BANG theory

39 Red shift summary Light from other galaxies has a longer than expected. This shows that these galaxies are moving from us very quickly. This effect is seen to a greater extent in galaxies that are away from us. This indicates that the further away the galaxy is, the it is moving. This evidence seems to suggest that everything in the universe is moving away from a single point, and that this process started around 14 years ago. This is the Theory. Observations of from 1998 onwards have suggested that distant galaxies are receding even faster. Words to use faster, away, big bang, billion, wavelength, further, supernovae

40 Dark Mass and Dark Energy So, does this mean that we now know everything about the universe? No Mr President! There is still loads of stuff we don t know about the universe, such as dark mass and dark energy.

The Earth in the Universe

The Earth in the Universe The Earth in the Universe (OCR) Evidence for the age of the Earth Scientists once thought that the Earth was only 6000 years old. Rocks have provided lots of evidence for the world being older. 1) Erosion

More information

GraspIT Questions AQA GCSE Physics Space physics

GraspIT Questions AQA GCSE Physics Space physics A. Solar system: stability of orbital motions; satellites (physics only) 1. Put these astronomical objects in order of size from largest to smallest. (3) Fill in the boxes in the correct order. the Moon

More information

Universe Celestial Object Galaxy Solar System

Universe Celestial Object Galaxy Solar System ASTRONOMY Universe- Includes all known matter (everything). Celestial Object Any object outside or above Earth s atmosphere. Galaxy- A large group (billions) of stars (held together by gravity). Our galaxy

More information

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars.

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. They radiate energy (electromagnetic radiation) from a

More information

Lunar Eclipse. Solar Eclipse

Lunar Eclipse. Solar Eclipse Lunar Eclipse SUN Moon Solar Eclipse SUN SUN Moon Total solar eclipse Partial solar eclipse Moon Phases What does the moon look like from at each position? G H F A E B D C SUNLIGHT Refracting Telescopes

More information

8/30/2010. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars

8/30/2010. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars Classifying Stars In the early 1900s, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell made some important observations. They noticed that, in general, stars with higher temperatures also have brighter absolute magnitudes.

More information

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the

More information

Earth in the Universe Unit Notes

Earth in the Universe Unit Notes Earth in the Universe Unit Notes The Universe - everything everywhere, 15-20 billion years old Inside the universe there are billions of Galaxies Inside each Galaxy there are billions of Solar Systems

More information

1. Cosmology is the study of. a. The sun is the center of the Universe. b. The Earth is the center of the Universe

1. Cosmology is the study of. a. The sun is the center of the Universe. b. The Earth is the center of the Universe Section 1: The Universe 1. Cosmology is the study of. 2. Identify the type of cosmology a. The sun is the center of the Universe b. The Earth is the center of the Universe 3. The two most abundant gases

More information

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION (The Universe) A. THE UNIVERSE: The universe encompasses all matter in existence. According to the Big Bang Theory, the universe was formed 10-20 billion years ago from a

More information

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 2 BASIC ASTRONOMY, AND STARS AND THEIR EVOLUTION Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics CSUSB COURSE WEBPAGE: http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen MOTIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

More information

Life Cycle of a Star - Activities

Life Cycle of a Star - Activities Name: Class Period: Life Cycle of a Star - Activities A STAR IS BORN STAGES COMMON TO ALL STARS All stars start as a nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust. Gravity can pull some of the gas

More information

Earth Space Systems. Semester 1 Exam. Astronomy Vocabulary

Earth Space Systems. Semester 1 Exam. Astronomy Vocabulary Earth Space Systems Semester 1 Exam Astronomy Vocabulary Astronomical Unit- Aurora- Big Bang- Black Hole- 1AU is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun (93 million miles). This unit of measurement

More information

The Big Bang Theory (page 854)

The Big Bang Theory (page 854) Name Class Date Space Homework Packet Homework #1 Hubble s Law (pages 852 853) 1. How can astronomers use the Doppler effect? 2. The shift in the light of a galaxy toward the red wavelengths is called

More information

WHAT WE KNOW. Scientists observe that every object in the universe is moving away from each other. Objects furthest away are moving the fastest. So..

WHAT WE KNOW. Scientists observe that every object in the universe is moving away from each other. Objects furthest away are moving the fastest. So.. ASTRONOMY THE BIG BANG THEORY WHAT WE KNOW Scientists observe that every object in the universe is moving away from each other. Objects furthest away are moving the fastest. So.. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? If

More information

1. Galaxy (a) the length of a planet s day. 2. Rotational Period (b) dust and gases floating in space

1. Galaxy (a) the length of a planet s day. 2. Rotational Period (b) dust and gases floating in space Vocabulary: Match the vocabulary terms on the left with the definitions on the right 1. Galaxy (a) the length of a planet s day 2. Rotational Period (b) dust and gases floating in space 3. Orbital Period

More information

Life Cycle of a Star Worksheet

Life Cycle of a Star Worksheet Life Cycle of a Star Worksheet A STAR IS BORN STAGES COMMON TO ALL STARS All stars start as a nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust. Gravity can pull some of the gas and dust in a nebula together.

More information

Edwin Hubble Discovered galaxies other than the milky way. Galaxy:

Edwin Hubble Discovered galaxies other than the milky way. Galaxy: Edwin Hubble Discovered galaxies other than the milky way. Galaxy: A collection of stars, planets, gas, and dust that are held together by gravity. Our sun and planets are in the Milky Way He noticed that

More information

Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars

Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars Stars and Galaxies Evolution of Stars What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the statement

More information

25.2 Stellar Evolution. By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star.

25.2 Stellar Evolution. By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star. 25.2 Stellar Evolution By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star. Star Birth The birthplaces of stars are dark, cool interstellar clouds,

More information

The Life Cycle of Stars. : Is the current theory of how our Solar System formed.

The Life Cycle of Stars. : Is the current theory of how our Solar System formed. Life Cycle of a Star Video (5 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pm9cqdlqi0a The Life Cycle of Stars Solar Nebula Theory : Is the current theory of how our Solar System formed. This theory states that

More information

What is Earth Science?

What is Earth Science? What is Earth Science? A.EARTH SCIENCE: the study of Earth and its history B. Earth science is divided into 4 main branches: 1. Geology: study of the lithosphere 2. Oceanography: study of oceans 3. Meteorology:

More information

ASTRONOMY. S6E1 a, b, c, d, e, f S6E2 a, b, c,

ASTRONOMY. S6E1 a, b, c, d, e, f S6E2 a, b, c, ASTRONOMY S6E1 a, b, c, d, e, f S6E2 a, b, c, UNIVERSE Age 13.7 billion years old The Big Bang Theory Protons and Neutrons formed hydrogen and helium. This created heat that formed the stars. Other elements

More information

1 The Life Cycle of a Star

1 The Life Cycle of a Star CHAPTER 1 The Life Cycle of a Star Describe the life cycle of various size stars. Rings of glowing gas encircling Supernova 1987A, about 179,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of the

More information

Post Activity/ Homework Questions: 1. Before a star forms A. Where do you think the gas and dust originally came from?

Post Activity/ Homework Questions: 1. Before a star forms A. Where do you think the gas and dust originally came from? Critical Thinking Questions: (work on these with a partner) 1. During the formation of a Red Giant Star, the core of a star pushes the outer shell back only enough to make the star larger. However, during

More information

The Universe and Galaxies

The Universe and Galaxies The Universe and Galaxies 16.1 http://dingo.care-mail.com/cards/flash/5409/galaxy.swf Universe The sum of all matter and energy that exists, that has ever existed, and that will ever exist. We will focus

More information

Textbook Chapters 24 - Stars Textbook Chapter 25 - Universe. Regents Earth Science with Ms. Connery

Textbook Chapters 24 - Stars Textbook Chapter 25 - Universe. Regents Earth Science with Ms. Connery Textbook Chapters 24 - Stars Textbook Chapter 25 - Universe Regents Earth Science with Ms. Connery SPECTROSCOPY is the study of light. Read to learn - textbook pages 674-677 STAR LIGHT gives us characteristics

More information

Describe the lifecycle of a star in chronological order and explain the main stages, relating the stellar evolution to initial mass

Describe the lifecycle of a star in chronological order and explain the main stages, relating the stellar evolution to initial mass Learning Objectives At the end of this unit you should be able to; Explain the major events in the evolution of the universe according to the Big Bang Theory, in chronological order, backing up your arguments

More information

Introduction to Astronomy

Introduction to Astronomy Introduction to Astronomy Have you ever wondered what is out there in space besides Earth? As you see the stars and moon, many questions come up with the universe, possibility of living on another planet

More information

LESSON 1. Solar System

LESSON 1. Solar System Astronomy Notes LESSON 1 Solar System 11.1 Structure of the Solar System axis of rotation period of rotation period of revolution ellipse astronomical unit What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the

More information

The Universe. is space and everything in it.

The Universe. is space and everything in it. The Universe is space and everything in it. Galaxies A galaxy is a supercluster of stars, gas, and dust that are held together by gravity. There are three main types of galaxies: Irregular Elliptical Spiral

More information

CST Prep- 8 th Grade Astronomy

CST Prep- 8 th Grade Astronomy CST Prep- 8 th Grade Astronomy Chapter 15 (Part 1) 1. The theory of how the universe was created is called the 2. Which equation states that matter and energy are interchangeable? 3. All matter in the

More information

Which letter on the timeline best represents the time when scientists estimate that the Big Bang occurred? A) A B) B C) C D) D

Which letter on the timeline best represents the time when scientists estimate that the Big Bang occurred? A) A B) B C) C D) D 1. The red shift of light from most galaxies is evidence that A) most galaxies are moving away from Earth B) a majority of stars in most galaxies are red giants C) the light slows down as it nears Earth

More information

Answers. The Universe. Year 10 Science Chapter 6

Answers. The Universe. Year 10 Science Chapter 6 Answers The Universe Year 10 Science Chapter 6 p133 1 The universe is considered to be the whole of all matter, energy, planets, solar systems, galaxies, and space. Many definitions of the universe also

More information

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Beyond Our Solar System Earth Science, 13e Chapter 24 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Properties of stars Distance Distances to the stars are very

More information

What is the solar system?

What is the solar system? Notes Astronomy What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the Solar System Our solar system includes planets and dwarf planets, their moons, a star called the Sun, asteroids and comets. Planets, dwarf

More information

GALAXIES AND STARS. 2. Which star has a higher luminosity and a lower temperature than the Sun? A Rigel B Barnard s Star C Alpha Centauri D Aldebaran

GALAXIES AND STARS. 2. Which star has a higher luminosity and a lower temperature than the Sun? A Rigel B Barnard s Star C Alpha Centauri D Aldebaran GALAXIES AND STARS 1. Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is A smaller, hotter, and less luminous B smaller, cooler, and more luminous C larger, hotter, and less luminous D larger, cooler, and more

More information

Daily Science 03/30/2017

Daily Science 03/30/2017 Daily Science 03/30/2017 The atmospheres of different planets contain different gases. Which planet is most likely Earth? a. planet 1 b. planet 2 c. planet 3 d. planet 4 KeslerScience.com Can you name

More information

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 25 Beyond Our Solar System 25.1 Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical

More information

dwarf giant neutron proton supernova If a red...star is large enough, it may eventually blow up in an explosion called a..., leaving behind a very

dwarf giant neutron proton supernova If a red...star is large enough, it may eventually blow up in an explosion called a..., leaving behind a very Q1. Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct words from the box. Each word may be used once or not at all. dwarf giant neutron proton supernova If a red...star is large enough, it may eventually

More information

SOLAR SYSTEM, STABILITY OF ORBITAL MOTIONS, SATELLITES

SOLAR SYSTEM, STABILITY OF ORBITAL MOTIONS, SATELLITES SOLAR SYSTEM, STABILITY OF ORBITAL MOTIONS, SATELLITES Q1. The figure below shows what scientists over 1000 years ago thought the solar system was like. Give one way that the historical model of the solar

More information

Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5

Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5 I. Stars have color, brightness, mass, temperature and size. II. Distances to stars are measured using stellar parallax a. The further away, the less offset b. Parallax angles are extremely small c. Measured

More information

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 PROPERTIES OF STARS Distance Measuring a star's distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star's position

More information

CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES 28.1 A CLOSER LOOK AT LIGHT Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation, which is energy that travels in waves. Waves of energy travel at 300,000 km/sec (speed of light Ex:

More information

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe; its nature, origin and evolution. General Relativity is the mathematical basis of cosmology from which

More information

Name: Space Questions. Class: Date: Time: Marks: Comment s:

Name: Space Questions. Class: Date: Time: Marks: Comment s: Space 2 33 Questions Name: Class: Date: Time: Marks: Comment s: Q. Read the passage. In the SolarSystem, the inner planets, such as the Earth, contain elements which are eavierthan the elements hydrogen

More information

2. Very generally, describe how the Milky Way Galaxy formed. (Words or labeled picture)

2. Very generally, describe how the Milky Way Galaxy formed. (Words or labeled picture) Potter Name: Date: Hour: Score: /11 Learning Check 2.1 LT 2.1 Galaxy Formation: I am able to describe the formation of the Milky Way Galaxy and our solar system and model earth s position in each. 1. Label

More information

Section 25.1 Exploring the Solar System (pages )

Section 25.1 Exploring the Solar System (pages ) Name Class Date Chapter 25 The Solar System Section 25.1 Exploring the Solar System (pages 790 794) This section explores early models of our solar system. It describes the components of the solar system

More information

Astronomy Study Guide Answer Key

Astronomy Study Guide Answer Key Astronomy Study Guide Answer Key Section 1: The Universe 1. Cosmology is the study of how the universe is arranged. 2. Identify the type of cosmology a. The sun is the center of the Universe Heliocentric

More information

Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999

Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999 Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999 Reminder: When I write these questions, I believe that there is one one correct answer. The questions consist of all parts a e. Read the entire

More information

25/11/ Cosmological Red Shift:

25/11/ Cosmological Red Shift: 12.1 Edwin Hubble Discovered galaxies other than the milky way. Galaxy: A collection of stars, planets, gas, and dust that are held together by gravity. Our sun and planets are in the Milky Way Hubble

More information

They developed a graph, called the H-R diagram, that relates the temperature of a star to its absolute magnitude.

They developed a graph, called the H-R diagram, that relates the temperature of a star to its absolute magnitude. Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell noticed that stars with higher temperatures and large sizes also have brighter absolute magnitudes the actual amount of light given off by a star. (also referred to

More information

Which of the following planets are all made up of gas? When a planets orbit around the Sun looks like an oval, it s called a(n)

Which of the following planets are all made up of gas? When a planets orbit around the Sun looks like an oval, it s called a(n) When a planets orbit around the Sun looks like an oval, it s called a(n) - ellipse - circle - axis - rotation Which of the following planets are all made up of gas? - Venus, Mars, Saturn and Pluto - Jupiter,

More information

LESSON topic: formation of the solar system Solar system formation Star formation Models of the solar system Planets in our solar system

LESSON topic: formation of the solar system Solar system formation Star formation Models of the solar system Planets in our solar system Unit 2 Lesson 1 LESSON topic: formation of the solar system - Solar system formation - Star formation - Models of the solar system - Planets in our solar system Big bang theory Origin of the universe According

More information

Life and Death of a Star 2015

Life and Death of a Star 2015 Life and Death of a Star 2015 Name Date 1. In the main-sequence, the core is slowly shrinking because A. the mass of the star is slowly increasing B. hydrogen fusing to helium makes the core more dense

More information

*Generally speaking, there are two main life cycles for stars. *The factor which determines the life cycle of the star is its mass.

*Generally speaking, there are two main life cycles for stars. *The factor which determines the life cycle of the star is its mass. Generally speaking, there are two main life cycles for stars. The factor which determines the life cycle of the star is its mass. 1 solar mass = size of our Sun Any star less than about three solar masses

More information

1. Four different processes are described in List A. The names of these processes are given in List B.

1. Four different processes are described in List A. The names of these processes are given in List B. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion 1. Four different processes are described in List A. The names of these processes are given in List B. Draw a line to link each description in List A to its correct name

More information

Unit 2. Galaxies, Stars and the Solar System

Unit 2. Galaxies, Stars and the Solar System Strand K Astrophysics Unit 2 Galaxies, Stars and the Solar System Contents Page The Early Universe 2 The Life Cycle of Stars 4 Features of the Solar System 7 K21 The Early Universe Running the current

More information

Introduction to the Universe. What makes up the Universe?

Introduction to the Universe. What makes up the Universe? Introduction to the Universe What makes up the Universe? Objects in the Universe Astrophysics is the science that tries to make sense of the universe by - describing the Universe (Astronomy) - understanding

More information

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR First stage = Protostar PROTOSTAR Cloud of gas and dust many light-years across Gravity tries to pull the materials together Eventually, at the center of the ball of dust and gas,

More information

The Universe. What is it? What is in it? How did it form? How will it end? How do we know?

The Universe. What is it? What is in it? How did it form? How will it end? How do we know? The Universe What is it? What is in it? How did it form? How will it end? How do we know? What is your place in the Universe? What is the universe? a. The study of the universe its nature, origins, and

More information

Stars and Galaxies 1

Stars and Galaxies 1 Stars and Galaxies 1 Characteristics of Stars 2 Star - body of gases that gives off great amounts of radiant energy as light and heat 3 Most stars look white but are actually different colors Antares -

More information

Unit 1 Universal Physics

Unit 1 Universal Physics Unit 1 Universal Physics (EdExcel) Topic 1 Visible Light and the Solar System Our understanding of the universe Up until the 16 th Century people believed that the Earth was the centre of the universe

More information

To infinity, and beyond!

To infinity, and beyond! stars The night sky is filled with stars that shine at different levels of brightness. The brightness of the stars we observe can be related to the size of the star or its distance from Earth. In order

More information

CA Physical Science Benchmark Test 4. 1 A rocket accelerates from the launch pad. The forces on the rocket are

CA Physical Science Benchmark Test 4. 1 A rocket accelerates from the launch pad. The forces on the rocket are Physical Science enchmark Test 4 Name: ate: 1 rocket accelerates from the launch pad. The forces on the rocket are action forces. balanced. reaction forces. unbalanced. 2 What force(s) act(s) on a rocket

More information

Name: Space Questions Questions. Class: Date: Time: Marks: Comment s:

Name: Space Questions Questions. Class: Date: Time: Marks: Comment s: Space Questions 35 Questions Name: Class: Date: Time: Marks: Comment s: Q. The figure below shows what scientists over 000 years ago thought the solar system was like. Give one way that the historical

More information

Potter Name: Date: Hour: Earth Science Unit 2: Astronomy

Potter Name: Date: Hour: Earth Science Unit 2: Astronomy Unit 2: Astronomy #1 LT 2.1 Galaxy Formation: I am able to describe the formation of the Milky Way Galaxy and our solar system and model earth s position in each. Yes I can 1. Can you roughly explain how

More information

Light. Transverse electromagnetic wave, or electromagnetic radiation. Includes radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible, UV, X-rays, and gamma rays

Light. Transverse electromagnetic wave, or electromagnetic radiation. Includes radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible, UV, X-rays, and gamma rays Light Transverse electromagnetic wave, or electromagnetic radiation Includes radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible, UV, X-rays, and gamma rays The type of light is determined purely by wavelength.

More information

Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro Lecture 25 1

Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro Lecture 25 1 Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro 110-01 Lecture 25 1 12.3 Life as a High-Mass Star Learning Goals What are the life stages of a

More information

Formation of the Universe

Formation of the Universe A. The Universe 1. 2. 3. How did the universe begin? Only one exists or are there more? Composed of space and 100 billion galaxies A galaxy is a grouping of millions or billions of stars kept together

More information

The Universe. But first, let s talk about light! 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Universe. But first, let s talk about light! 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. The Universe But first, let s talk about light! Light is fast! The study of light All forms of radiation travel at 300,000,000 meters (186,000 miles) per second Since objects in space are so far away,

More information

Formation of the Universe & What is in Space? The Big Bang Theory and components of the Universe

Formation of the Universe & What is in Space? The Big Bang Theory and components of the Universe Formation of the Universe & What is in Space? The Big Bang Theory and components of the Universe The Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory is the most widely accepted scientific explanation

More information

Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics

Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics Origin of the Universe Big Bang Theory about 10-20 bya all matter in the universe existed in a hot dense state about the size of an atom (tiny). That matter sort

More information

Cosmology Vocabulary

Cosmology Vocabulary Cosmology Vocabulary Vocabulary Words Terrestrial Planets The Sun Gravity Galaxy Lightyear Axis Comets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud Meteors AU Nebula Solar System Cosmology Universe Coalescence Jovian Planets

More information

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth Science. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation In the 1920s, Edwin Hubble's discovery of a pattern in the red

More information

Ch. 29 The Stars Stellar Evolution

Ch. 29 The Stars Stellar Evolution Ch. 29 The Stars 29.3 Stellar Evolution Basic Structure of Stars Mass effects The more massive a star is, the greater the gravity pressing inward, and the hotter and more dense the star must be inside

More information

ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name

ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name Multiple Choice (2 pts each) 1. Sullivan Star is an F spectral class star that is part of a binary star system. It has a MS lifetime of 5 billion years. Its life will eventually

More information

Mass: 1.99 x 1030 kg. Diameter: about km = 100 x the Earth diameter. Density: about kg/m3

Mass: 1.99 x 1030 kg. Diameter: about km = 100 x the Earth diameter. Density: about kg/m3 Mass: 1.99 x 1030 kg Diameter: about 1 400 00 km = 100 x the Earth diameter Produces a strong gravitational forces: about 28 times greater than the gravitational force produces by the Earth Temperature:

More information

The Earth and the Universe

The Earth and the Universe The Earth and the Universe The exploration of space is called astronomy. Most of our observations in space have come from using telescopes of different kinds. Observing the universe from the ground has

More information

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR First stage = Protostar PROTOSTAR Cloud of gas and dust many light-years across Gravity tries to pull the materials together Eventually, at the center of the ball of dust and gas,

More information

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe Chapter Wrap-Up What makes up the universe and how does

More information

Learning About Our Solar System

Learning About Our Solar System Learning About Our Solar System By debbie Routh COPYRIGHT 2004 Mark Twain Media, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58037-876-5 Printing No. 404007-EB Mark Twain Media, Inc., Publishers Distributed by Carson-Dellosa Publishing

More information

Name: P8 SPACE PHYSICS. Class: Question Practice. Date: 140 minutes. Time: 140 marks. Marks: GCSE PHYSICS ONLY. Comments:

Name: P8 SPACE PHYSICS. Class: Question Practice. Date: 140 minutes. Time: 140 marks. Marks: GCSE PHYSICS ONLY. Comments: P8 SPACE PHYSICS Question Practice Name: Class: Date: Time: 40 minutes Marks: 40 marks Comments: GCSE PHYSICS ONLY Page of 52 In 929, the astronomer Edwin Hubble observed that the light from galaxies moving

More information

Classifying Stars. Scientists classify stars by: 1. Temperature 2. Brightness

Classifying Stars. Scientists classify stars by: 1. Temperature 2. Brightness STARS Classifying Stars Scientists classify stars by: 1. Temperature 2. Brightness Star Temperature 1. The color of a star tells us about its temperature. Blue stars are the hottest, 7500 C- 40,000 C.

More information

Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning & heating up. Eventually, it gets hot enough for fusion to take place, and a

Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning & heating up. Eventually, it gets hot enough for fusion to take place, and a Stars Star- large ball of gas held together by gravity that produces tremendous amounts of energy and shines Sun- our closest star Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning

More information

Where did the solar system come from?

Where did the solar system come from? Chapter 06 Part 2 Making the Planetary Donuts Where did the solar system come from? Galactic Recycling Elements that formed planets were made in stars and then recycled through interstellar space. Evidence

More information

The Life Cycles of Stars. Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC

The Life Cycles of Stars. Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC STARS I. Stellar Evolution The Life Cycles of Stars Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC A. Nebula- cloud of gas and dust B. Protostar- spinning disk C. Main Sequence 1. When the protostar reaches 15 million C,

More information

þ Tiered questions that probe lower and higher-order thinking þ Differentiated for upper elementary and intermediate students þ Addresses NGSS and

þ Tiered questions that probe lower and higher-order thinking þ Differentiated for upper elementary and intermediate students þ Addresses NGSS and þ Tiered questions that probe lower and higher-order thinking þ Differentiated for upper elementary and intermediate students þ Addresses NGSS and many state science standard concepts By Stephanie Elkowitz

More information

The Formation of Stars

The Formation of Stars The Formation of Stars A World of Dust The space between the stars is not completely empty, but filled with very dilute gas and dust, producing some of the most beautiful objects in the sky. We are interested

More information

Study Guide Chapter 2

Study Guide Chapter 2 Section: Stars Pages 32-38 Study Guide Chapter 2 Circle the letter of the best answer for each question. 1. What do scientists study to learn about stars? a. gravity c. space b. starlight d. colors COLOR

More information

Chapter 17 Solar System

Chapter 17 Solar System Chapter 17 Solar System Rotation Earth spinning on its axis (like a top) "TOP" imaginary rod running through the center of the Earth from North pole to South pole The Earth is tilted on its axis at an

More information

Science Practice Astronomy (AstronomyJSuber)

Science Practice Astronomy (AstronomyJSuber) Name: Date: 1. The pull of gravity on Earth is a direct result of the A. mass of Earth. B. magnetic field of Earth. C. rotation of Earth on its axis. D. weight of Earth's atmosphere. This online assessment

More information

Stars and Galaxies. Content Outline for Teaching

Stars and Galaxies. Content Outline for Teaching Section 1 Stars A. Patterns of stars - constellations 1. Ancient cultures used mythology or everyday items to name constellations 2. Modern astronomy studies 88 constellations 3. Some constellations are

More information

the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes

the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes The spectral lines of stars tell us their approximate composition Remember last year in Physics?

More information

Our Universe: Creation, Galaxies, Stars and Celestial Objects

Our Universe: Creation, Galaxies, Stars and Celestial Objects Our Universe: Creation, Galaxies, Stars and Celestial Objects Big Bang Theory Our universe began with one huge exploding atom that relapsed all the energy and matter that exists in the universe today.

More information

Origin of heavier elements, origin of universe

Origin of heavier elements, origin of universe Origin of heavier elements, origin of universe Like we said earlier It takes higher and higher temperatures to make larger and larger nuclei fuse together What happens when a star cannot maintain fusion

More information

Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS.

Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS (pp. 444 449) 1. Besides by mass, size, brightness, color, temperature, and composition, how are stars classified? a.

More information

1. What is the primary difference between the evolution of a low-mass star and that of a high-mass star?

1. What is the primary difference between the evolution of a low-mass star and that of a high-mass star? FYI: The Lives of Stars E3:R6b 1. Read FYI: The Lives of Stars As you read use the spaces below to write down any information you find especially interesting. Also define the bold terms used in the text.

More information

Introduction to the Universe

Introduction to the Universe What makes up the Universe? Introduction to the Universe Book page 642-644 Objects in the Universe Astrophysics is the science that tries to make sense of the universe by - describing the Universe (Astronomy)

More information