ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name

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1 ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name Multiple Choice (2 pts each) 1. Sullivan Star is an F spectral class star that is part of a binary star system. It has a MS lifetime of 5 billion years. Its life will eventually end in a SN type I that completely destroys Sullivan Star. Sullivan Star is located in a galaxy 6 billion ly from Earth. If the Earth is still around at the time, this event would be observed on Earth in a. Never b. 11 billion years c. 1 billion years d. No way to tell 2. From what you know about our Sun, will the Earth be around to see the destruction of Sullivan Star a. Yes b. No c. No way to know 3. The average distance from Earth to the sun is a. 1 ly b. 1 million km c. 1 million miles d. 1 billion km e. 1 astronomical unit 4. Here is a table showing visible passes of the Hubble Space telescope for few days next week It is brightest a) June 03 b) June 04 c) June Why does the Sun rise and set? a. The shape of Earth s orbital path around the Sun causes the Sun to rise and set. b. The Moon blocks out the Sun for roughly twelve hours a day, causing Earth to experience night time. c. The Moon s gravitational pull forces Earth to face away from the Sun for about twelve hours a day. d. Earth spins on its axis, making one full rotation in about 24 hours.

2 6.The seasons of the Earth result from a. the tilt of the Earth's rotation axis b. the Earth being farther from the Sun in winter because of its c. elliptical orbit d. the varying speed of the Earth in its orbit e. the precession of the Earth's rotation axis 7. The Sun's position in space is best described as the approximate center of a. A constellation b. The milky way galaxy c. Our solar system d. The universe For the next 2 questions, consider the information in the table and the student comment both provided below. Planet Distance from the Sun (in Astronomical Units - AU) Planet mass (in terms of Earth s mass) Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter A student in your class makes the following comment about the relationship between the location of planets in our solar system and their orbital period and mass: As we look at planets farther away from the Sun than Mercury we see that their distance gets bigger and that the mass of the planets is also getting larger. So I think that the farther away a planet is the longer it takes to go around the sun and the more massive the planet will be too. 8. Which planet listed in the table illustrates the fact that the student is incorrect in their reasoning a. Mercury b. Venus c. Earth d. Mars e. Jupiter 9.Which of the following Laws would you use to explain to this student that their reasoning is incorrect? a. Newton s 3rd (For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.) b. Kepler s 2nd (law of equal areas) c. Kepler s 3rd (P 2 = a 3 ) d. Newton s 2 nd (F = ma)

3 10. The diagram below shows an apple in space at the midpoint between two astronauts. The astronauts are located at Location 1 and 2, but their sizes are not shown. The arrows indicate the direction of the gravitational force exerted on the apple by each astronaut. The length of the arrows indicates the strength of the gravitational force. 1 2 The astronaut at Location 2 the astronaut at Location 1. a. is more massive than b. is less massive than c. has the same mass as 11. The diagram below represents a simple heliocentric. Which object is represented by the letter X? a. Earth b. Sun c. Moon d. Polaris 12. The diagram below represents Earth at four different positions, A, B, C, and D, in its orbit around the Sun. At which location is the northern hemisphere experiencing summer? A 13. The scientist who formulated the three laws of planetary motion by analyzing the data on the precise location of planets in the sky was: a. Tycho Brahe b. Galileo Galilei c. Johannes Kepler d. D. J. C. Adams

4 14. The Difference between mass and weight is a. mass is a force and weight is a quantity b. mass and weight both are force c. mass and weight both are quantities d. mass is quantity and weight is force 15. The force due to gravity between two objects depends on I. The mass of each object II. The distance each object is from Earth III. The distance between the two objects. IV. The speed of light A. I & II B. I & III C. II & IV D. I, II, & III parsec is equal to 3.09 x Kilometers Or a b c d Which of the following is NOT a terrestrial planet? a) Mars b) Earth c) Jupiter d) Venus e) Mercury 18. When viewing an absorption spectrum, the dark lines you see represent what? a. Light that was not emitted by the energy source b. Light that was absorbed by a cool, low-density cloud c. Light that was blocked by objects in space 19. Which, if any, of the different wavelengths of light listed below completely passes through Earth s atmosphere and reaches the surface? a. gamma b. radio c. infrared d. X-rays e. All of the above. 20. What is an "extrasolar planet?" a. A planet that is extra large compared to what we'd expect. b. A planet is considered an "extra," in that it was not needed for the formation of its solar system c. A planet that is larger than the Sun d. A planet that orbits a star that is not our own Sun

5 21. In which list are the forms of electromagnetic energy arranged in order from longest to shortest wavelength? a) Gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light b) Radio waves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet rays c) X-rays, infrared rays, blue light, gamma rays d) Infrared rays, radio waves, blue light, red light 22. One of the key reasons professional astronomers today are interested in comets is that they a. are beautiful to look at b. omens of disaster c. icy pieces left over from the time that our solar system formed that can give us clues about that early time d. pieces splintered off the giant planet which can provide samples of their composition 23. The age of the solar system is believed to be approximately 4.6 billion years based on the data from a. samples of lunar rocks. b. samples of Earth rocks. c. samples of meteorites. d. all of the above e. none of the above 24. Stars A, B, C, and D below are moving at equal speeds relative to a stationary observer, in the directions indicated by the arrows. (Diagram) Using this diagram, which stars light will be redshifted? a. All b. A and D c. B and C d. Only C 25. The graph (An H-R diagram) represents the brightness and temperature of stars visible from Earth. Which location on the graph best represents a star that is very bright and has a high temperature? a. A b. B c. C d. D

6 26. This is a star cluster containing stars of various colors. Which color star is likely to be the hottest? a. red, b. blue-violet, c. yellow d. orange 27. Which type of telescope uses a lens and a mirror to collect and focus light? a) reflector b) refractor c) mirrored d) satellite 28. Suppose there are 160 grams of an isotope which has a half-life of 10 minutes. How much of the isotope will be left after 30 minutes? a) 80 grams b) 0 grams c) 20 grams d) 40 grams 29. The energy source for the sun is a) combustion of hydrocarbons b) solar flares c) nuclear fission, the splitting of two hydrogen atoms d) nuclear fusion, the joining of two hydrogen atoms e) combustion of hydrogen 30. The average star spends of its lifetime on the main sequence. a) 1% b) 2% c) 10% d) 20% e) 90% 31. What causes the outward gas pressure that balances the inward pull of gravity in a main sequence star? a) The rapid outward flow of gas. b) The rapid inward flow of the gas. c) The high temperature of the gas. d) The high density of the gas. e) c and d 32. Interstellar gas clouds may collapse to form stars if they a. have very high temperatures b. encounter a shock wave. c. rotate rapidly d. are located near main sequence spectral type K and M stars.

7 33. Why do higher mass stars live shorter lives on the main sequence than lower mass stars? a. Higher mass stars burn through their nuclear fuel faster. b. Lower mass stars don't get their energy from that same nuclear fusion source as higher mass stars. c. Higher mass stars have less hydrogen fuel to burn. d. Lower mass stars spend a longer time evolving to the main-sequence. e. All of the above are false. 34.The lowest-mass stars cannot become giants because a. they do not contain helium b. they rotate too slowly c. they cannot heat their centers hot enough. d. they contain strong magnetic fields. e. they never use up their hydrogen. 35. A star's luminosity depends only on the star's a. distance and diameter. b. temperature and distance. c. distance. d. temperature and diameter. e. apparent magnitude 36. In a binary system, the more massive star a. is at the center of mass. b. is farthest from the center of mass. c. is nearest the center of mass. d. follows the largest orbit. e. shows a larger Doppler shift in its spectral lines. 37. If two stars are emitting the same amount of light, the star that is farther will appear a. brighter. b. dimmer. c. redder. d. bluer. e. They will have the same brightness as seen from Earth. 38. Which of the following statements is always true of any two stars (including Red Giants and White Dwarfs) that have the same absolute magnitude? a. They have the same temperature. b. They have the same luminosity. c. They have the same spectral type. d. They have the same surface area. e. They have the same mass.

8 39. During the beginning of star formation, the force that dominates the collapse of a cloud of gas and dust is a. electrostatic b. gravity c. magnetic d. friction 40. According to the diagram, the life cycle path followed by a star is determined by the star s initial a. mass and size b. temperature and origin c. luminosity and color d. luminosity and structure 41. Stars like Earth s Sun most likely formed Directly from a a. nebula b. red giant c. supernova d. black dwarf 42.According to the diagram, a massive star will eventually a. explode in a supernova b. become a black hole c. become a neutron star d. any of the above 43.Which statement describes the general relationship between the temperature and the luminosity of main sequence stars? a. As temperature decreases, luminosity increases. b. As temperature decreases, luminosity remains the same. c. As temperature increases, luminosity increases. d.as temperature increases, luminosity remains the same 44. Which of the following lists, in the correct order, a possible evolutionary path for a star? a. Main Sequence Star, Red Giant, Planetary Nebula, White Dwarf b. Main Sequence Star, Red Giant, Neutron Star, White Dwarf, Nothing c. Main Sequence Star, Red Giant, Type I Supernova, Black Hole d. Main Sequence Star, Red Giant, Type II Supernova, Planetary Nebula, Neutron Star e. Main Sequence Star, Red Giant, Planetary Nebula, Black Hole 45.The eventual fate of our Sun is to a. collapse into black hole. b. form a neutron star. c. become a steadily cooling white dwarf. d. explode as a type Ia supernova, leaving no remnant.

9 46. Consider the information given below about the lifetime of three main sequence stars A, B, & C. Star A will be a main sequence star for 45,000 million years. Star B will be a main sequence star for 70 million years. Star C will be a main sequence star for 2 million years. Which of the following is a true statement about these stars? a. Star A has the greatest mass. b. Star C has the greatest mass. c. Stars A, B, and C all have approximately the same mass. d. None of the above 47. Shown below are HR diagrams of the stars in different star clusters. Such diagrams allow us to estimate the age of the cluster. The youngest cluster is A) B) C) 48. Much of what we have learned about the jovian planets and their satellites has come from the work of two spacecraft called: a. Viking b. Magellan c. Mariner d. Voyager e. Enterprise 49. What is the basic definition of a black hole? a. A black hole is a dead star that has faded from view b. A black hole is a compact mass that emits no visible light c. A black hole is any object made from dark matter d. A black hole is an object with gravity so strong that not even light can escape 50. Elements heavier than iron can only be created during: a. astronomers don't have any idea of where these elements came from; it's an unsolved mystery b. a supernova explosion c. the big bang d. the red giant stage in a star's life e. the main sequence

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