25.2 Stellar Evolution. By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star.

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1 25.2 Stellar Evolution By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star.

2 Star Birth The birthplaces of stars are dark, cool interstellar clouds, such as the one in Figure 8. These nebulae are made up of dust and gases. In the Milky Way, nebulae consist of 92 percent hydrogen, 7 percent helium, and less than 1 percent of the remaining heavier elements.

3 Protostar Stage A protostar is a developing star not yet hot enough to engage in nuclear fusion. When the core of a protostar has reached about 10 million K, pressure within is so great that nuclear fusion of hydrogen begins, and a star is born. A stable main-sequence star is balanced between two forces: gravity, which is trying to squeeze it into a smaller sphere, and gas pressure, which is trying to expand it.

4 Main-Sequence Stage Typically, hydrogen fusion continues for a few billion years. An average star spends 90 percent of its life as a hydrogen-burning mainsequence star. With the exception of the least-massive red stars, a star can delay its death by fusing heavier elements and becoming a giant.

5 Red-Giant Stage The red-giant stage occurs because the zone of hydrogen fusion continually moves outward, leaving behind a helium core. As the core contracts, it grow hotter. Energy it radiated outward, increasing hydrogen fusion in the star s outer shell. This energy in turn heats and expands the star s outer layer. The result is a giant body hundreds to thousands of times its main-sequence size, as shown in Figure 10.

6 Burnout and Death All stars, regardless of their size, eventually run out of fuel, and collapse due to gravity.

7 Death of Low-Mass Stars Low-mass stars remain as stable mainsequence stars until they consume their hydrogen fuel and collapse into a white dwarf.

8 Death of Medium-Mass Stars During their giant phase, sunlike stars fuse hydrogen and and helium fuel at a fast rate. Once this fuel is exhausted, these stars also collapse into white dwarfs. They cast off their outer layer, creating a round cloud of gas called planetary nebulae.

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10 Death of Massive Stars Stars with masses three times that of the sun end their lives in a brilliant explosion called a supernova. During a supernova, a star becomes millions of times brighter than its prenova stage.

11 H-R Diagrams and Stellar Evolution Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams have been helpful in formulating and testing models of stellar evolution.

12 Stellar Remnants Eventually, all stars consume their nuclear fuel and collapse into one of three documented stages: White Dwarf Neutron Star Black Hole

13 White Dwarfs White Dwarfs are the remains of lowmass and medium-mass stars. The last stage of a white dwarf must be a small, cold body called a black dwarf.

14 Neutron Stars Neutron stars are thought to be the remnants of supernova events.

15 Supernovae During a supernova, the outer layer of the star is ejected, while the core collapses into a very hot neutron star about 20 kilometers in diameter. The pulsar found in the Crab Nebula is undoubtedly the remains of the supernova of 1054.

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18 Black Holes During a supernova event, remnants of stars three times more massive than the sun apparently collapse into objects even smaller and denser then neutron stars. Their gravity is so strong that not even light can escape their surface.

19 25.3 The Universe Galaxies are groups of stars, dust, and gases held together by gravity.

20 The Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way is a large spiral galaxy whose disk is about 100,000 light-years wide and about 10,000 light-years thick at the nucleus, as shown in Figure 17A. Our solar system orbits the galactic nucleus about every 200 million years.

21 Types of Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Elliptical Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Galaxy Clusters

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26 Spiral Galaxies Usually disk-shaped, with a somewhat greater concentration of stars near their centers Appearance of a pinwheel The Milky Way may be a barred spiral galaxy

27 Elliptical Galaxies About 60 percent of galaxies are classified as elliptical galaxies Does not have spiral arms

28 Irregular Galaxies Only 10 percent Large and Small Magellanic Clouds They are our nearest galactic neighbors In addition to shape and size, one of the major differences among different types of galaxies is the age of their stars.

29 Galaxy Clusters Like stars, galaxies are grouped in clusters. Some clusters may contain thousands of galaxies. Our own cluster, called the Local Group, contains at least 28 galaxies.

30 The Expanding Universe When a source is moving away, its light appears redder than it actually is, because its waves appear lengthened. Objects approaching have their light waves shifted toward the blue or shorter wavelengths. Therefore, the Doppler effect reveals whether a star or other body in space is moving away from Earth or toward Earth.

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32 Red Shifts Discoveries made by Edwin Hubble Red shift occurs because Earth and the source are moving away from each other. Galaxies that exhibit the greatest red shifts are the most distant.

33 Hubble s Law Most galaxies except for a few nearby are moving away from us. Hubble s Law states that galaxies are retreating from us at a speed that is proportional to their distance. The red shifts of distant galaxies indicate that the universe is expanding. Figure 22

34 The Big Bang According to the big bang theory, the universe began as a violent explosion from which the universe continues to expand, evolve, and cool. The big bang theory states that at one time, the entire universe was confined to a dense, hot, supermassive ball. Then, about 13.7 billion years ago, a violent explosion occurred, hurling this material in all directions.

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